Understanding the biological mechanisms of why certain fractures are at risk for delayed healing or nonunion requires translational animal models that take advantage of transgenic and other genetic manipulation technologies. Reliable murine nonunion models can be an important tool to understand the biology of nonunion. In this study, we report the results of a recently established model for creating critical defects that lead to atrophic nonunions based on a unique fracture fixation technique.
Materials and methods
Subcritical (0.6 mm long) and critical (1.6 mm long) defects were created in femurs of 10-week-old double transgenic (Col1/Col2) mice and stabilized using a custom-designed plate and four screws. Four groups were used: normal, sham, subcritical, and critical. Histology (n = 3 for each group) was analyzed at 2 and 5 weeks, and micro-computed tomography (μCT) and torsional biomechanics (n = 12 for each group) were analyzed at 5 weeks.
Subcritical defects showed healing at 2 weeks and were completely healed by 5 weeks, with biomechanical properties not significantly different from normal controls. However, critical defects showed no healing by histology or μCT. These nonunion fractures also displayed no torsional stiffness or strength in 10 of 12 cases.
Our murine fracture model creates reproducible and reliable nonunions and can serve as an ideal platform for studying molecular pathways to contrast healing versus nonhealing events and for evaluating innovative therapeutic approaches to promote healing of a challenging osseous injury.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10195-013-0269-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Bone; Fracture; Nonunion; Critical defect; Healing
There is a continuing search for bone substitutes to avoid or minimize the need for autogenous bone grafts. Hydroxyapatite, a crystalline phase of calcium phosphate found naturally in bone minerals, has shown tremendous promise as a graft material. Coral is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft extender. This study examined the effect of hydroxyapatite and Persian Gulf coral on osteogenesis in vivo using a rabbit model of bone healing.
Materials and methods
A critical-size defect of 10 mm elongation was created in the radial diaphysis of 36 rabbits and supplied with either hydroxyapatite or coral or left empty (control group). Radiographs of each forelimb were taken postoperatively on day 1 and then at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postinjury to evaluate bone formation, union, and remodeling of the defect. The operated radiuses were removed on the 56th postoperative day and were grossly and histopathologically evaluated. In addition, biomechanical testing was conducted on the operated and normal forelimbs of half of the animals of each group.
In radiological evaluation, bone formation and union were significantly superior in the coral and hydroxyapatite groups in comparison with the control group on the 42nd and 56th day postinjury (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences between groups in remodeling criteria at the 56th day postinjury (P > 0.05). In histopathological evaluation, the union scores of the rabbits administered hydroxyapatite or coral were statistically superior to those of the animals of the control group on the 56th day postinjury (P < 0.05). In biomechanical evaluation, the control group showed weakness of biomechanical properties in comparison with the coral and hydroxyapatite groups (P < 0.05).
According to this study, significant difference was not observed between hydroxyapatite and natural coral and these two materials were significantly better than the control group at 8 weeks postinjury.
Persian Gulf coral; Hydroxyapatite; Radius; Bone healing; Rabbit
To determine the interobserver agreement on femoral version measurements between an orthopedic attending, orthopedic senior and junior residents, and an attending radiologist.
Materials and methods
Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scanograms of 267 patients who underwent femoral intramedullary (IM) nailing with corresponding radiology attending reads for femoral version were collected and de-identified. Femoral version measurements performed by a trauma fellowship-trained attending orthopedic surgeon (ORTHO), a senior orthopedic resident (PGY4), a junior orthopedic resident (PGY1), and a musculoskeletal fellowship-trained attending radiologist (RADS) were compared via Pearson’s interclass correlation coefficient to assess interobserver level of agreement.
Version measurements provided by the two attending physicians exhibited the highest level of agreement (r = 0.661, p < 0.01). The orthopedic attending and the senior resident had the next highest level of agreement (r = 0.543, p < 0.01). The first-year orthopedic resident had the weakest agreement across the board: with the orthopedic attending, the radiology attending, and the senior resident.
Regardless of specialty, experience and higher levels of training produce stronger agreement when measuring femoral version. Residents in training, especially those who are junior, produce weak agreement when compared to their senior colleagues.
Level of evidence
Level III, diagnostic study.
Interobserver; Femoral version; Radiology; Level of training
The treatment of radial neck fractures in children varies according to the displacement, angulation, and skeletal maturity. There is a general agreement that displaced radial neck fractures with more than 30° angulations (Judet type III and IV fractures) should be surgically treated. There are several treatment possibilities for Judet type III and IV fractures including percutaneous pin reduction, elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN), and open reduction with or without internal fixation. In this retrospective study we compared the clinical and radiographical outcomes, and complications following intramedullary versus percutaneous pinning in displaced radial neck fractures in children.
