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1.  Multiple Spinal Cord Recurrences of an Intracranial Ependymoma after 14 Years 
Ependymoma can spread via cerebrospinal fluid, but late spinal recurrences of intracranial tumor are very rare. We describe a case of a 33-year-old male who presented with multiple, delayed, recurrent lesions in the spinal cord from an intracranial ependymoma. The patient underwent gross total resection and postoperative radiation therapy 14 years prior to visit for a low grade ependymoma in the 4th ventricle. The large thoraco-lumbar intradural-extramedullary spinal cord tumor was surgically removed and the pathologic diagnosis was an anaplastic ependymoma. An adjuvant whole-spine radiation therapy for residual spine lesions was performed. After completion of radiation therapy, a MRI showed a near complete response and the disease was stable for three years.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.6.521
PMCID: PMC3921283  PMID: 24527198
Fourth ventricle ependymoma; Delayed spinal recurrence; Anaplastic transformation
2.  Glomus Tumor in the Femoral Nerve 
The glomus tumor of the peripheral nerve is one of the mesenchymal tumors originating in the epineurium, and is extremely rare. A 56-year-old man presented complaining of lancinating pain on the left thigh, which was provoked by pressure or exercise. Subsequent image study revealed a mass in the femoral nerve. Total surgical excision with the aid of intraoperative ultrasonography was performed and the pain was successfully controlled. The authors report an unusual case of a patient diagnosed with glomus tumor in peripheral nerve, with a review of the clinical features, imaging, and pathological findings.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.6.540
PMCID: PMC3921288  PMID: 24527203
Glomus tumor; Peripheral nerve; Femoral nerve
3.  Endovascular Management of Great Vessel Injury Following Lumbar Microdiscectomy 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(4):264-267.
Great vessel injury is a rare but well-known complication of lumbar disc surgery, which may result in acute or fatal outcomes of delayed diagnosis. Thus, early detection and proper management is vital. The authors report a case of retroperitoneal hemorrhage with arteriovenous fistula and pseudoaneurysm after lumbar microdiscectomy. The patient was successfully managed by endovascular intervention using a stent graft. Endovascular repair is a minimally invasive and efficient treatment modality with considerably low morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2013.10.4.264
PMCID: PMC4040641  PMID: 24891863
Lumbar disc surgery; Vascular injury
4.  Eosinophilic Myelitis in the Cervical Cord Mimicking Intramedullary Cord Tumor 
Eosinophilic myelitis (EM) or atopic myelitis is a rare disease characterized by a myelitic condition in the spinal cord combined with allergic process. This disease has specific features of elevated serum IgE level, active reaction to mite specific antigen and stepwise progression of mostly the sensory symptoms. Toxocariasis can be related with a form of EM. This report describes two cases of cervical eosinophilic myelitis initially considered as intramedullary tumors. When a differential diagnosis of the intramedullary spinal cord lesion is in doubt, evaluation for eosinophilic myelitis and toxocariasis would be beneficial.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.410
PMCID: PMC3488654  PMID: 23133734
Allergy; Eosinophilic myelitis; Intramedullary tumor; Toxocariasis
5.  Recurrent posterior circulation infarction caused by anomalous occipital bony process in a young patient 
BMC Neurology  2014;14(1):252.
Background
Structural anomaly of the cervical spine or craniocervical junction has been reported as one of the rare causes of ischemic stroke. We report a case of a young patient with recurrent posterior circulation infarction that may have been associated with an anomalous occipital bony process compressing the vertebral artery.
