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1.  Device for Catheter Placement of External Ventricular Drain 
To introduce a new device for catheter placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This device was composed of three portions, T-shaped main body, rectangular pillar having a central hole to insert a catheter and an arm pointing the tragus. The main body has a role to direct a ventricular catheter toward the right or left inner canthus and has a shallow longitudinal opening to connect the rectangular pillar. The arm pointing the tragus is controlled by back and forth movement and turn of the pillar attached to the main body. Between April 2012 and December 2014, 57 emergency EVDs were performed in 52 patients using this device in the operating room. Catheter tip located in the frontal horn in 52 (91.2%), 3rd ventricle in 2 (3.5%) and in the wall of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in 3 EVDs (5.2%). Small hemorrhage along to catheter tract occurred in 1 EVD. CSF was well drained through the all EVD catheters. The accuracy of the catheter position and direction using this device were 91% and 100%, respectively. This device for EVD guides to provide an accurate position of catheter tip safely and easily.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2016.59.3.322
PMCID: PMC4877561  PMID: 27226870
External ventricular drain; Device; Cerebrospinal fluid
2.  Morphometric Study of the Anterior Thalamoperforating Arteries 
Objective
To evaluate the morphometry of the anterior thalamoperforating arteries (ATPA).
Methods
A microanatomical study was performed in 79 specimens from 42 formalin-fixed adult cadaver brains. The origins of the ATPAs were divided into anterior, middle, and posterior segments according to the crowding pattern. The morphometry of the ATPAs, including the premammillary artery (PMA), were examined under a surgical microscope.
Results
The anterior and middle segments of the ATPAs arose at mean intervals of 1.75±1.62 mm and 5.86±2.05 mm from the internal carotid artery (ICA), and the interval between these segments was a mean of 3.17±1.64 mm. The posterior segment arose at a mean interval of 2.43±1.46 mm from the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and the interval between the middle and posterior segments was a mean of 3.45±1.39 mm. The mean numbers of perforators were 2.66±1.19, 3.03±1.84, and 1.67±0.98 in the anterior, middle, and posterior segments, respectively. The PMA originated from the middle segment in 66% of cases. A perforator-free zone was located >2 mm from the ICA in 30.4% and >2 mm from the PCA in 67.1% of cases.
Conclusion
Most perforators arose from the anterior and middle segments, within the anterior two-thirds of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). The safest perforator-free zone was located closest to the PCA. These anatomical findings may be helpful to verify safety when treating lesions around the PCoA and in the interpeduncular fossa.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2015.57.5.350
PMCID: PMC4479716  PMID: 26113962
Anterior thalamoperforating artery; Premammillary artery; Perforator-free zone
3.  Morphometric Study of the Korean Adult Pituitary Glands and the Diaphragma Sellae 
Objective
To investigate the morphometric characteristics of the pituitary gland and diaphragma sellae in Korean adults.
Methods
Using the 33 formaline fixed adult cadavers (23 male, 10 female), the measurements were taken at the diaphragma sellae and pituitary gland. The authors investigated the relationship between dura and structures surrounding pituitary gland, morphometric aspects of pituitary gland and stalk, and morphometric aspect of central opening of diaphragma sellae.
Results
The boundary between the lateral surface of pituitary gland and the medial wall of cavernous sinus was formed by the thin dural layer and pituitary capsule. The pituitary capsule adherent tightly to the pituitary gland was observed to continue from the diaphragma sellae. Mean width, length, and height of the pituitary gland were 14.3 ± 2.1, 7.9 ± 1.3, and 6.0 ± 0.9 mm in anterior lobes, and 8.7 ± 1.7, 2.9 ± 1.1, and 5.8 ± 1.0 mm in posterior lobes, respectively. Although all dimensions of anterior lobe in female were slightly larger than those in male, statistical significance was noted in only longitudinal dimension. The ratio of posterior lobe to the whole length of pituitary gland was about 27%. The mean thickness of pituitary stalk was 2 mm. The diaphragmal opening was 5 mm or more in 26 (78.8%) of 33 specimen. The opening was round in 60.6% of the specimen, and elliptical oriented in an anterior-posterior or transverse direction in 39.4%.
Conclusion
These results provide the safe anatomical knowledge during the transsphenoidal surgery and may be helpful to access the possibility of the development of empty sella syndrome.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.1.42
PMCID: PMC2817514  PMID: 20157377
Pituitary gland; Diaphragma sellae; Cadaver
4.  Morphological Characteristics of the Thalamoperforating Arteries 
Objective
The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological characteristics of the thalamoperforating arteries that arise from the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery.