Materials and methods
Between 2000 and 2011, 20 patients were treated using closed reduction: in 12 cases we used percutaneous pinning, and in 8 cases we used ESIN. According to Judet classification the two groups were composed as follows: 10 (77 %) type III and 3 (23 %) type IV fractures in the percutaneous pinning group; 4 (57 %) type III, and 3 (43 %) type IV fractures in the ESIN group.
After an average of 42 months, excellent results in Mayo elbow performance scores (MEPS) were obtained in 71 and 69 % of ESIN and percutaneous pinning groups respectively, with good results in the remaining cases apart from one fair case (8 %) in the percutaneous pinning group. After a radiological evaluation, all fractures healed in excellent or good alignment. When comparing the two groups, the subjects treated with the ESIN technique had higher range of motion (ROM) in flexion, extension and pronation. No patients developed complications, except three cases of asymptomatic enlargements of the radial head, reported only in the percutaneous pinning group.
In this research the clinical outcome, assessed with the MEPS, and the radiological alignment, were comparable between the subjects that were treated with percutaneous pinning and those with ESIN techniques; whereas the ESIN technique demonstrated higher ROM in flexion, extension and pronation. The ESIN technique seems to be the ideal approach both for the higher ROM values and for the absence of complications.
Radial neck; Fracture; Metaizeau; ESIN; Closed reduction; Pin; Mayo; Complications
The ideal treatment for displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures is still under debate. Open reduction and internal fixation is the most popular surgical procedure; however, wound complications, hardware failure and infection remain a major concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of a new minimally-invasive surgical procedure: closed reduction technique combined with balloon-assisted fracture augmentation with cement or calcium phosphate (minimally-invasive percutaneous calcaneoplasty). We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients that sustained Sander’s type II and III calcaneal fractures treated in our institution from January 2008 to June 2010. The same approach and technique was utilized in all cases. Conventional X-rays and CT scan have been performed pre- and post-operatively. The average follow-up was 24 months. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle/hindfoot score has been utilized for clinical evaluation and Bohler’s angle to assess bone reduction. All cases obtained bony union in 2/3 months, with average Bohler’s angle of 22.97° (from 14.21° to 32.83°). No skin complications or adverse reactions were observed, with only one patient complaining of residual pain in the hindfoot. Minimally-invasive percutaneous calcaneoplasty can represent an alternative to open reduction internal fixation in the treatment of calcaneal fractures, allowing stable reduction without plating, early function recovery and short hospital stay.
Calcaneus; Fracture; Minimally-invasive; Balloon reduction
The general outcome of posterior wall acetabular fractures is still the source of discussion. Posterior wall fractures are recognized throughout the literature as being difficult to treat. The aim of the present study was to analyze in our own patients the relevance of the classical prognostic criteria for the outcome of isolated posterior wall fractures and those with associated lesions.
Materials and methods
A prospective cohort of 33 consecutive patients treated operatively between 1996 and 2006 in a single level 1 trauma center for a posterior wall fracture of the acetabulum was analyzed retrospectively. Included were posterior wall acetabular fractures or associated posterior wall fractures, such as the combinations of posterior column with posterior wall, transverse with posterior wall, or T-shaped fracture with posterior wall fracture. Outcome measurement of the postoperative survival of the hip joints until the primary outcome reoperation (total hip replacement or fusion) and secondary outcome diagnosis of symptomatic osteoarthritis were performed.
Twenty-six of the 33 patients with posterior wall fractures also had a dislocated joint. Twelve had isolated and 21 associated fractures. Six patients were reoperated with a THA (four patients within 2 years and one after 10 years), and one arthrodesis was done to treat a hematogenous septic arthritis in a degenerative hip joint. Secondary arthritis was observed in 10 patients.
No difference was found between the outcome in cases of isolated posterior wall acetabular fracture and the outcome in those with associated lesions. The classical prognostic criteria were not found to be relevant to the outcome for our group.
Acetabulum; Posterior wall acetabular fractures; Associated lesion; Outcome; Prognosis
Flexor tendon rupture is a rare but major complication associated with volar plate fixation of distal radius fractures.
Materials and methods
We performed a systematic review to evaluate the demographics, clinical profile, treatment and outcome of flexor tendon rupture following volar plate fixation of distal radius fracture. Electronic searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for systematic reviews and conference proceedings were performed. Studies were included if they reported flexor tendon rupture (partial or complete) as a complication of distal radius fracture plating (all levels of evidence).
