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1.  Predicting Factors Affecting Clinical Outcomes for Saccular Aneurysms of Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Objective
The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical outcomes of surgery and coiling and analyze the predicting factors affecting the clinical outcomes of ruptured posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms.
Methods
During the last 15 years, 20 consecutive patients with ruptured PICA aneurysms were treated and these patients were included in this study. The Fisher's exact test was used for the statistical significance of Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) according to initial Hunt-Hess (H-H) grade, treatment modalities, and the presence of acute hydrocephalus.
Results
Eleven (55%) and nine (45%) patients were treated with surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, respectively. Among 20 patients, thirteen (65.0%) patients had good outcomes (GOS 4 or 5). There was the statistical significance between initial poor H-H grade, the presence of acute hydrocephalus and poor GOS.
Conclusion
In our study, we suggest that initial H-H grade and the presence of acute hydrocephalus may affect the clinical outcome rather than treatment modalities in the ruptured PICA aneurysms.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.4.327
PMCID: PMC3243836  PMID: 22200015
Aneurysm; Endovascular treatment; Posterior inferior cerebellar artery; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Surgical clipping
2.  Efficacy of the Disappearance of Lateral Spread Response before and after Microvascular Decompression for Predicting the Long-Term Results of Hemifacial Spasm Over Two Years 
Objective
The purpose of this large prospective study is to assess the association between the disappearance of the lateral spread response (LSR) before and after microvascular decompression (MVD) and clinical long term results over two years following hemifacial spasm (HFS) treatment.
Methods
Continuous intra-operative monitoring during MVD was performed in 244 consecutive patients with HFS. Patients with persistent LSR after decompression (n=22, 9.0%), without LSR from the start of the surgery (n=4, 1.7%), and with re-operation (n=15, 6.1%) and follow-up loss (n=4, 1.7%) were excluded. For the statistical analysis, patients were categorized into two groups according to the disappearance of their LSR before or after MVD.
Results
Intra-operatively, the LSR was checked during facial electromyogram monitoring in 199 (81.5%) of the 244 patients. The mean follow-up duration was 40.9┬▒6.9 months (range 25-51 months) in all the patients. Among them, the LSR disappeared after the decompression (Group A) in 128 (64.3%) patients; but in the remaining 71 (35.6%) patients, the LSR disappeared before the decompression (Group B). In the post-operative follow-up visits over more than one year, there were significant differences between the clinical outcomes of the two groups (p<0.05).
Conclusion
It was observed that the long-term clinical outcomes of the intra-operative LSR disappearance before and after MVD were correlated. Thus, this factor may be considered a prognostic factor of HFS after MVD.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.372
PMCID: PMC3488647  PMID: 23133727
Clinical outcome; Hemifacial spasm; Lateral spread response; Microvascular decompression
3.  Intracranial Plasma Cell Granuloma 
Plasma cell granuloma is a tumor-like disease characterized by non-neoplastic polyclonal proliferation of plasma cells and other mononuclear cells. This disease occurs most frequently in the lung and upper respiratory tract, while the involvement of the central nervous system is very rare. A 44-year-old female patient presented with nausea and progressive visual disturbance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the mass along the right tentorium with low signal intensity in the T2 weighted image (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence, and an isosignal intensity in T1 weighted image (T1WI), the latter of which was enhanced after administration of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA). The thickest portion of the tentorium was partially excised via the combined suboccipital and infratentorial approach. The histopathological examination indicated a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma. Postoperative steroid therapy was administered for remnant tumor control. Although a follow up MRI scan taken 20 months after the operation showed a slight decrease in tumor size, the lesion had extended to the falx and left frontal convexity along with parenchymal edema at 32 months after the operation and the clinical status was aggravated. The mass was removed from the left frontal convexity. Radiation therapy was given, together with steroid administration.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.2.161
PMCID: PMC2744027  PMID: 19763220
Plasma cell granuloma; Central nervous system
4.  Olfactory Schwannoma-Case Report- 
Intracranial schwannomas preferentially arise from the vestibular branch of the eighth nerve, and rarely from the trigeminal nerve, facial nerve, and lower cranial nerves. Anterior cranial fossa schwannomas are extremely uncommon and few details about them have been reported. The patient was a 39-year-old woman whose chief complaints were anosmia and frontal headache for 2 years. The gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an extra-axial mass from ethmoid sinus to right frontal base region near the midline, with solid enhancement in lower portion and multicystic formation in upper portion. The tumor was totally resected via basal subfrontal approach. At operation, the tumor had cystic portion with marginal calcification and the anterior skull base was destructed by the tumor. The olfactory bulb was involved, and the tumor capsule did not contain neoplastic cells. The histopathological diagnosis was schwannoma. We report a rare case of anterior cranial fossa schwannoma with literature review.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.2.103
PMCID: PMC2651554  PMID: 19274121
Schwannoma; Olfactory nerve

Results 1-4 (4)