Methods
Thalamoperforating arteries located in the interpeduncular fossa were dissected in 26 formalin-fixed human cadaver brains. We investigated the origin site of thalamoperforating arteries from the P1 segment, number and diameter, and variations in their origin.
Results
Thalamoperforating arteries arose from the superior, posterior or posterosuperior surfaces of the P1 segment at the mean 1.93 mm (range, 0.41-4.71 mm) distance from the basilar apex and entered the brain through the posterior perforated substance. The average number was 3.6 (range 1-8) and mean diameter was 0.70 mm (range 0.24-1.18 mm). Thalamoperforating arteries could be classified into five different types according to their origin at the P1 segment : Type I (bilateral multiple), 38.5%; Type II (unilateral single, unilateral multiple), 26.9%; Type III (bilateral single), 19.2%; Type IV (unilateral single), 11.5%; Type V (unilateral multiple), 3.8%. In 15.4% of all specimens, thalamoperforating arteries arose from the only one side of P1 segment and were not noted in the other side. In such cases, the branches arising from the one side of P1 segment supplied the opposite side.
Conclusion
Variations in the origin of the thalamoperforating arteries should be keep in mind to perform the surgical clipping, endovascular treatment or operation involving the interpeduncular fossa. In particular, unilateral single branch seems to be very risky and significant for surgical technique or endovascular treatment.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.1.36
PMCID: PMC2817513  PMID: 20157376
Morphology; Cadaver; Thalamoperforating artery; Posterior cerebral artery
5.  Which One Is Better to Reduce the Infection Rate, Early or Late Cranioplasty? 
Objective
Decompressive craniectomy is an effective therapy to relieve high intracranial pressure after acute brain damage. However, the optimal timing for cranioplasty after decompression is still controversial. Many authors reported that early cranioplasty may contribute to improve the cerebral blood flow and brain metabolism. However, despite all the advantages, there always remains a concern that early cranioplasty may increase the chance of infection. The purpose of this retrospective study is to investigate whether the early cranioplasty increase the infection rate. We also evaluated the risk factors of infection following cranioplasty.
Methods
We retrospectively examined the results of 131 patients who underwent cranioplasty in our institution between January 2008 and June 2015. We divided them into early (≤90 days) and late (>90 days after craniectomy) groups. We examined the risk factors of infection after cranioplasty. We analyzed the infection rate between two groups.
Results
There were more male patients (62%) than female (38%). The mean age was 49 years. Infection occurred in 17 patients (13%) after cranioplasty. The infection rate of early cranioplasty was lower than that of late cranioplasty (7% vs. 20%; p=0.02). Early cranioplasty, non-metal allograft materials, re-operation before cranioplasty and younger age were the significant factors in the infection rate after cranioplasty (p<0.05). Especially allograft was a significant risk factor of infection (odds ratio, 12.4; 95% confidence interval, 3.24–47.33; p<0.01). Younger age was also a significant risk factor of infection after cranioplasty by multivariable analysis (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.96–0.99; p=0.02).
Conclusion
Early cranioplasty did not increase the infection rate in this study. The use of non-metal allograft materials influenced a more important role in infection in cranioplasty. Actually, timing itself was not a significant risk factor in multivariate analysis. So the early cranioplasty may bring better outcomes in cognitive functions or wound without raising the infection rate.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2016.59.5.492
PMCID: PMC5028610  PMID: 27651868
Cranioplasty; Infection; Decompressive craniectomy; Hydroxyapatities
6.  The Effectiveness of Gelfoam Technique before Percutaneous Vertebroplasy: Is It Helpful for Prevention of Cement Leakage? A Prospective Randomized Control Study 
Korean Journal of Spine  2016;13(2):63-66.
Objective
Preinjection gelfoam embolization during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) has been thought alternative technique to prevent the leakage of bone cement. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the gelfoam techniques are useful to reduce bone cement leakage.
Methods
Total 100 PVPs of osteoporotic spine compression fractures were performed by 1 spine surgeon who experienced more than 500 PVP cases under prospective control study. Operation was done in T-L junction (T10-L2) fractures with bi-transpedicular approach. Preinjection gelfoam PVP was done in the 50 levels. As control group, PVP without gelfoam was done in the 50 levels. We did not perform preoperative venography. We inserted normal saline-mixed gelfoam to the anterior third of vertebral body via PVP needle, and then 3mL of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) was injected. We prospectively evaluated the incidence and leakage pattern of PMMA by postoperative computed tomography.