Our search yielded 21 studies. There were 12 case reports and 9 clinical studies. A total of 47 cases were reported. There were 11 males and 23 females (n = 16 studies). The mean age was 61 years old (range 30–85). The median interval between the surgery and flexor tendon rupture was 9 months (interquartile range, 6–26 months). Twenty-nine plates were locking and 15 were nonlocking (n = 20 studies). FPL was the most commonly ruptured tendon (n = 27 cases, 57 %), with FDP to index finger being the second most common (n = 7 cases, 15 %). Palmaris longus tendon graft and primary end-to-end repair were the most common surgical methods used in cases of FPL tendon rupture.
Flexor tendon rupture is a recognised complication of volar plating of distal radius fracture. Positioning of the plate proximal to the “watershed” line and early removal of the plate in cases with plate prominence or warning symptoms can reduce the risk of this complication.
Flexor tendon rupture; Volar plate fixation; Distal radius fracture; Flexor pollicis longus; Flexor digitorum profundus; Watershed line
The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the need for bone grafting in the surgical treatment of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures. We reviewed 390 cases of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures treated with plate osteosynthesis with or without autologous iliac bone grafting, and compared outcomes and complications related to fracture stabilization.
Materials and methods
Three hundred ninety patients with displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures that were treated with plate osteosynthesis from December 2002 to December 2010 were reviewed. Two hundred two patients (group A) were treated by osteosynthesis with autologous bone grafting, and 188 patients (group B) were treated by osteosynthesis without bone grafting. One hundred eighty-one patients with an AO type 73-C1 fracture (Sanders type II), 182 patients with an AO type 73-C2 fracture (Sanders type III), and 27 patients with an AO type 73-C3 fracture (Sanders type IV) were included in this study. Bohler’s angle, the crucial angle of Gissane, and calcaneal height in the immediate postoperative period and at the 2-year follow-up were compared. Any change in the subtalar joint status was documented and analyzed. The final outcomes of all patients were evaluated by the AOFAS Ankle–Hindfoot Scale and compared in both groups.
The mean full weight-bearing time in group A (with bone grafting) was significantly lower (median 6.2 months, range 2.8–9.2 months) than that in group B (without bone grafting; median 9.8 months, range 6.8–12.2 months). The immediate-postoperative Bohler’s angle and that at the 2-year follow-up were significantly higher in group A. The loss of Bohler’s angle after 2 years was significantly lower in group A (mean 3.5°; 95 % CI 0.8°–6.2°) than in group B (mean 6.2°; 95 % CI 1.0°–11.2°). The average change in the crucial angle and the average change in calcaneal height were not statistically significant for either group. The infection rate in the bone grafting group was higher, though statistically insignificantly so, than in the nongrafting group (8.3 vs. 6.3 %). No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of the rates of good reduction, postoperative osteoarthritis, and subtalar fusion. Regarding the efficacy outcomes, the mean AOFAS score was lower (mean 76.4 points; 95 % CI 65.8–82.9 points) in group A than in group B (mean, 81.6 points; 95 % CI, 72.3–88.8 points), but this difference was not significant (p > 0.05).
Bohler’s angle showed improved restoration and the patients returned to full weight-bearing earlier when bone grafting was used in the treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fracture. However, the functional outcomes and complication rates of both groups were similar.
Calcaneus; Displaced intra-articular fractures; Bone graft
The Prolo Scale (PS) is a widely accepted assessment tool for lumbar spinal surgery results. Nevertheless, in the literature there is a dearth of consensus about its application, interpretation and accuracy. The purpose of this review is to investigate the evolution of the PS from its introduction in 1986 to the present, including an analysis of different versions of the scale and research on the existing studies investigating its psychometric properties.
Materials and methods
PubMed, Cochrane Library and PEDro databases were searched. Studies in English, Italian, French, Spanish and German published from 1986 to December 2012 were analyzed.
The original lumbar surgery outcome scale consisted of two Likert-type scales (economic and functional). There are three more versions of the scale: Schnee proposed one consisting of 10 items, Brantigan made one with 20 items and introduced 2 more subscales (pain and medication), and Davis adapted the scale for the cervical spine. PS is often mentioned without any specific reference to the version used; therefore, a homogeneous comparison of studies is difficult to achieve. Several authors agree on the need to embrace a multidimensional measuring system to evaluate low back pain (LBP), but there is still no consensus regarding the most reliable tool. To date, PS has been mostly used as secondary outcome measure in association with validated primary measures for LBP.
