A fundamental feature of many nucleic-acid binding proteins is their ability to move along DNA either by diffusion-based mechanisms or by ATP-hydrolysis driven translocation. For example, most site-specific DNA-binding proteins must diffuse to some extent along DNA to either find their target sites, or to otherwise fulfill their biological roles. Similarly, nucleic-acid translocases such as helicases and polymerases must move along DNA to fulfill their functions. In both instances, the proteins must also be capable of moving in crowded environments while navigating through DNA-bound obstacles. These types of behaviors can be challenging to analyze by bulk biochemical methods because of the transient nature of the interactions, and/or heterogeneity of the reaction intermediates. The advent of single-molecule methodologies has overcome some of these problems, and has led to many new insights into the mechanisms that contribute to protein motion along DNA. We have developed DNA curtains as a tool to facilitate single molecule observations of protein-nucleic acid interactions, and we have applied these new research tools to systems involving both diffusive-based motion as well as ATP directed translocation. Here we highlight these studies by first discussing how diffusion contributes to target searches by proteins involved in post-replicative mismatch repair. We then discuss DNA curtain assays of two different DNA translocases, RecBCD and FtsK, which participate in homologous DNA recombination and site-specific DNA recombination, respectively.
DNA curtains; diffusion; translocation; mismatch repair; RecBCD; homologous recombination; FtsK; chromosome segregation
The first step of base excision repair utilizes glycosylase enzymes to find damage within a genome. A persistent question in the field of DNA repair is how glycosylases interact with DNA to specifically find and excise target damaged bases with high efficiency and specificity. Ensemble studies have indicated that glycosylase enzymes rely upon both sliding and distributive modes of search, but ensemble methods are limited in their ability to directly observe these modes. Here we review insights into glycosylase scanning behavior gathered through single-molecule fluorescence studies of enzyme interactions with DNA and provide a context for these results in relation to ensemble experiments.
DNA glycosylases; base excision repair; single-molecule fluorescence microscopy; facilitated diffusion; DNA scanning
Mutations in human DNA Polymerase (Pol) ε, one of three eukaryotic Pols required for DNA replication, have recently been found associated with an ultramutator phenotype in tumors from somatic colorectal and endometrial cancers and in a familial colorectal cancer. Possibly, Pol ε mutations reduce the accuracy of DNA synthesis, thereby increasing the mutational burden and contributing to tumor development. To test this possibility in vivo, we characterized an active site mutant allele of human Pol ε that exhibits a strong mutator phenotype in vitro when the proofreading exonuclease activity of the enzyme is inactive. This mutant has a strong bias towards mispairs opposite template pyrimidine bases, particularly T•dTTP mispairs. Expression of mutant Pol ε in human cells lacking functional mismatch repair caused an increase in mutation rate primarily due to T•dTTP mispairs. Functional mismatch repair eliminated the increased mutagenesis. The results indicate that the mutant Pol ε causes replication errors in vivo, and is at least partially dominant over the endogenous, wild type Pol ε. Since tumors from familial and somatic colorectal patients arise with Pol ε mutations in a single allele, are microsatellite stable and have a large increase in base pair substitutions, our data are consistent with a Pol ε mutation requiring additional factors to promote tumor development.
DNA Polymerase; DNA replication; Mutagenesis; Mismatch repair
Accurate DNA replication and DNA repair are crucial for the maintenance of genome stability, and it is generally accepted that failure of these processes is a major source of DNA damage in cells. Intriguingly, recent evidence suggests that DNA damage is more likely to occur at genomic loci with high transcriptional activity. Furthermore, loss of certain RNA processing factors in eukaryotic cells is associated with increased formation of co-transcriptional RNA:DNA hybrid structures known as R-loops, resulting in double-strand breaks (DSBs) and DNA damage. However, the molecular mechanisms by which R-loop structures ultimately lead to DNA breaks and genome instability is not well understood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the formation, recognition and processing of RNA:DNA hybrids, and discuss possible mechanisms by which these structures contribute to DNA damage and genome instability in the cell.