Results
Between gelfoam and control groups, there were 11 leaks (22%) versus 12 leaks (26%). The mean operation time was 7.00 minutes versus 6.30 minutes. In gelfoam group, there were 6 spinal canal leaks, 4 paravertebral venous leaks, and 1 soft tissue leaks. In control group, there were 4 spinal canal leaks, 8 paravertebral venous leaks, and 1 disc space leak. In spite of cement leakage, there was no symptomatic case in both groups. Statistically, gelfoam technique was not related to decrease the incidence of leakage (p=0.64).
Conclusion
Our prospective study showed that it did not significantly decrease cement leakage when vertebroplasty is performed by experienced spine surgeon.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2016.13.2.63
PMCID: PMC4949169  PMID: 27437015
Vertebroplasty; Gelfoam; Osteoporotic fracture; Spine fractures
7.  A Morphometric Study of the Obturator Nerve around the Obturator Foramen 
Objective
Obturator neuropathy is a rare condition. Many neurosurgeons are unfamiliar with the obturator nerve anatomy. The purpose of this study was to define obturator nerve landmarks around the obturator foramen.
Methods
Fourteen cadavers were studied bilaterally to measure the distances from the nerve root to relevant anatomical landmarks near the obturator nerve, including the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), the pubic tubercle, the inguinal ligament, the femoral artery, and the adductor longus.
Results
The obturator nerve exits the obturator foramen and travels infero-medially between the adductors longus and brevis. The median distances from the obturator nerve exit zone (ONEZ) to the ASIS and pubic tubercle were 114 mm and 30 mm, respectively. The median horizontal and vertical distances between the pubic tubercle and the ONEZ were 17 mm and 27 mm, respectively. The shortest median distance from the ONEZ to the inguinal ligament was 19 mm. The median inguinal ligament lengths from the ASIS and the median pubic tubercle to the shortest point were 103 mm and 24 mm, respectively. The median obturator nerve lengths between the ONEZ and the adductor longus and femoral artery were 41 mm and 28 mm, respectively.
Conclusion
The obturator nerve exits the foramen 17 mm and 27 mm on the horizontal and sagittal planes, respectively, from the pubic tubercle below the pectineus muscle. The shallowest area is approximately one-fifth medially from the inguinal ligament. This study will help improve the accuracy of obturator nerve surgeries to better establish therapeutic plans and decrease complications.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2016.59.3.282
PMCID: PMC4877552  PMID: 27226861
Obturator nerve; Obturator foramen; Morphometric study
8.  Endovascular Treatment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Single Center Experience 
Objective
Treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) remains a challenge. However, after introduction of Onyx, transarterial approach is the preferred treatment option in many centers. We report our experience of dAVFs embolization with special emphasis on transarterial approach.
Methods
Seventeen embolization procedures were performed in 13 patients with dAVFs between Jan 2009 and Oct 2014. Clinical symptoms, location and type of fistulas, embolization methods, complications, radiological and clinical outcomes were evaluated using charts and PACS images.
Results
All 13 patients had symptomatic lesions. The locations of fistulas were transverse-sigmoid sinus in 6, middle fossa dura in 4, cavernous sinus in 2, and superior sagittal sinus in 1 patient. Cognard types were as follows : I in 4, IIa in 2, IIa+IIb in 5, and IV in 2. Embolization procedures were performed ≥2 times in 3 patients. Nine patients were treated with transarterial Onyx embolization alone. One of these required direct surgical puncture of middle meningeal artery. Complete obliteration of fistulas was achieved in 11/13 (85%) patients. There were no complications except for 1 case of Onyx migration in cavernous dAVF. Modified Rankin scale score at post-operative 3 months were 0 in 11, and 3 in 2 patients.
Conclusion
Transarterial Onyx embolization can be a first line therapeutic option in patients with dAVFs. However, transvenous approach should be tried first in cavernous sinus dAVF because of the risk of intracranial migration of liquid embolic materials. Furthermore, combined surgical endovascular approach can be considered as a useful option in inaccessible route.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2016.59.1.17
PMCID: PMC4754583  PMID: 26885282
Endovascualr; Dural arteriovenous fistulas; Onyx; Embolization; Transarterial
9.  Results of Isotope Cisternography in 175 Patients with a Suspected Hydrocephalus 
Korean Journal of Neurotrauma  2015;11(1):11-17.