The Prolo Scale has been adopted for clinical examination for 20 years because it is easy to administer and useful to compare significant amounts of data from surgical studies carried out at different times. Although several authors demonstrated the scale sensitivity among a battery of tests, no thorough validation study was found in the current literature.
Outcome assessment; Questionnaires; Orthopedic surgery; Spinal fusion; Low back pain
Does below-knee symptomatic muscular (gastrocnemius or soleus) vein thrombosis (MVT) warrant investigation and treatment in post-operative orthopaedic patients? We performed a literature search and evaluated the evidence looking for guidance regarding this question.
Materials and methods
We performed a literature search with the use of PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar from 1950 to September 2011. Search terms included “muscular vein thrombosis” (MVT) and “isolated gastrocnemius or soleus vein thrombosis” (IGSVT). We reviewed the eight level II studies relevant to our search, only one of which was in a specific orthopaedic population.
Studies looking at the rates of progression of isolated MVT have shown conflicting results. There is also a lack of consensus between studies that compare progression amongst groups with or without anticoagulant treatment. The majority of the studies do not distinguish between medical, surgical or orthopaedic patients.
We cannot confidently recommend commencement of anticoagulation treatment upon identification of MVT in post-operative orthopaedic patients. We can only suggest that, once MVT is diagnosed, the patient should undergo serial ultrasound scan (USS) duplex scans, and if propagation is identified, then treatment may be deemed beneficial.
Level of evidence: III (review of non-randomized controlled cohort/follow-up studies).
Muscular vein thrombosis; Orthopaedic; Anticoagulation treatment; Isolated gastrocnemius or soleus calf vein thrombosis
Radiologic determination of pediatric femoral fracture rotation has been debated. Measuring the antetorsion angle of the fractured femur by computed tomography and comparing it with the opposite side has been the method of choice for this purpose. However, no simple method for direct measurement of femoral fracture rotation exists in the literature. In this study, our aim was to test a mathematical method of measuring the axial plane malrotation from direct roentgenograms.
Materials and methods
A pediatric femoral shaft fracture model was produced. The bone was secured to a wooden frame that allowed the distal part of the fracture to rotate around an axis. Radiographs were taken at known intervals of rotation ranging from the neutral position to 60° external rotation and to 60° internal rotation in 5° increments of rotation. Five independent, blinded observers measured the radiographs and calculated the fracture rotation according to a standard formula. Calculated rotation values were compared with known rotation values.
Calculated rotation values were close to actual rotation values throughout the arc of rotation. The mean absolute error of five observers for all measurements of external and internal rotation was 3.97° (±0.83). The correlation coefficient between calculated and actual rotation values was 0.9927. The interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient for calculated rotation was 0.997.
Absolute error and correlation coefficient values indicate that this method is accurate and reliable in determining the fracture rotation.
Pediatric femoral fracture; Fracture rotation; Direct roentgenogram; Mathematical method
Acromioclavicular (AC) dislocation involves complete loss of articular contact; it is defined as chronic when it follows conservative management or unsuccessful surgical treatment.
Materials and methods
The study compared the clinical and radiographic outcomes of AC joint stabilization performed in 40 patients with chronic dislocation using a biological allograft (group A) or a synthetic ligament (group B). Demographic data included: M/F: 25/15; mean age: 35 ± 3.2 years; previous surgery in 11 patients, including Weaver–Dunn (3), coracoacromial ligament repair (4), stabilization with K-wires (4). Dislocation was type III in 14 (35 %) and type IV in 26 (65 %) patients. Clinical assessment was with the Constant–Murley score (pre- and postoperative) and with the modified UCLA score. Enrollment started in January 2004 and was completed in March 2008. Patients were evaluated at 1 and 4 years. Postoperative X-rays were examined to assess joint stability in the coronal and axial planes, coracoclavicular ossification, and signs of AC joint osteoarthritis and distal clavicular osteolysis.
The “biological” group achieved significantly better clinical scores than the “synthetic” group at both 1 and 4 years. Poor subjective satisfaction and lower clinical scores were found in the 3 patients (1 from group A and 2 from group B) who experienced complete postoperative dislocation. No significant correlations were found with other radiographic parameters.
The biological graft afforded better clinical and radiographic outcomes than the synthetic ligament in patients with chronic AC joint instability. Fixation to the clavicle constitutes the main weakness of both approaches and needs improving.