R-loops; Genome instability; Double-strand breaks; G-quadruplex; Topoisomerase; THO/TREX complex; THSC/TREX-2; ASF splicing factor; mRNP biogenesis; RNA processing factors; RNase H; RNA:DNA helicases; Senataxin; Activation-induced deaminase (AID); APOBEC family; Transcription-replication conflicts
To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by Watson-Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure twice these nucleases act as molecular level transformers that typically reshape the DNA and sometimes themselves to achieve extraordinary specificity and efficiency.
Exonuclease; Enzyme–DNA complex; Genome maintenance; Crystallography; Structure-specific nuclease; DNase; RNase; Nucleases; DNA; RNA; Endonucleases; Metals; Magnesium; Zinc; Manganese; DNA repair; Base excision repair; Mismatch repair; Double strand break repair; Nucleotide Incision Repair; Telomere; APE1; Nfo; EndoIV; TDP2; UVDE; Vsr; Nfi; EndoV; Mre11; FEN1; Exo1
Since DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) contribute to the genomic instability that drives cancer development, DSB repair pathways serve as important mechanisms for tumor suppression. Thus, genetic lesions, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, that disrupt DSB repair are often associated with cancer susceptibility. In addition, recent evidence suggests that DSB “mis-repair”, in which DSBs are resolved by an inappropriate repair pathway, can also promote genomic instability and presumably tumorigenesis. This notion has gained currency from recent cancer genome sequencing studies which have uncovered numerous chromosomal rearrangements harboring pathological DNA repair signatures. In this perspective, we discuss the factors that regulate DSB repair pathway choice and their consequences for genome stability and cancer.
DNA Double strand break; repair pathway choice; microhomology-mediated end joining; DNA ends; resection; 53BP1-BRCA1
Maintaining high transcriptional fidelity is essential for life. Some DNA lesions lead to significant changes in transcriptional fidelity. In this review, we will summarize recent progress towards understanding the molecular basis of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcriptional fidelity and DNA lesion-induced transcriptional mutagenesis. In particular, we will focus on the three key checkpoint steps of controlling Pol II transcriptional fidelity: insertion (specific nucleotide selection and incorporation), extension (differentiation of RNA transcript extension of a matched over mismatched 3'-RNA terminus), and proofreading (preferential removal of misincorporated nucleotides from the 3'-RNA end). We will also discuss some novel insights into the molecular basis and chemical perspectives of controlling Pol II transcriptional fidelity through structural, computational, and chemical biology approaches.
RNA polymerase II; transcription elongation; fidelity control; DNA damage recognition; transcriptional lesion bypass; synthetic nucleotide analogs; unlocked nucleic acid; nonpolar isostere; chemical biology; structural biology; computational biology
A critical step in DNA interstrand cross-link repair is the programmed collapse of replication forks that have stalled at an ICL. This event is regulated by the Fanconi anemia pathway, which suppresses bone marrow failure and cancer. In this perspective, we focus on the structure of forks that have stalled at ICLs, how these structures might be incised by endonucleases, and how incision is regulated by the Fanconi anemia pathway.
The first eukaryotic NER factor that recognizes NER substrates is the heterodimeric XPC-RAD23B protein. The currently accepted hypothesis is that this protein recognizes the distortions/destabilization caused by DNA lesions rather than the lesions themselves. The resulting XPC-RAD23B -DNA complexes serve as scaffolds for the recruitment of subsequent NER factors that lead to the excision of the oligonucleotide sequences containing the lesions. Based on several well-known examples of DNA lesions like the UV radiation-induced CPD and 6-4 photodimers, as well as cisplatin-derived intrastrand cross-linked lesions, it is generally believed that the differences in excision activities in human cell extracts is correlated with the binding affinities of XPC-RAD23B to these DNA lesions. However, using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have found that XPC-RAD23B binding affinities of certain bulky lesions derived from metabolically activated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds such as benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, are not directly, or necessarily correlated with NER excision activities observed in cell-free extracts. These findings point to features of XPC-RAD23B-bulky DNA adduct complexes that may involve the formation of NER-productive or unproductive forms of binding that depend on the structural and stereochemical properties of the DNA adducts studied. The pronounced differences in NER cleavage efficiencies observed in cell-free extracts may be due to differences in the successful recruitment of subsequent NER factors by the XPC-RAD23B-DNA adduct complexes, and/or in the verification step. These phenomena appear to depend on the structural and conformational properties of the class of bulky DNA adducts studied.