Objective
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a syndrome characterized by gait disturbance, memory impairment and urinary incontinence. The isotope cisternography (ICG) became less useful because of low accuracy and complications. We tried to evaluate the safety and value of the ICG.
Methods
We retrospectively collected data on ICG of 175 consecutive patients with a suspected hydrocephalus. We classified the ICG into four types by the ventricular reflux and circulation time. The ventricular size was measured by Evans index and the width of the third ventricle.
Results
There were three complications including one case of paraplegia. Type 4 was the most common type, observed in 53%. Type 3 (33%), type 2 (7%), and type 1 (7%) were observed less often. Type 4 was more common in patients with large ventricles. Types of the ICG were not related to the causes of hydrocephalus, gender, or age of the patients. Shunting was more frequently performed in type 4 (71%), compared to type 1 (17%), type 2 (33%), and type 3 (46%). Surgery was more common when the cause was vascular. After the shunt surgery, 33.0% were graded as the improved. Although there were some improvements even in the not-improved patients, they still needed many helps. The improvement was related to the preoperative state.
Conclusion
ICG may bring a serious complication, however the incidence is very low. Although the predictability of response rate on the shunting is doubtful, ICG is a cheap and useful tool to select surgical candidates in NPH.
doi:10.13004/kjnt.2015.11.1.11
PMCID: PMC4847488  PMID: 27169059
Hydrocephalus; Diagnosis; Radionuclide imaging; Meningitis, aseptic; Malpractice
10.  Iatrogenic Carotid-Cavernous Fistula after Stent Assisted Coil Embolization of Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm 
Stent assisted coiling (SAC) is a useful technique for the treatment of wide necked complex aneurysm. As the frequency of SAC increases, stent-related complications such as thromboembolism, aneurysm rupture, and vessel rupture have been reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) after SAC has never been reported. The authors experienced a case of direct CCF after a SAC procedure for treatment of a complex posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm regrowth, which was treated by clip ligation 12 years before. The patient was managed conservatively and angiograms performed three months after the procedure showed the complete obliteration of the left PcoA aneurysm and the spontaneous disappearance of CCF. Navigation of Solitaire stent lumen with microcatheter can cause unexpected arterial injury, especially when the proximal tip is placed in the curved portion. It seems to be desirable to place the proximal tip of Solitaire stent in the straight portion whenever possible to reduce the risk of inadvertent arterial injury which might be caused by future navigation of stent lumen.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2015.17.1.43
PMCID: PMC4394119  PMID: 25874185
Stent assisted coiling; Carotid-cavernous fistula; Embolization; Iatrogenic disease
11.  Transcranial Direct Middle Meningeal Artery Puncture for the Onyx Embolization of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Involving the Superior Sagittal Sinus 
A 66-year-old woman presented with intermittent paraparesis and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Cerebral angiography demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) involving superior sagittal sinus (SSS), which was associated with SSS occlusion on the posterior one third. The dural AVF was fed by bilateral middle meningeal arteries (MMAs), superficial temporal arteries (STAs) and occipital arteries with marked retrograde cortical venous reflux. Transfemoral arterial Onyx embolization was performed through right MMA and STA, but it was not successful, which resulted in partial obliteration of dural AVF because of tortuous MMA preventing the microcatheter from reaching the fistula closely enough. Second procedure was performed through left MMA accessed by direct MMA puncture following small decortications of cranium overlying the MMA using diamond drill one week later. Microcatheter could be located far distally to the fistula through 5 F sheath placed into the MMA and complete obliteration of dural AVF was achieved using 3.9 cc of Onyx.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2015.57.1.54
PMCID: PMC4323506  PMID: 25674345
Dural arteriovenous fistula; Superior sagittal sinus; Transcranial; Middle meningeal artery; Onyx embolization
12.  Chronic Low Back Pain in Young Korean Urban Males: The Life-Time Prevalence and Its Impact on Health Related Quality of Life 
Objective
We assessed the life-time prevalence (LTP) of chronic low back pain (LBP) in young Korean males. We also evaluated the relationship between lumbar spinal lesions and their health related quality-of-life (HRQOL).
Methods
A cross-sectional, self-reported survey was conducted in Korean males (aged 19-year-old) who underwent physical examinations for the conscript. We examined 3331 examinees in November 2014. We included 2411 subjects, who accepted to participate this study without any comorbidities. We interviewed using simple binary questions for their LBP experience and chronicity. HRQOL was assessed by Short-Form Health-Survey-36 (SF-36) in chronic LBP and healthy control groups. Radiological assessment was performed in chronic LBP group to determine whether there were any pathological causes of their symptoms.