Acromioclavicular; Dislocation; Biological; Synthetic; Stabilization
A cervical Torg ratio of 0.8 has been used as a screening tool to determine the presence of cervical spinal stenosis. However, there have been no studies done to define the Torg ratio in the lumbar spine for predicting lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Torg ratios have never been correlated with the actual calculated canal area as derived from anatomic specimens. The aim of this study was to provide an analysis of the utility of the lumbar Torg ratio for predicting LSS based on objective measurements of skeletal specimens.
Materials and methods
420 adult skeletal specimens from the Hamann Todd Collection in the Cleveland Museum of Natural History were selected. Digital calipers were used to measure the sagittal diameter (SCD), interpedicular distance, pedicle length, and vertebral body diameter. The canal area at each level was calculated using a geometric formula. A standard distribution curve for canal area and Torg ratio was created, and values that were that is less than the mean minus two standard deviations (SD) below the mean were considered stenotic. Regression analysis was performed to determine if the Torg ratio was correlated with canal area, and if a “below normal” Torg ratio was predictive of LSS.
The Torg ratio for 2SD below the mean was defined as 0.43 at L1, 0.43 at L2, 0.41 at L3, 0.38 at L4, 0.37 at L5. Regression analysis revealed a significant association of the Torg ratio with canal area (p < 0.01). A Torg ratio that was less than the mean − 2SD predicted canal stenosis at L2, L3, L4, and L5 (p < 0.01). Using a Torg ratio of <0.5 predicted stenosis with a sensitivity of 86 % and specificity of 52 % at all lumbar levels.
Based on the results of our study, we have defined the lower limit of the normal Torg ratio at each level. A Torg ratio of <0.5 predicts LSS and could be a useful radiological tool for LSS screening.
Lumbar Torg ratio; Lumbar stenosis; Morphoanatomy; Canal area
An increasing number of elderly patients are managed with long-term antiplatelet therapy. Such patients often present with hip fracture requiring surgical intervention and may be at increased risk of perioperative bleeding and complications. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether it is necessary to stop clopidogrel preoperatively to avoid postoperative complications following hip hemiarthroplasty surgery in patients with intracapsular hip fracture.
Materials and methods
A retrospective review of 102 patients with intracapsular hip fracture with either perioperative clopidogrel therapy [clopidogrel group (CG)] or no previous clopidogrel exposure [no clopidogrel group (NCG)] who underwent hip hemiarthroplasty surgery was undertaken. Statistical comparison on pre- and postoperative haemoglobin, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, comorbidities, operative time, transfusion requirements, hospital length of stay (LOS), wound infection, haematoma and reoperation rate between the two groups was undertaken. Regression analysis was undertaken to ascertain the risk ratios (RR) of complications and transfusion associated with clopidogrel.
There was no difference with respect to ASA grade, comorbidities (except cardiac comorbidities), pre- and postoperative haemoglobin levels, operation time, age or gender between the two groups. Four and two patients, respectively, required transfusion postoperatively in the CG and NCG (p = 0.37). There was no difference with respect to LOS, wound infection, haematoma or reoperation rate between the two groups postoperatively. The covariate-adjusted RR for complications and transfusion while being on clopidogrel were 0.43 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.07–2.60] and 3.96 (95 % CI 0.40–39.68), respectively.
Continuing clopidogrel therapy throughout the perioperative period in patients with intracapsular hip fracture is not associated with an increased risk of complications following hip hemiarthroplasty surgery.
Clopidogrel; Hip fracture; Transfusion; Complications
Sacroiliac joint infection is rare and frequently missed; purpose of this study is to describe the clinical presentations, comorbidities, laboratory and imaging findings, surgical options and outcomes of this rare condition.
Materials and methods
We reviewed all cases of surgical treatment of sacroiliac joint infection operated at our institution between January 1994 and December 2011. Twenty-two patients were included: 14 females and 8 males, with mean age of 50 years. The mean follow-up period was 34 months. Twenty-four operations were performed. Coinciding infection was found in 11 cases (50 %). Twelve patients (54.5 %) presented acutely, while ten patients (45.5 %) had chronic infection.
Tuberculous infection was diagnosed in 5 cases and nonspecific infection in 13 cases. In four cases, no organism was isolated. Eleven cases were subjected to debridement only, while debridement and arthrodesis was needed in 11 cases. Eight patients had excellent clinical results, five good, three fair and four poor; one patient was lost to follow-up, and one patient died after 2 weeks. The operative technique depended on the course of the infection, bone destruction and general condition of the patient. There was a significant change in C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively, while the difference in white blood cell count was nonsignificant.