nucleotide excision repair (NER); XPC-RAD23B binding; DNA adduct; electrophoretic mobility shift assay; benzo[a]pyrene; dibenzo[a,l]pyrene
While primordial life is thought to have been RNA-based (Cech, Cold Spring Harbor Perspect. Biol. 4 (2012) a006742), all living organisms store genetic information in DNA, which is chemically more stable. Distinctions between the RNA and DNA worlds and our views of “DNA” synthesis continue to evolve as new details emerge on the incorporation, repair and biological effects of ribonucleotides in DNA genomes of organisms from bacteria through humans.
DNA polymerase; DNA replication; Ribonucleotides; Genome instability; DNA repair
Why does a constant barrage of DNA damage lead to disease in some individuals, while others remain healthy? This article surveys current work addressing the implications of inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity for human health, and discusses the status of DNA repair assays as potential clinical tools for personalized prevention or treatment of disease. In particular, we highlight research showing that there are significant inter-individual variations in DNA Repair Capacity (DRC), and that measuring these differences provides important biological insight regarding disease susceptibility and cancer treatment efficacy. We emphasize work showing that it is important to measure repair capacity in multiple pathways, and that functional assays are required to fill a gap left by genome wide association studies, global gene expression and proteomics. Finally, we discuss research that will be needed to overcome barriers that currently limit the use of DNA repair assays in the clinic.
DNA repair capacity; multiplex assays; personalized disease prevention and treatment
Human mitochondria harbor an essential, high copy number, 16,569 base pair, circular DNA genome that encodes 13 gene products required for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Mutation of this genome can compromise cellular respiration, ultimately resulting in a variety of progressive metabolic diseases collectively known as ‘mitochondrial diseases’. Mutagenesis of mtDNA and the persistence of mtDNA mutations in cells and tissues is a complex topic, involving the interplay of DNA replication, DNA damage and repair, purifying selection, organelle dynamics, mitophagy, and aging. We briefly review these general elements that affect maintenance of mtDNA, and we focus on nuclear genes encoding the mtDNA replication machinery that can perturb the genetic integrity of the mitochondrial genome.
POLG; Mitochondrial DNA replication; mtDNA; Mitochondrial disease; Mutagenesis
The emergence of high density technologies monitoring the genome, transcriptome and proteome in relation to genotoxic stress have tremendously enhanced our knowledge on global responses and dynamics in the DNA damage response, including its relation with cancer and aging. Moreover, ‘-omics’ technologies identified many novel factors, their post-translational modifications, pathways and global responses in the cellular response to DNA damage. Based on omics, it is currently estimated that thousands of gene(product)s participate in the DNA damage response, recognizing complex networks that determine cell fate after damage to the most precious cellular molecule, DNA. The development of next generation sequencing technology and associated specialized protocols can quantitatively monitor RNA and DNA at unprecedented single nucleotide resolution. In this review we will discuss the contribution of omics technologies and in particular next generation sequencing to our understanding of the DNA damage response and the future prospective of next generation sequencing, its single cell application and omics dataset integration in unraveling intricate DNA damage signaling networks.
