Klotho was first identified in 1997 and has been considered as an anti-aging gene. Emerging evidence demonstrates that klotho has a close relationship with cancers, including lung cancer, breast cancer, etc, by inhibiting the proliferation and promoting apoptosis of cancer cells. Cisplatin has been the most widely used drug in the first-line chemotherapy. However, the increase in cisplatin-resistant cancer cells has become a major obstacle in clinical management of cancers. In our study, we for the first time demonstrated that klotho could attenuate the resistance of lung cancer to cisplatin based chemotherapy and the apoptosis of the resistant cells with klotho overexpression was markedly increased. However, klotho knockdown cells showed enhanced resistance to chemotherapy. Further analysis showed that inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway with specific inhibitor (LY294002) attenuated the promotive effects on cancer growth following interfering with klotho shRNA. Moreover, we demonstrated that klotho modulated the resistance to cisplatin in a xenograft nude mice model. These observations suggested that klotho could improve the resistance of lung cancer cells to chemotherapy and may serve as a potential target for the gene therapy of lung cancers resistant to cisplatin based chemotherapy.
To evaluate the clinical utility of dual energy spectral CT (DEsCT) in staging and characterizing gastric cancers.
Materials and Methods
96 patients suspected of gastric cancers underwent dual-phasic scans (arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PP)) with DEsCT mode. Three types of images were reconstructed for analysis: conventional polychromatic images, material-decomposition images, and monochromatic image sets with photon energies from 40 to 140 keV. The polychromatic and monochromatic images were compared in TNM staging. The iodine concentrations in the lesions and lymph nodes were measured on the iodine-based material-decomposition images. These values were further normalized against that in aorta and the normalized iodine concentration (nIC) values were statistically compared. Results were correlated with pathological findings.
The overall accuracies for T, N and M staging were (81.2%, 80.0%, and 98.9%) and (73.9%, 75.0%, and 98.9%) determined with the monochromatic images and the conventional kVp images, respectively. The improvement of the accuracy in N-staging using the keV images was statistically significant (p<0.05). The nIC values between the differentiated and undifferentiated carcinoma and between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes were significantly different both in AP (p = 0.02, respectively) and PP (p = 0.01, respectively). Among metastatic lymph nodes, nIC of the signet-ring cell carcinoma were significantly different from the adenocarcinoma (p = 0.02) and mucinous adenocarcinoma (p = 0.01) in PP.
The monochromatic images obtained with DEsCT may be used to improve the N-staging accuracy. Quantitative iodine concentration measurements may be helpful for differentiating between differentiated and undifferentiated gastric carcinoma, and between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes.
Despite significant improvements in therapeutic protocols, Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) remains a major health problem worldwide. The 5-year post therapeutic survival rate is among the lowest of the major cancers with loco-regional relapse being the main cause of death. Moreover, in most instances, the quality of life of the afflicted patient is severely compromised. The poor prognosis for HNSCC is primarily due to disease detection at advanced stages. Accordingly, development of early detection and preventive strategies are essential. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology and etiology of HNSCC should facilitate development of improved intervention and therapeutic approaches. The present review discusses the potential role of such factors for developing preventive and early diagnostic strategies for HNSCC management.
The aim of this study was to characterize the in vitro action of 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10)16-tetraene (ESE-16) on non-tumorigenic MCF-12A, tumorigenic MCF-7 and metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. ESE-16 is able to inhibit the activity of a carbonic anhydrase II and a mimic of carbonic anhydrase IX in the nanomolar range. Gene and protein expression studies using various techniques including gene and antibody microarrays and various flow cytometry assays yielded valuable information about the mechanism of action of ESE-16. The JNK pathway was identified as an important pathway mediating the effects of ESE-16 while the p38 stress-induced pathway is more important in MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to ESE-16. Lysosomal rupture and iron metabolism was identified as important mediators of mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Abrogation of Bcl-2 phosphorylation status as a result of ESE-16 also plays a role in inducing mitochondrial membrane depolarization. The study provides a basis for future research projects to develop the newly synthesized compound into a clinically usable anticancer agent either alone or in combination with other agents.
Keywords: Antimitotic, anticarbonic anhydrase IX, apoptosis, autophagy, cell cycle arrest, Bcl-2, JNK, p38, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, flow cytometry, gene expression and protein microarray, anticancer.
Intratumoral heterogeneity reflects subclonal diversity and accounts for a variety of clinically defined phenotypes including the development of drug resistance and recurrence. However, intratumoral heterogeneity of bile duct carcinoma (BDC) is rarely studied.