In acute cases, the primary aim should be to save joint integrity by early debridement, depending on joint destruction and general patient condition. When it is chronic, it is not secure only to debride the joint, which should be fused.
Sacroiliac joint infection; Pyogenic sacroiliitis; Tuberculous sacroiliitis; Sacroiliac fusion
Fractured neck of femur patients represent a large demand on trauma services, and timely management results in improvements in morbidity and mortality. NICE guidance, advocating surgery on the day of admission or the following day, emphasises this. We set out to investigate whether a simulated fast-track management system could improve neck of femur fracture patient care.
Materials and methods
This prospective study was performed in a district general hospital in South West England, following a change in practise. We studied 429 patients over a 1-year period. Patients were phoned through, by the ambulance crew, to a trauma coordinator who arranged prompt radiological assessment and review. Patients with confirmed fractures were transferred to an optimisation area for orthopaedic and anaesthetic assessment prior to surgery the same day or early the following day. Our primary outcome measures were time to theatre (h) and length of hospital stay (days/h).
Time to theatre reduced from 44.95 (±27.42) to 29.28 (±21.23) h. Length of stay reduced from 10 days (245.92 (±131.02) h) to 9 days (225.30 (±128.75) h). Both of these improvements were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Despite operating on virtually all patients, no increase in adverse events was seen, there was no increase in 30-day mortality and there were no perioperative deaths.
This coordinated management pathway improves the efficiency of the service and reduces inpatient length of stay. Increased productivity may lead to financial savings and improve our ability to meet guidelines.
Fractured neck of femur; Pathway; Optimisation
This prospective study was created to evaluate the reliability of a new clinical test, which we termed the “loss of extension test” (LOE test). The LOE test investigates the loss of normal maximum passive extension (MPE) of the knee due to an anterior cruciate ligament tear in comparison to the normal MPE of the healthy knee.
Materials and methods
The study was divided into two consecutive parts. Part 1 was designed to assess the side-to-side difference in normal MPE in a healthy population. In part 1, 100 healthy adults were enrolled. Part 2 was designed to evaluate the LOE test reliability in injured knees. In part 2, we included 196 selected patients.
In part 1, the average side-to-side difference in MPE in the healthy population was not statistically significant. In part 2, the overall average side-to-side difference in MPE of the injured group was 10.1 mm ± 14.1 (min −20; max 60), which was not statistically significant (p = 0.52). An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear was found in 121 knees among 196 patients. The average side-to-side difference in MPE in the ACL-insufficient group was 16.9 mm ± 13.4 (min −20; max 60), which was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The accuracy of the loss of extension test was 83.7 %, its specificity was 93.3 %, its sensitivity was 77.7 %, its positive predictive value was 95 %, and its negative predictive value was 72.2 %.
The reliability of the LOE test is comparable to those reported in the literature for the Lachman test and dynamic tests, so the LOE test could represent a useful tool for the diagnosis of the anterior cruciate ligament insufficient knee.
Clinical diagnosis; Anterior cruciate ligament; Clinical trial; Ligament
Lower limb reconstruction with pedicled or free flaps can be commonly compromised by venous insufficiency. This complication often leads to partial/complete flap necrosis and increases the risk of superinfection. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is known to increase local blood flow, decrease edema, promote tissue granulation, and reduce the likelihood of soft tissue infection. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of NPWT in the treatment of congested pedicled and free flaps of the lower limb after reconstructions in lower limb traumas. A retrospective analysis was performed on four congested (pedicled and free) flaps on the lower limbs. NPWT was applied in all cases after partial flap debridement. NPWT was able to improve and resolve tissue edema and venous insufficiency, avoid further flap necrosis, and promote granulation. On NPWT removal, a split-thickness skin graft was applied on the wound, achieving complete and uneventful healing. NPWT is a useful instrument in managing flaps affected by venous insufficiency in lower limb reconstruction, although larger studies are necessary to better define the effectiveness and indications of NPWT in this setting.
Flap; Lower limb; Edema; Congestion; Negative pressure
Tears of the medial meniscus posterior root can lead to progressive arthritis, and its management has no consensus. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of supervised exercise therapy on patients with medial meniscus posterior root tears.
Materials and methods
Between January 2005 and May 2007, 37 patients with this tear verified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and osteoarthritis grade 1–2 by radiographic examination were treated by a short course of analgesics daily for up to 6 weeks and then as required during follow-up, as well as a 12-week supervised exercise program followed by a home exercise program. Final analysis was performed for 33 patients, average age 55.8 (range 50–62) years and average follow-up of 35 (range 26–49) months. Patients were followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter using the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale, Tegner Activity Scale (TAS), and visual analog scale (VAS). The analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient to determine the relationship between Lysholm score and body mass index (BMI).