DNA damage response; genomics; transcriptomics; next generation sequencing; proteomics
TDP1 and TDP2 were discovered and named based on the fact they process 3′- and 5′-DNA ends by excising irreversible protein tyrosyl-DNA complexes involving topoisomerases I and II, respectively. Yet, both enzymes have an extended spectrum of activities. TDP1 not only excises trapped topoisomerases I (Top1 in the nucleus and Top1mt in mitochondria), but also repairs oxidative damage-induced 3′-phosphoglycolates and alkylation damage-induced DNA breaks, and excises chain terminating anticancer and antiviral nucleosides in the nucleus and mitochondria. The repair function of TDP2 is devoted to the excision of topoisomerase II- and potentially topoisomerases III-DNA adducts. TDP2 is also essential for the life cycle of picornaviruses (important human and bovine pathogens) as it unlinks VPg proteins from the 5′-end of the viral RNA genome. Moreover, TDP2 has been involved in signal transduction (under the former names of TTRAP or EAPII). The DNA repair partners of TDP1 include PARP1, XRCC1, ligase III and PNKP from the base excision repair (BER) pathway. By contrast, TDP2 repair functions are coordinated with Ku and ligase IV in the non-homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ). This article summarizes and compares the biochemistry, functions, and post-translational regulation of TDP1 and TDP2, as well as the relevance of TDP1 and TDP2 as determinants of response to anticancer agents. We discuss the rationale for developing TDP inhibitors for combinations with topoisomerase inhibitors (topotecan, irinotecan, doxorubicin, etoposide, mitoxantrone) and DNA damaging agents (temozolomide, bleomycin, cytarabine, and ionizing radiation), and as novel antiviral agents.
Topoisomerases; Poly(ADPribose) polymerases (PARP); Homologous Recombination (HR); Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ); Chemotherapy
The concept of the Exposome, is a compilation of diseases and one’s lifetime exposure to chemicals, whether the exposure comes from environmental, dietary, or occupational exposures; or endogenous chemicals that are formed from normal metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, infections, and other natural metabolic processes such as alteration of the gut microbiome. In this review, we have focused on the Endogenous Exposome, the DNA damage that arises from the production of endogenous electrophilic molecules in our cells. It provides quantitative data on endogenous DNA damage and its relationship to mutagenesis, with emphasis on when exogenous chemical exposures that produce identical DNA adducts to those arising from normal metabolism cause significant increases in total identical DNA adducts. We have utilized stable isotope labeled chemical exposures of animals and cells, so that accurate relationships between endogenous and exogenous exposures can be determined. Advances in mass spectrometry have vastly increased both the sensitivity and accuracy of such studies. Furthermore, we have clear evidence of which sources of exposure drive low dose biology that results in mutations and disease. These data provide much needed information to impact quantitative risk assessments, in the hope of moving towards the use of science, rather than default assumptions.
Endogenous Exposome; DNA damage; stable isotopes; mutagenesis; risk assessment
This perspective reviews the many dimensions of base excision repair from a 10,000 foot vantage point and provides one person’s view on where the field is headed. Enzyme function is considered under the lens of X-ray diffraction and single molecule studies. Base excision repair in chromatin and telomeres, regulation of expression and the role of posttranslational modifications are also discussed in the context of enzyme activities, cellular localization and interacting partners. The specialized roles that base excision repair play in transcriptional activation by active demethylation and targeted oxidation as well as how base excision repair functions in the immune processes of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination and its possible involvement in retroviral infection are also discussed. Finally the complexities of oxidative damage and its repair and its link to neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the role of base excision repair as a tumor suppressor are examined in the context of damage, repair and aging. By outlining the many base excision repair-related mysteries that have yet to be unraveled, hopefully this perspective will stimulate further interest in the field.