Results
The LTP of chronic LBP was 13.4%. Most (71.7%) of them didn't have any lumbar spinal lesions (i.e., non-specific chronic LBP). The SF-36 subscale and summary scores were significantly lower in subjects with chronic LBP. Between specific and non-specific chronic LBP group, all physical and mental subscale scores were significantly lower in specific chronic LBP group, except mental health (MH) subscale score. In MH subscale and mental component summary score, statistical significant differences didn't appear between two groups (p=0.154, 0.126).
Conclusion
In Korean males 19 years of age, the LTP of chronic LBP was 13.4%, and more than two-thirds were non-specific chronic LBP. Chronic LBP had a significant impact on HRQOL. The presence of lumbar spinal pathoanatomical lesions affected mainly on the physical aspect of HRQOL. It influenced little on the mental health.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.6.482
PMCID: PMC4303723  PMID: 25628807
Chronic low back pain; Public health; Quality of life; Health surveys
13.  Thromboembolic Event Detected by Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging After Coil Embolization of Cerebral Aneurysms 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence rate of diffusion positive lesions (DPLs), and to assess the peri-procedural risk factors for the occurrence of DPLs in patients who underwent coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms.
Materials and Methods
A total of 304 saccular aneurysms were embolized during a seven-year period from Jan 2007 to Dec 2013. Of these, postoperative diffusion-weighted images were obtained in 186 procedures. There were 100 ruptured aneurysm and 86 unruptured aneurysms. The coiling procedures were as follows: simple coiling in 96, balloon assisted coiling (BAC) in 39, and stent assisted coiling (SAC) in 51 aneurysms. Clinical, angiographic and procedural factors were analyzed in relation to the occurrence of DPLs.
Results
Overall, DPLs were observed in 50.5%. In unruptured aneurysms, DPLs occurred in 23.5% of BAC, 41.9% of SAC and 57.7% of simple coiling (p = 0.08). Among ruptured aneurysms, DPLs occurred in 63.6% of BAC, 62.5% of SAC and 54.3% of simple coiling (p = 0.71). DPLs had a tendency to increase in ruptured aneurysms compared with unruptured aneurysms (57% vs. 43%, p = 0.077). Logistic regression analysis revealed that age > 55 years was the only independent risk factor for the occurrence of DPLs.
Conclusion
DPLs occured more frequently in ruptured aneurysm and at an older age. Although most DPLs are asymptomatic, careful manipulation of cerebral or extracerebral arteries using various endovascular devices is important to reducing the occurrence of DPLs. BAC appeared to reduce occurrence of TE events in patient with unruptured aneurysm.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2014.16.3.175
PMCID: PMC4205242  PMID: 25340018
Thromboembolism; Aneurysm; Embolization; Balloon assisted coiling; Diffusion positive lesions
14.  Surgical Decision Making for the Elderly Patients in Severe Head Injuries 
Objective
Age is a strong predictor of mortality in traumatic brain injuries. A surgical decision making is difficult especially for the elderly patients with severe head injuries. We studied so-called 'withholding a life-saving surgery' over a two year period at a university hospital.
Methods
We collected data from 227 elderly patients. In 35 patients with Glasgow Coma Score 3-8, 28 patients had lesions that required operation. A life-saving surgery was withheld in 15 patients either by doctors and/or the families (Group A). Surgery was performed in 13 patients (Group B). We retrospectively examined the medical records and radiological findings of these 28 patients. We calculated the predicted probability of 6 month mortality (IPM) and 6 month unfavorable outcome (IPU) to compare the result of decision by the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) calculator.
Results
Types of the mass lesion did not affect on the surgical decision making. None of the motor score 1 underwent surgery, while all patients with reactive pupils underwent surgery. Causes of injury or episodes of hypoxia/hypotension might have affected on the decision making, however, their role was not distinct. All patients in the group A died. In the group B, the outcome was unfavorable in 11 of 13 patients. Patients with high IPM or IPU were more common in group A than group B. Wrong decisions brought futile cares.