Patients showed an improvement in Lysholm score, TAS, and VAS, which reached maximum in 6 months and later was accompanied by a decline. However, scores at the final follow-up were significantly better than the pretherapy scores. There was also a progression in arthritis as per Kellgren and Lawrence radiographic classification from median 1 preintervention to median 2 at the final follow-up. A correlation between BMI and Lysholm scores was seen (r = 0.47).
Supervised physical therapy with a short course of analgesics followed by a home-based program results in symptomatic and functional improvement over a short-term follow-up; however, osteoarthritis progression continues and is related to BMI.
Medial meniscus; Meniscal root; Knee osteoarthritis; Exercise
Tissue-sparing surgery for hip replacement aims to minimize muscle damage and conserve the femoral neck through the use of mini-prostheses. We propose a modification of the classical direct lateral access procedure that preserves the gluteus medius. Further advantages during the surgical phase include limited blood loss, visualization of the entire acetabulum, and sparing of the transverse ligament. Precise implantation is facilitated and normal biomechanics are preserved. The gluteus medius is divided longitudinally between the anterior third and posterior two-thirds to provide access to the gluteus minimus, which is detached from the femoral insertion together with a small portion of the vastus lateralis, forming a flap that exposes the underlying articular capsule. When the femoral head is revealed, a decision is made to either continue with its dislocation directly or to resect it and remove it separately to avoid damaging the gluteus medius during dislocation. Upon removal of the femoral head, with the limb flexed and slightly over-rotated, the acetabulum is completely visible. Limb length is maintained through the use of reference stitches on the gluteus minimus tendon and the proximal insertion of the vastus lateralis. In keeping with the minimally invasive philosophy, only pathological tissue is removed (marginal osteophytes, geodes, joint capsule, cartilage to the point of bleeding and pulvinar). We have performed more than 2,000 implants with this procedure since 1990. Advantages and potential critical points are discussed.
Tissue-sparing surgery; Direct lateral approach; Preservation of the gluteus medius; Transverse ligament; Hip prosthesis; Preservation of the neck of the femur; Collum femoris preserving (CFP) system; Minimally invasive surgery
Diagnosis and treatment of low-grade chondrosarcoma remain controversial. We performed a review of a single-center series with the aims of assessing the oncologic outcome of these patients, verifying if intralesional curettage can be adequate treatment, and defining clinical criteria to support the surgeon and the oncologist in decision-making for surgery and subsequent follow-up.
Materials and methods
A retrospective review of 85 patients was performed (61 females and 24 males, age range 20–76 years). The site of the lesion was the femur in 35 cases, humerus in 33, tibia in 15, and fibula in 2. Sixty-four patients were treated by intralesional curettage. Twenty-one patients with aggressive radiological patterns were treated with wide resection.
Mean follow-up was 67 months (range 24–206 months). Two patients developed local recurrence, both after intralesional curettage. The difference in incidence of recurrence was not statistically significant between the two groups. No distant metastases were observed. Postsurgical complications were significantly higher in the resection group.
Low-grade chondrosarcoma of the appendicular skeleton without aggressive radiological patterns can be treated with intralesional surgery with good oncological outcome and very low rate of postsurgical complications. Wide resection, following surgical principles of malignant bone tumors, should be considered only when aggressive biologic behavior is evident on imaging.
Chondrosarcoma; Bone sarcoma; Bone tumors; Orthopedic oncology
Loss of motion of the elbow joint is a common finding after elbow trauma. It has been shown that arthroscopic treatment leads to excellent restoration of elbow motion, although it is still a demanding procedure. The aim of our cohort study was to assess clinical outcomes following treatment of posttraumatic elbow stiffness using arthroscopic arthrolysis with or without the associated use of a hyaluronan anti-adhesion gel.
Materials and methods
A cohort of 36 consecutive patients undergoing elbow arthroscopic arthrolysis were enrolled: 17 patients in the hyaluronan gel group and 19 in the control group. The patients underwent prospective control visits 30 and 75 days after surgery. Functional outcome was measured by the range of motion and the Liverpool elbow score (LES), whereas pain and quality of life were evaluated using the visual analogue scale and the SF-36 questionnaire, respectively.
