Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, also known as pseudogout, is a disease that causes inflammatory arthropathy in peripheral joints, however, symptomatic involvement of the intervertebral disc is uncommon. Herein, we describe a 59-yr-old patient who presented with cauda equina syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging of the patient showed an epidural mass-like lesion at the disc space of L4-L5, which was compressing the thecal sac. Biopsy of the intervertebral disc and epidural mass-like lesion was determined to be CPPD deposits. We reviewed previously reported cases of pseudogout involving the lumbar intervertebral disc and discuss the pathogenesis and treatment of the disease.
Calcium Pyrophosphate Dehydrate (CPPD); Pseudogout; Lumbar Spine; Intervertebral Disc
Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Tarlov cyst; Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage; Aneurysm rupture
We report a case of an acute spontaneous epidural hematoma (EDH) due to skull base metastasis in a 46-year-old male patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The patient presented with the acute onset of severe headache followed by unconsciousness, and computed tomography showed a large EDH in the right temporal and parietal lobes with midline shift. Emergency evacuation of the EDH was performed, and the hemorrhage was determined to be secondary to skull base metastasis of HCC.
Epidural hematoma; Skull base metastasis; Hepatocellular carcinoma
Lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy occurring during spinal surgery is frequently related to iliac bone graft harvesting, but meralgia paresthetica (MP) can result from the patient being in the prone position. Prone position-related MP is not an uncommon complication after posterior spine surgery but there are only few reports in the literature on this subject. It is usually overlooked because of its mild symptoms and self-limiting course, or patients and physicians may misunderstand the persistence of lower extremity symptoms in the early postoperative period to be a reflection of poor surgical outcome. The authors report a case of prone position-related MP after posterior lumbar interbody fusion at the L3-4 and reviewed the literature with discussion on the incidence, pathogenesis, and possible risk factors related to this entity.
Meralgia paresthetica (MP); Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN); Prone position; Posterior spinal surgery
Myoclonus is a rare side effect of gabapentin (GBP) and has been reported in patients with preexisting myoclonus, mental retardation, chronic static encephalopathy, diffuse brain damage, impaired renal function, or end stage renal disease. We report a case of myoclonus in a patient with normal renal function and no previous disorders. A 69-year-old female underwent diskectomy and foraminotomy at the left L4-L5 level. Postoperatively, she complained of paresthesia in her left leg, which was thought to be due to root manipulation during surgery. To relieve the paresthesia, she was given tramadol, an oral opioid agonist, and GBP. One week after GBP was increased to 900 mg per day, myoclonus developed, which severely impaired her normal activity. Her symptoms resolved 2 days after discontinuation of GBP. The coadministration of tramadol and GBP may mutually enhance the myoclonic potential of each drug. The causal relationship between GBP and myoclonus was suggested by cessation of myoclonus after GBP discontinuation despite continued therapy with tramadol.
Myoclonus; Gabapentin (GBP); Opioids
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) has been considered as a low grade tumor of adolescents and young adults. Although this tumor often shows cystic component, the hemorrhage within the cyst is extremely rare. The authors report a rare case of cystic PXA with a hemorrhage within the cyst and the mural nodule in the left frontal lobe. A 64-year-old male presented with a week history of the right side hemiparesis. After gross total resection of the tumor, the patient was fully recovered from neurological deficit. It is suggested that this typically benign tumor could be presented with hemorrhage, causing a rapid neurological deterioration. Prompt surgical intervention, especially total removal of the tumor can provide an excellent functional recovery.
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA); Cyst; Hemorrhage; Mural nodule
Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) tuberculosis is a rare disease, potentially causing severe instability and neurological deficits. The authors present a case of CVJ tuberculosis with atlantoaxial dislocation and retropharyngeal abscess in a 28-year-old man with neck pain and quadriparesis. Radiological evaluations showed a widespread extradural lesion around the clivus, C1, and C2. Two stage operations with transoral decompression and posterior occipitocervical fusion were performed. The pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Treatment options in CVJ tuberculosis are controversial without well-defined guidelines. But radical operation (anterior decompression and posterior fusion and fixation) is necessary in patient with neurological deficit due to cord compression, extensive bone destruction, and instability or dislocation. The diagnosis and treatment options are discussed.