Conclusion
Ethical training and developing decision-making skills are necessary including shared decision making.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.4.195
PMCID: PMC4094743  PMID: 25024822
Prognosis; Decision making; Patient participation; Craniocerebral trauma
15.  Endovascular Treatment for Ruptured Distal Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm 
A 42-year-old woman presented with Hunt and Hess grade (HHG) III subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured left distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm. Computed tomography showed a thin SAH on the cerebellopontine angle cistern, and small vermian intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in the fourth ventricle. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the aneurysm on the postmeatal segment of left distal AICA, a branching point of rostrolateral and caudomedial branch of the left distal AICA. Despite thin caliber, tortuous running course and far distal location, the AICA aneurysm was obliterated successfully with endovascular coils without compromising AICA flow. However, the patient developed left side sensorineural hearing loss postoperatively, in spite of definite patency of distal AICA on the final angiogram. She was discharged home without neurologic sequela except hearing loss and tinnitus.
Endovascular treatment of distal AICA aneurysm, beyond the meatal loop, is feasible while preserving the AICA flow. However, because the cochlear hair cell is vulnerable to ischemia, unilateral hearing loss can occur, possibly caused by the temporary occlusion of AICA flow by microcatheter during endovascular treatment.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2014.16.1.20
PMCID: PMC3997923  PMID: 24765609
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Cerebellar artery; Endovascular; Hearing loss
16.  Chronic Subdural Hematoma after Eccentric Exercise Using a Vibrating Belt Machine 
We report a case of bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in a 75-year-old man after exercise using a vibrating belt machine on the head. He suffered from headache and intermittent left side numbness for ten days. He denied any head injuries except eccentric exercise using a vibrating belt on his own head for 20 days. An MRI revealed bilateral CSDH. The hematoma was isodense on the CT scan. We made burr-holes on the both sides under local anesthesia. We identified the neomembrane and dark red subdural fluid on both sides. In the postoperative CT scan, we found an arachnoid cyst on the left temporal pole. Although the arachnoid cyst itself is asymptomatic, trivial injury such as vibrating the head may cause a CSDH.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.3.265
PMCID: PMC3836940  PMID: 24278662
Chronic subdural hematoma; Craniocerebral trauma; Injuries; Vibration
17.  Multiple Densities of the Chronic Subdural Hematoma in CT Scans 
Objective
Density of the chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is variable. It often appears to be mixed density. Multiple densities of cSDH may result from multiple episodes of trauma. We investigated the frequency of mixed density and the causes of head injuries representing each density.
Methods
We could collect 242 cases of chronic SDH. The cSDHs were classified into four groups; hypodensity, homogeneous isodensity, layered type, and mixed type on the basis of CT scans.
Results
The density of cSDH was isodense in 115 patients, hypodense in 31 patients, mixed in 79 cases, and layered in 17 cases. The cSDH was on the left side in 115 patients, on the right side in 70 patients, and bilateral in 40 patients. The history of trauma was identifiable in 122 patients. The etiology could be identified in 67.7% of the hypodense hematomas, while it was obscure in 59.5% of the mixed hematomas.
Conclusion
Mixed density of cSDH results from multiple episodes of trauma, usually in the aged. It is hard to remember all the trivial traumas for the patients with the mixed density cSDHs. Although there were membranes within the mixed density hematomas, burr-holes were usually enough to drain the hematomas.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.1.38
PMCID: PMC3772285  PMID: 24044079
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis
18.  Morphometric Relationship between the Cervicothoracic Cord Segments and Vertebral Bodies 
Objective
The objective of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics between the vertebral body and the regions of the cervical and thoracic spinal cords where each rootlets branch out.
Methods
Sixteen adult cadavers (12 males and 4 females) with a mean age of 57.9 (range of 33 to 70 years old) were used in this study. The anatomical relationship between the exit points of the nerve roots from the posterior root entry zone at each spinal cord segment and their corresponding relevant vertebral bodies were also analyzed.
Results
Vertical span of the posterior root entry zone between the upper and lower rootlet originating from each spinal segment ranged from 10-12 mm. The lengths of the rootlets from their point of origin at the spinal cord to their entrance into the intervertebral foramen were 5.9 mm at the third cervical nerve root and increased to 14.5 mm at the eighth cervical nerve root. At the lower segments of the nerve roots (T3 to T12), the posterior root entry zone of the relevant nerve roots had a corresponding anatomical relationship with the vertebral body that is two segments above. The posterior root entry zones of the sixth (94%) and seventh (81%) cervical nerve roots were located at a vertebral body a segment above from relevant segment.