Base excision repair; DNA glycosylases; AP endonuclease; Repair enzyme structures; DNA glycosylase search; Repair in chromatin; BER subpathways; BER crosspathways; Repair in telomeres; BER and transcriptional regulation; BER in the immune system; Neurodegenerative diseases; Cancer; Aging
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) maintains genome stability primarily by repairing DNA replication-associated mispairs. Because loss of MMR function increases the mutation frequency genome-wide, defects in this pathway predispose affected individuals to cancer. The genes encoding essential eukaryotic MMR activities have been identified, as the recombinant proteins repair 'naked' heteroduplex DNA in vitro. However, the reconstituted system is inactive on nucleosome-containing heteroduplex DNA, and it is not understood how MMR occurs in vivo. Recent studies suggest that chromatin organization, nucleosome assembly/disassembly factors and histone modifications regulate MMR in eukaryotic cells, but the complexity and importance of the interaction between MMR and chromatin remodeling has only recently begun to be appreciated. This article reviews recent progress in understanding the mechanism of eukaryotic MMR in the context of chromatin structure and dynamics, considers the implications of these recent findings and discusses unresolved questions and challenges in understanding eukaryotic MMR.
Mismatch repair; genetic instability; H3K36me3; histone modification; Chromatin
Repetitive genomic sequences can adopt a number of alternative DNA structures that differ from the canonical B-form duplex (i.e. non-B DNA). These non-B DNA-forming sequences have been shown to have many important biological functions related to DNA metabolic processes; for example, they may have regulatory roles in DNA transcription and replication. In addition to these regulatory functions, non-B DNA can stimulate genetic instability in the presence or absence of DNA damage, via replication-dependent and/or replication-independent pathways. This review focuses on the interactions of non-B DNA conformations with DNA repair proteins and how these interactions impact genetic instability.
DNA structure; DNA replication; DNA repair; Transcription; Genetic instability
MutY DNA glycosylase homologs (MYH or MUTYH) reduce G:C to T:A mutations by removing misincorporated adenines or 2-hydroxyadenines paired with guanine or 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine (8-oxoG). Mutations in human the MYH (hMYH) gene are associated with the colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome MYH-associated polyposis. To examine the function of MYH in human cells, we regulated MYH gene expression by knockdown or overproduction. The hMYH knockdown human HeLa cells are more sensitive to the killing effects of H2O2 than the control cells. In addition, hMYH knockdown cells have altered cell morphology, display enhanced susceptibility to apoptosis, and have altered DNA signaling activation in response to oxidative stress. The cell cycle progression of hMYH knockdown cells is also different from that of the control cells following oxidative stress. Moreover, hMYH knockdown cells contain higher levels of 8-oxoG lesions than the control cells following H2O2 treatment. Although MYH does not directly remove 8-oxo-G, MYH may generate favorable substrates for other repair enzymes. Overexpression of mouse MYH (mMYH) in human mismatch repair defective HCT15 cells makes the cells more resistant to killing and refractory to apoptosis by oxidative stress than the cells transfected with vector. In conclusion, MYH is a vital DNA repair enzyme that protects cell from oxidative DNA damage and is critical for proper cellular response to DNA damage.
DNA repair; MutY homolog; Base excision repair; Oxidative stress; DNA damage response
Protozoans of the genus Leishmania, the pathogenic agent causing leishmaniasis, encode the family X DNA polymerase Li Pol β. Here, we report the first crystal structures of Li Pol β. Our pre- and post-catalytic structures show that the polymerase adopts the common family X DNA polymerase fold. However, in contrast to other family X DNA polymerases, the dNTP-induced conformational changes in Li Pol β are much more subtle. Moreover, pre- and post-catalytic structures reveal that Li Pol β interacts with the template strand through a nonconserved, variable region known as loop3. Li Pol β Δloop3 mutants display a higher catalytic rate, catalytic efficiency and overall error rates with respect to WT Li Pol β. These results further demonstrate the subtle structural variability that exists within this family of enzymes and provides insight into how this variability underlies the substantial functional differences among their members.