The range of motion and the overall LES score increased over time in both groups. The mean increase over time was statistically significant (p < 0.001) in both groups and there was no difference between the groups. There was also no interaction between time and treatment. The percentage of patients who reported pain decreased significantly over time (p = 0.0419) in the hyaluronan-treated group (suggesting limited contractions and better comfort during rehabilitation), but not in the control group. The intensity of pain decreased significantly over time in both groups (p < 0.0001) without any significant difference between the groups. All the changes in patient quality of life as measured by the SF-36 questionnaire were similar for the two groups of patients. No adverse event or complication related to the application of hyaluronan gel occurred.
Our preliminary clinical experience showed promising results upon the use of hyaluronan gel, considering that it significantly reduced pain in the short term, facilitating a more comfortable rehabilitation. These findings should be confirmed by larger studies.
Hyaloglide; Hyaluronan; Elbow surgery; Arthrolysis
Large bony defects in the middle or distal third of the tibia resulting from surgical resection of malignant bone tumors present a difficult reconstructive challenge. Various methods of reconstruction are available, such as allografts, vascularized fibular graft (either free or pedicled), or endoprothesis replacement for distal defects.
Materials and methods
Twelve patients—eight males and four females with mean age of 18 years at operation (range 14–25 years)—with malignant bone tumors of the tibial shaft were selected as candidates for wide resection of the tumor and reconstruction of the bony defect by ipsilateral vascularized fibular graft based on the peroneal vessels. Preoperative staging studies, including plain radiography, local MRI, isotopic bone scan, and chest CT, were done for every patient before biopsy. Ilizarov external fixation was then applied in all cases. The average length of the bony gap bridged was 14.5 cm (13–16.5 cm) and the mean length of the harvested graft was 16.3 cm (15–18 cm). The average operation time was 7.5 h (5.5–9.5 h).
The mean follow-up period was 38 months (range 32–52 months). Bony union at the proximal and distal ends of the fibula occurred in nine patients (75 %) and at a mean time of 5.5 months (range 4.5–8 months). Graft hypertrophy occurred in all patients. The mean percentage of hypertrophy was 95 % (range 80–160 %). The mean MSTS functional score was 84 % (range 80–92 %). A leg length discrepancy of 2 cm was reported in two patients and was managed using a shoe lift.
Reconstruction of bony defects of the middle or distal tibia after bone tumor resection using pedicled vascularized fibula is a useful limb salvage procedure. The procedure can be performed relatively quickly and inexpensively and has a low rate of late complications. It leads to a good outcome regarding the union, hypertrophy, and function.
Pedicled; Vascularized; Fibula; Bone defect; Tumor
Until now there have been no prospective studies describing the results of using the superior clavicle plate with lateral extension in patients with displaced lateral clavicle fractures (Neer type 2). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of applying this plate for this specific type of fracture.
Materials and methods
In this prospective study, seven patients (mean age 43, M:F; 6:1) with a fresh displaced lateral clavicle fracture were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 10 months. Analysis included functional and subjective outcome, time until union, time until return to work, and complications.
All patients achieved clinical and radiological union within 6–12 weeks. Full range of motion as well as a return to work was achieved in most cases within 2 weeks. The mean Constant score was 98 (range 90–100), the DASH score was 3.6 (range 0–11.4), and the Shoulder Rating Questionnaire score was 97 (range 96–100). No major complications were encountered. Three patients required plate removal: two because of a prominent and subcutaneous plate and one because of an intra-articular screw.
In this study, use of the superior clavicle plate with lateral extension yielded excellent results in the treatment of this difficult fracture. In particular, patients acquired full range of motion within 2 weeks, reflecting the stability of the osteosynthesis achieved with this implant.
Displaced lateral clavicle fracture; Distal clavicular fracture; Superior clavicle plate with lateral extension; Locked clavicle plate
Proximal hamstring tendinopathy typically afflicts athletes. The poor knowledge of this pathology can lead to late diagnosis and late treatment, which in chronic cases could be challenging. Surgical treatment could resolve the symptoms and could permit the return to full sport activity also in chronic cases.
Materials and methods
We retrospectively evaluated 17 high-level athletes surgically treated for proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Symptoms lasted for an average of 23 months and were resistive to conservative treatment.
The follow-up period averaged 71 months. Return to run without pain occurred at a mean of 2.4 months (range 1–4) after surgery. All patients returned to sports at their pre-symptom level at a mean of 4.4 months after surgery. Results were excellent in 15 patients (88 %) and good in two patients (12 %). No results were fair or poor.
Surgical treatment to manage chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathy in high-level athletes showed excellent results in terms of relief from symptoms and return to previous sport level.
Hamstring injuries; Proximal hamstring tendinopathy; Sport injuries; Lower limb surgery; Muscle injuries