Conclusion
Through these investigations, a more accurate diagnosis, the establishment of a better therapeutic plan, and a decrease in surgical complications can be expected when pathologic lesions occur in the spinal cord or vertebral body.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.384
PMCID: PMC3488649  PMID: 23133729
Spinal; Cord; Nerve root; Cervical spine; Thoracic spine; Cadaveric study
19.  A Case of Idiopathic Granulomatous Hypophysitis 
Granulomatous hypophysitis is a rare pituitary condition that commonly presents with enlargement of the pituitary gland. A 31-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with a severe headache and bitemporal hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an 18 × 10-mm sellar mass with suprasellar extension and compression of the optic chiasm. Interestingly, brain MRI had shown no abnormal finding 4 months previously. On hormonal examination, hypopituitarism with mild hyperprolactinemia was noted. The biopsy revealed granulomatous changes with multinucleated giant cells. We herein report this rare case and discuss the relevant literature.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2012.27.3.346
PMCID: PMC3443729  PMID: 23019401
Granulomatous hypophysitis; Headache; Hypopituitarism
20.  Acute-on-Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Not Uncommon Events 
Objective
Patients with asymptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) are prone to fall or slip. Acute trauma on these patients may develop acute subdural bleeding over the chronic SDH. We recently experienced 9 patients with acute-on-chronic SDH. We report the clinical and radiological features of this lesion.
Methods
We retrospectively examined the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 107 consecutive patients who diagnosed as chronic SDH from January 2008 to December 2010. All cases of CSDH were diagnosed on CT with or without MRI scan.
Results
Acute-on-chronic SDH is not rare, being 8% of chronic SDH. The most common cause of trauma was a slip in drunken state. Alcoholism with multiple episodes of trauma was one of the prominent histories. Acute-on-chronic SDH appeared as a hyperdense layer of clot with irregular blurred margin or lumps in liquefied hematoma. Single or two burr holes was usually effective to remove the hematoma.
Conclusion
Repeated trauma may cause acute bleeding over the chronic SDH. It will be helpful to understand the role of repeated trauma as a mechanism of hematoma enlargement.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.512
PMCID: PMC3272512  PMID: 22323938
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis
21.  Morphometric Study of the Upper Thoracic Sympathetic Ganglia 
Objective
Morphometric data for the sympathetic ganglia (SG) of the upper thoracic spine was investigated to identify the exact location of the SG in order to reduce normal tissue injury in the thoracic cavity during thoracoscopic sympathectomy.
Methods
In 46 specimens from 23 formalin-fixed adult cadavers, the authors measured the shortest distance from the medial margin of the T1, T2 and T3 SG to the most prominent point and medial margin of the corresponding rib heads, and to the lateral margin of the longus colli muscle. In addition, the distance between the most prominent point of the rib head and the lateral margin of longus colli muscle and the width of each SG were measured.
Results
The shortest distance from the medial margin of the SG to the prominent point of corresponding rib head was on average 1.9 mm on T1, 4.2 mm, and 4.1 mm on T2, T3. The distance from the medial margin of the SG to the medial margin of the corresponding rib head was 4.2 mm on T1, 5.9 mm, and 6.3 mm on T2, T3. The mean distance from the medial margin of the SG to the lateral margin of the longus colli muscle was 6.7 mm on T1, 8.8 mm, 9.9 and mm on T2, T3. The mean distance between the prominent point of the rib head and the lateral margin of the longus colli muscle was 4.8 mm on T1, 4.6 mm, and 5.9 mm on T2, T3. The mean width of SG was 6.1 mm on T1, 4.1 mm, and 3.1 mm on T2, T3.
Conclusion
We present morphometric data to assist in surgical planning and the localization of the upper thoracic SG during thoracoscopic sympathectomy.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.1.30
PMCID: PMC3159877  PMID: 21892401
Sympathetic ganglia; Thoracic vertebrae; Thoracoscopy; Sympathectomy
22.  Postoperative Course and Recurrence of Chronic Subdural Hematoma 
Objective
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is known to have a significant recurrence rate. There are different criteria defining the recurrence of CSDH. We evaluated the postoperative course of CSDH and tried to propose the reasonable criteria of recurrence.
Methods
We retrospectively examined the medical records and pre- and postoperative CT scans of 149 consecutive patients who underwent surgery from January 2005 to December 2009. Diagnosis was confirmed by CT scanning or MRI. The postoperative courses were either resolved or recurrent. The resolved CSDH was one of the three types; early resolution, delayed resolution, or late resolution. The recurrent CSDH was one of the four types; recurrence without resolution, early recurrence after resolution, late recurrence after resolution, or recurrent-and-resolved type.