Tuberculosis; Craniovertebral junction; Atlantoaxial dislocation; Retropharyngeal abscess
In patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the risk factors for seizure and the effect of prophylactic anticonvulsants are not well known. This study aimed to determine the risk factor for seizures and the role for prophylactic anticonvulsants after spontaneous ICH.
Between 2005 and 2010, 263 consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH were retrospectively assessed with a mean follow-up of 19.5 months using medical records, updated clinical information and, when necessary, direct patient contact. The seizures were classified as early (within 1 week of ICH) or late (more than 1 week after ICH). The outcomes were measured with the Glasgow Outcome Scale at discharge and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at both 2 weeks and discharge.
Twenty-two patients (8.4%; 9 patients with early seizures and 13 patients with late seizures) developed seizures after spontaneous ICH. Out of 263 patients, prophylactic anticonvulsants were administered in 216 patients. The prophylactic anticonvulsants were not associated with a reduced risk of early (p=0.094) or late seizures (p=0.326). Instead, the factors associated with early seizure were cortical involvement (p<0.001) and younger age (60 years or less) (p=0.046). The risk of late seizure was increased by cortical involvement (p<0.001) and communicating hydrocephalus (p=0.004). The prophylactic anticonvulsants were associated with a worse mRS at 2 weeks (p=0.024) and at last follow-up (p=0.034).
Cortical involvement may be a factor for provoked seizures. Although the incidence of early seizures tended to decrease in patients prescribed prophylactic anticonvulsants, no statistical difference was found.
Risk factors; Seizure; Intracerebral hemorrhage, spontaneous; Anticonvulsants
Spontaneous hematomas of the iliacus muscle are rare lesions and these are seen in individuals receiving anticoagulation therapy or patients with blood dyscrasias such as hemophilia. It can cause femoral neuropathy and resultant pain and paralysis. Although there is no clear consensus for the treatment of femoral neuropathy from iliacus muscle hematomas, delays in the surgical evacuation of hematoma for decompression of the femoral nerve can lead to a prolonged or permanent disability. We report here on a rare case of a spontaneous iliacus muscle hematoma that caused femoral neuropathy in a patient who was taking warfarin for occlusive vascular disease and we discuss the treatment.
Femoral neuropathy; Iliacus muscle hamatoma; Anticoagulation therapy
Gas forming brain abscess is a rare disease caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae occurring in patients with impaired host defense mechanism such as diabetes mellitus or liver cirrhosis. A 59-year-old man with 2-year history of diabetes mellitus and 20-year history of liver cirrhosis presented to the hospital with headache. On the day after admission, severe headache was developed and he deteriorated rapidly. Brain CT showed a non-enhanced mass including multiple air density as well as surrounding edema seen in the right occipital lobe, and isodensity air-fluid level seen in the right lateral ventricle. Despite emergent ventricular drainage and intraventricular and intravenous administration of antibiotics, his condition progressively worsened to sepsis and to death after 5 days. Bacterial culture of blood and ventricular fluids disclosed a Gram (-) rod, Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this report we review the pathogenic mechanism and its management.
Brain abscess; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Air
The authors developed a stereotactic device for irradiation of small animals with Leksell Gamma Knife® Model C. Development and verification procedures were described in this article.
The device was designed to satisfy three requirements. The mechanical accuracy in positioning was to be managed within 0.5 mm. The strength of the device and structure were to be compromised to provide enough strength to hold a small animal during irradiation and to interfere the gamma ray beam as little as possible. The device was to be used in combination with the Leksell G-frame® and KOPF® rat adaptor. The irradiation point was determined by separate imaging sequences such as plain X-ray images.
The absolute dose rate with the device in a Leksell Gamma Knife was 3.7% less than the value calculated from Leksell Gamma Plan®. The dose distributions measured with GAFCHROMIC® MD-55 film corresponded to those of Leksell Gamma Plan® within acceptable range. The device was used in a series of rat experiments with a 4 mm helmet of Leksell Gamma Knife.
A stereotactic device for irradiation of small animals with Leksell Gamma Knife Model C has been developed so that it fulfilled above requirements. Absorbed dose and dose distribution at the center of a Gamma Knife helmet are in acceptable ranges. The device provides enough accuracy for stereotactic irradiation with acceptable practicality.
Stereotactic device; Gamma Knife Model C; Absolute dose; Dose distribution