Two highly heterogeneous cell lines named EH-CA1a and EH-CA1b were established from a primary tumor tissue of a pathologically proven BDC. Distinct heterogeneity and underlying mechanisms of two cell lines in karyotype, colony formation, tumorgenicity, and sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy were intensively studied.
Both cell lines showed typical morphology of cancer cells. EH-CA1a cells grew as free-floating aggregates, while EH-CA1b cells grew adherently as a monolayer. EH-CA1a cells had higher cloning efficiencies and were able to keep proliferating under hypoxic condition. Coincidentally, hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA were significantly higher in EH-CA1a cells than in EH-CA1b cells. Both cell lines were tumorigenic in nude mouse, however, EH-CA1a cells showed more aggressive characteristics. Most importantly, the EH-CA1a cells showed much more resistance against radiation and chemotherapy with gemcitabine. Metastasis-related genes including matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers such as Vimentin, Snail, and Twist, are more highly expressed in EH-CA1a cells than in EH-CA1b cells. Moreover, the percentage of cells expressing cancer stem cell-like marker, CD133, in EH-CA1a cells is much higher than that in EH-CA1b cells. Moreover, knockdown of CD133 in both EH-CA1a and EH-CA1b cells significantly reduced their invasive potential and increased their sensitivities to radiation and gemcitabine, suggesting the differential expression of CD133 protein may partially account for the difference in malignancy between these two cancer cells.
Establishment of these two cell lines will not only shed light on intratumoral heterogeneities of BDC, but also potentially facilitate the development of novel therapeutic approaches of BDC.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a morphologic and molecular heterogenic disease. This heterogeneity substantially impairs drug effectiveness and prognosis. The subtype of mismatch repair deficient (MMR-D) CRCs, accounting for about 15% of all cases, shows particular differential responses up to resistance towards currently approved cytostatic drugs. Pre-clinical in vitro models representing molecular features of MMR-D tumors are thus mandatory for identifying biomarkers that finally help to predict responses towards new cytostatic drugs. Here, we describe the successful establishment and characterization of three patient-derived MMR-D cell lines (HROC24, HROC87, and HROC113) along with their corresponding xenografts.
MMR-D cell lines (HROC24, HROC87, and HROC113) were established from a total of ten clinicopathological well-defined MMR-D cases (120 CRC cases in total). Cells were comprehensively characterized by phenotype, morphology, growth kinetics, invasiveness, and molecular profile. Additionally, response to clinically relevant chemotherapeutics was examined in vitro and in vivo.
Two MMR-D lines showing CIMP-H derived from sporadic CRC (HROC24: K-raswt, B-rafmut, HROC87: K-raswt, B-rafmut), whereas the HROC113 cell line (K-rasmut, B-rafwt) was HNPCC-associated. A diploid DNA-status could be verified by flow cytometry and SNP Array analysis. All cell lines were characterized as epithelial (EpCAM+) tumor cells, showing surface tumor marker expression (CEACAM+). MHC-class II was inducible by Interferon-γ stimulation. Growth kinetics as well as invasive potential was quite heterogeneous between individual lines. Besides, MMR-D cell lines exhibited distinct responsiveness towards chemotherapeutics, even when comparing in vitro and in vivo sensitivity.
These newly established and well-characterized, low-passage MMR-D cell lines provide a useful tool for future investigations on the biological characteristics of MMR-D CRCs, both of sporadic and hereditary origin. Additionally, matched patient-derived immune cells allow for comparative genetic studies.
Background and Aims
Doxorubicin is a potent anticancer drug and a major limiting factor that hinders therapeutic use as its high levels of systemic circulation often associated with various off-target effects, particularly cardiotoxicity. The present study focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of doxorubicin when it is loaded into the protein nanoparticles and delivered intravenously in rats bearing Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The proteins selected as carrier were Apotransferrin and Lactoferrin, since the receptors for these two proteins are known to be over expressed on cancer cells due to their iron transport capacity.
Doxorubicin loaded apotransferrin (Apodoxonano) and lactoferrin nanoparticles (Lactodoxonano) were prepared by sol-oil chemistry. HCC in the rats was induced by 100 mg/l of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) in drinking water for 8 weeks. Rats received 5 doses of 2 mg/kg drug equivalent nanoparticles through intravenous administration. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of nanoformulations was evaluated in healthy rats and anticancer activity was studied in DENA treated rats. The anticancer activity was evaluated through counting of the liver nodules, H & E analysis and by estimating the expression levels of angiogenic and antitumor markers.