DNA repair; leishmaniasis; DNA polymerase; family X
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Msh2-Msh3-mediated mismatch repair (MMR) recognizes and targets insertion/deletion loops for repair. Msh2-Msh3 is also required for 3′ non-homologous tail removal (3′NHTR) in double-strand break repair. In both pathways, Msh2-Msh3 binds double-strand/single-strand junctions and initiates repair in an ATP-dependent manner. However, we recently demonstrated that the two pathways have distinct requirements with respect to Msh2-Msh3 activities. We identified a set of aromatic residues in the nucleotide binding pocket (FLY motif) of Msh3 that, when mutated, disrupted MMR, but left 3′ NHTR largely intact. One of these mutations, msh3Y942A, was predicted to disrupt the nucleotide sandwich and allow altered positioning of ATP within the pocket. To develop a mechanistic understanding of the differential requirements for ATP binding and/or hydrolysis in the two pathways, we characterized Msh2-Msh3 and Msh2-msh3Y942A ATP binding and hydrolysis activities in the presence of MMR and 3′ NHTR DNA substrates. We observed distinct, substrate-dependent ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide turnover by Msh2-Msh3, indicating that the MMR and 3′ NHTR DNA substrates differentially modify the ATP binding/hydrolysis activities of Msh2-Msh3. Msh2-msh3Y942A retained the ability to bind DNA and ATP but exhibited altered ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide turnover. We propose that both ATP and structure-specific repair substrates cooperate to direct Msh2-Msh3-mediated repair and suggest an explanation for the msh3Y942A separation-of-function phenotype.
Mismatch repair; Double-strand break repair; Msh2-Msh3; ATP binding/hydrolysis; 3′ non-homologous tail removal
Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a debilitating and complex disorder that result from inherited mutations in the CS complementation genes A and B, CSA and CSB. The links between the molecular functions of the CS genes and the complex pathophysiology of CS are as of yet poorly understood and are the subject of intense debate. While mouse models reflect the complexity of CS, studies on simpler genet models might shed new light on the consequences of CS mutations. Here we describe a functional homolog of the human CSA gene in Caenorhabditis elegans. Similar to its human counterpart, mutations in the nematode csa-1 gene lead to developmental growth defects as a consequence of DNA lesions.
Nucleotide excision repair; C. elegans; Cockayne syndrome
During replication in yeast, the three B family DNA replicases frequently incorporate ribonucleotides (rNMPs) into DNA, and their presence in the nuclear genome can affect genome stability. This prompted us to examine ribonucleotide incorporation by the fourth B family member, Pol ζ the enzyme responsible for the majority of damage-induced mutagenesis in eukaryotes. We first show that Pol ζ inserts rNMPs into DNA and can extend primer termini containing 3’-ribonucleotides. We then measure rNMP incorporation by Pol ζ in the presence of its cofactors, RPA, RFC and PCNA and at normal cellular dNTP and rNTP concentrations that exist under unstressed conditions. Under these conditions, Pol ζ stably incorporates one rNMP for every 200-300 dNMPs incorporated, a frequency that is slightly higher than for the high fidelity replicative DNA polymerases. Under damage-induced conditions wherein cellular dNTP concentrations are elevated 5-fold, Pol ζ only incorporates one rNMP per 1,300 dNMPs. Functional interaction of Pol ζ with the mutasome assembly factor Rev1 gives comparable rNMP incorporation frequencies. These results suggest that ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA during Pol ζ-mediated mutagenesis in vivo may be rare.
Ribonucleotides; Mutagenesis; DNA polymerase; Translesion synthesis
Artemis and PALF (also called APLF) appear to be among the primary nucleases involved in NHEJ and responsible for most nucleolytic end processing in NHEJ. About 60% of NHEJ events show an alignment of the DNA ends that uses 1 or 2 bp of microhomology (MH) between the two DNA termini. Thus, MH is a common feature of NHEJ. For most naturally-occurring human chromosomal deletions (e.g., after oxidative damage or radiation) and translocations, such as those seen in human neoplasms and as well as inherited chromosomal structural variations, MH usage occurs at a frequency that is typical of NHEJ, and does not suggest major involvement of alternative pathways that require more extensive MH. Though we mainly focus on human NHEJ at DSBs, comparison on these points to other eukaryotes, primarily S. cerevisiae, is informative.
Double-strand break repair; lymphoma; chromosomal rearrangements; V(D)J recombination; class switch recombination