Results
The CSDH was resolved within 30 days after surgery in 58 (39%) patients, between 1 to 3 months in 62 (42%), and after 3 months in 11 (7%) patients. The CSDH was recurred in 18 (12%) patients. Late resolution or recurrence was more common in the aged. The recurrent hematoma was seen on the same side in 11 patients, on the different side in 7 patients. Recurrence was significantly more common in the thick hematomas.
Conclusion
For a working criteria of the recurrence of CSDH, we propose the early recurrence as return of symptoms or reaccumulation of the hematoma after a surgery within 3 months regardless of the location, amount or repeated operations. The late recurrence can be defined as reappearance or enlargement of a liquefied hematoma within the cranial cavity surrounded by the membranes or persistent CSDH beyond 3 months after surgery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.6.518
PMCID: PMC3053546  PMID: 21430978
Chronic subdural hematoma; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis; Recurrence; Risk Factors
23.  Spontaneous Intracranial Epidural Hematoma Originating from Dural Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma (EDH) due to dural metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma is very rare. A 53-year-old male patient with hepatocellular carcinoma, who was admitted to the department of oncology, was referred to department of neurosurgery because of sudden mental deterioration to semicoma with papillary anisocoria and decerebrate rigidity after transarterial chemoembolization for hepatoma. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed large amount of acute EDH with severe midline shifting. An emergent craniotomy and evacuation of EDH was performed. Active bleeding from middle cranial fossa floor was identified. There showed osteolytic change on the middle fossa floor with friable mass-like lesion spreading on the overlying dura suggesting metastasis. Pathological examination revealed anaplastic cells with sinusoidal arrangement which probably led to spontaneous hemorrhage and formation of EDH. As a rare cause of spontaneous EDH, dural metastasis from malignancy should be considered.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.2.166
PMCID: PMC2941862  PMID: 20856668
Spontaneous epidural hematoma; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Dural metastasis
24.  What Determines the Laterality of the Chronic Subdural Hematoma? 
Objective
Chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) are more common on the left hemisphere than on the right. We verified this left predilection of CSDH and tried to explain the reason for this discrepancy.
Methods
We investigated the laterality of CSDH in 182 patients who were treated from January 2005 to December 2009. We examined the symmetry of the cranium and the location of the lesion.
Results
CSDH was more common on the left-side. The cranium was symmetric in 63 patients, asymmetric in 119 patients. The asymmetric crania were flat on the right-side in 77 patients, on the left-side in 42 patients. The density of the CSDHs was hypodense in 29 patients, isodense 132 patients, and the others in 21 patients. Bilateral hematomas were more common in the hypodense group. In the right flat crania, the hematoma was more commonly located on the opposite side of the flat side. While in the left flat crania, the hematoma was more common on the same side.
Conclusion
CSDHs occurred more frequently on the left side. The anatomical asymmetry of the cranium influences the left predilection of CSDH.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.6.424
PMCID: PMC2899028  PMID: 20617086
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis; Laterality
25.  A Morphometric Aspect of the Brachial Plexus in the Periclavicular Region 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to determine the normal morphometric landmarks of the uniting and dividing points of the brachial plexus (BP) in the periclavicular region to provide useful guidance in surgery of BP injuries.
Methods
A total of 20 brachial plexuses were obtained from 10 adult, formalin-fixed cadavers. Distances were measured on the basis of the Chassaignac tubercle (CT), and the most lateral margin of the BP (LMBP) crossing the superior and inferior edge of the clavicle.
Results
LMBP was located within 25 mm medially from the midpoint in all subjects. In the supraclavicular region, the upper trunk uniting at 21 ± 7 mm from the CT, separating into divisions at 42 ± 5 mm from the CT, and dividing at 19 ± 4 mm from the LMBP crossing the superior edge of the clavicle. In the infraclavicular region, the distance from the inferior edge of the clavicle to the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) origin was 49 ± 1 mm, to the median nerve origin 57 ± 7 mm, and the ulnar nerve origin 48 ± 6 mm. From the lateral margin of the pectoralis minor to the MCN origin the distance averaged 3.3 ± 10 mm. Mean diameter of the MCN was 4.3 ± 1.1 mm (range, 2.5-6.0) in males (n = 6), and 3.1 ± 1.5 mm (range, 1.6-4.0) in females (n = 4).
Conclusion
We hope these data will aid in understanding the anatomy of the BP and in planning surgical treatment in BP injuries.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.2.130
PMCID: PMC2744022  PMID: 19763215
Brachial plexus; Musculocutaneous nerve; Clavicle; Pectoralis muscles

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