Case presentation
A 23-year-old man experienced recurrent posterior circulation infarction 5 times over a period of 5 years. He had no conventional vascular risk factors. Young age stroke work-up including thorough cardiac, intra- and extracranial vascular evaluation and laboratory tests for the hypercoagulable state or connective tissue disease yielded unremarkable results. An anomalous bony process from the occipital base compressing the left vertebral artery was observed on brain CT. All the recurrent strokes were explainable by the arterial thromboembolism originating from the compressed left vertebral artery. Therefore, the left vertebral artery compressed by the anomalous occipital bony process may have been the culprit behind the recurrent thromboembolic strokes in our patient. Intractable recurrent strokes even under optimal medical treatment led us to make a decision for the intervention. Instead of surgical removal of the anomalous occipital bony process, the left vertebral artery was occluded permanently by endovascular coiling after confirming that this would cause no neurological deficits or flow disturbance in the posterior circulation. There was no recurrence of stroke for 2 years after permanent occlusion of the left vertebral artery.
Conclusion
Arterial thromboembolism originating from the left vertebral artery compressed by the anomalous occipital bony process is a rare but not to be overlooked cause of posterior circulation infarction. When intractable to medical treatment, endovascular occlusion of the vertebral artery without flow disturbance to the posterior circulation may be a useful treatment option when surgical removal is not feasible.
doi:10.1186/s12883-014-0252-6
PMCID: PMC4302142  PMID: 25519166
Recurrent strokes; Occipital bony process; Young age stroke; Endovascular treatment
6.  Risk factors predicting the new symptomatic vertebral compression fractures after percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty 
European Spine Journal  2011;21(5):905-911.
Introduction
Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) are effective procedures to alleviate pain caused by osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). New vertebral compression fracture (NVCF) has been noted as a potential late sequela of the procedures. The incidence of NVCFs and affecting risk factors were investigated.
Materials and methods
The authors retrospectively analyzed the occurrence of NVCFs in 147 patients treated with PVP or PKP for osteoporotic VCFs. Possible risk factors, such as age, gender, body mass index, bone mineral density (BMD), location of treated vertebra, treatment modality, amount of bone cement injected, anterior–posterior ratio of the fractured vertebra, cement leakage into the disc space, and pattern of cement distribution, were assessed.
Results
Twenty-seven patients (18.4%) had subsequent symptomatic NVCFs with a median time to new fracture was of 70 days. The 1-year symptomatic fracture-free rate was 85.0% by the Kaplan–Meier estimate. Eighteen (66.7%) of the 27 patients had an NVCF on the adjacent vertebra. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the NVCF and control groups in regard to age, treatment modality, BMD, and the proportion of cement leakage into the disc space. Discal cement leakage and low BMD affected on adjacent NVCFs.
Conclusion
The most important risk factors affecting NVCFs were osteoporosis and intervertebral discal cement leakage.
doi:10.1007/s00586-011-2099-5
PMCID: PMC3337901  PMID: 22160212
Osteoporotic compression fracture; Vertebroplasty; Kyphoplasty; BMD; Discal leakage
7.  Traumatic Entrapment of the Vertebrobasilar Junction Due to a Longitudinal Clival Fracture: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(4):747-751.
Vertebrobasilar junction entrapment due to a clivus fracture is a rare clinical observation. The present case report describes a 54-yr-old man who sustained a major craniofacial injury. The patient displayed a stuporous mental state (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS]=8) and left hemiparesis (Grade 3). The initial computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a right subdural hemorrhage in the frontotemporal region, with a midline shift and longitudinal clival fracture. A decompressive craniectomy with removal of the hematoma was performed. Two days after surgery, a follow-up CT scan showed cerebellar and brain stem infarction, and a CT angiogram revealed occlusion of the left vertebral artery and entrapment of vertebrobasilar junction by the clival fracture. A decompressive suboccipital craniectomy was performed and the patient gradually recovered. This appears to be a rare case of traumatic vertebrobasilar junction entrapment due to a longitudinal clival fracture, including a cerebellar infarction caused by a left vertebral artery occlusion. A literature review is provided.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.4.747
PMCID: PMC2526400  PMID: 18756072
Cranial Fossa, Posterior; Skull Fracture, Basilar; Vertebral artery; Brain Infarction

Results 1-7 (7)