In rats treated with nanoformulations, the numbers of liver nodules were found to be significantly reduced. They showed highest drug accumulation in liver (22.4 and 19.5 µg/g). Both nanoformulations showed higher localization compared to doxorubicin (Doxo) when delivered in the absence of a carrier. Higher amounts of Doxo (195 µg/g) were removed through kidney, while Apodoxonano and Lactodoxonano showed only a minimal amount of removal (<40 µg/g), suggesting the extended bioavailability of Doxo when delivered through nanoformulation. Safety analysis shows minimal cardiotoxicity due to lower drug accumulation in heart in the case of nanoformulation.
Drug delivery through nanoformulations not only minimizes the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin but also enhances the efficacy and bioavailability of the drug in a target-specific manner.
We recently reported that TCRP1, a novel multidrug-resistance associated human gene, can mediate cisplatin resistance in OSCC cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this role of TCRP1 remained to be elucidated. In this study, by using Human Toxicology and Drug Resistance Microarray, we identified 30 genes with significantly different expression levels between Tca/PYM and TCRP1 knockdown cell lines. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and GST-pull down assays showed that metallothionein1X (MT1X) and Akt interact with TCRP1. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TCRP1 and MT1X was found to sensitize cells to cisplatin, leading to increased apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. These functions of TCRP1 may be caused at least in part via activation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings indicate that TCRP1 may be an important drug target for improvement of the treatment and survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Background and Aims
Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) would facilitate development of targeted and effective therapies for this fatal disease. We recently demonstrated that the cellular transcription factor Late SV40 Factor (LSF) is overexpressed in more than 90% of human HCC cases, compared to normal liver, and plays a seminal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. LSF transcriptionally upregulates osteopontin (OPN) that plays a significant role in mediating the oncogenic function of LSF. The present study aims at a better understanding of LSF function by analyzing the signaling pathway modulated by LSF.
Phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) array was performed to identify which receptor tyrosine kinases are activated by LSF. Immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarray was performed to establish correlation among LSF, OPN and phospho-c-Met levels in HCC patients. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis was performed to check OPN-induced CD44 and c-Met interaction. Inhibition studies using chemicals and siRNAs were performed in vitro and in vivo using nude mice xenograft models to establish the importance of c-Met activation in mediating LSF function.
Secreted OPN, induced by LSF, activates c-Met via a potential interaction between OPN and its cell surface receptor CD44. A significant correlation was observed among LSF, OPN and activated c-Met levels in HCC patients. Chemical or genetic inhibition of c-Met resulted in profound abrogation of LSF-mediated tumorigenesis and metastasis in nude mice xenograft studies.
The present findings elucidate a novel pathway of c-Met activation during hepatocarcinogenesis and support the rationale of using c-Met inhibitors as potential HCC therapeutics.
Late SV40 Factor; CD44; Hepatocellular carcinoma; c-Met; osteopontin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly virulent malignancy with no effective treatment thus requiring innovative and effective targeted therapies. The oncogene Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a seminal role in hepatocarcinogenesis and profoundly downregulates insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP7). The present study focuses on analyzing potential tumor suppressor functions of IGFBP7 in HCC and the relevance of IGFBP7 downregulation in mediating AEG-1 function.
IGFBP7 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in HCC tissue microarray and real-time PCR and ELISA in human HCC cell lines. Dual Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed to detect loss of heterozygosity at IGFBP7 locus. Stable IGFBP7-overexpressing clones were established in the background of AEG-1-overexpressing human HCC cells and were analyzed for in vitro proliferation and senescence and in vivo tumorigenesis and angiogenesis.
IGFBP7 expression is significantly downregulated in human HCC samples and cell lines compared to normal liver and hepatocytes, respectively, and inversely correlates with the stages and grades of HCC. Genomic deletion of IGFBP7 was identified in 26% of HCC patients. Forced overexpression of IGFBP7 in AEG-1 overexpressing HCC cells inhibited in vitro growth and induced senescence, and profoundly suppressed in vivo growth in nude mice that might be an end result of inhibition of angiogenesis by IGFBP7.
The present findings provide evidence that IGFBP7 functions as a novel putative tumor suppressor for HCC and establish the corollary that IGFBP7 downregulation can effectively modify AEG-1 function. Accordingly, targeted overexpression of IGFBP7 might be a potential novel therapy for HCC.
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP7); Astrocyte elevated gene-1; gene deletion; senescence; angiogenesis
Aggressive tumor growth, diffuse tissue invasion and neurodegeneration are hallmarks of malignant glioma. Although glutamate excitotoxicity is considered to play a key role in glioma-induced neurodegeneration, the mechanism(s) controlling this process is poorly understood. AEG-1 is an oncogene overexpressed in multiple types of human cancers including >90% of brain tumors. AEG-1 also promotes gliomagenesis particularly in the context of tumor growth and invasion, two primary characteristics of glioma. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of AEG-1 to glioma-induced neurodegeneration. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis in normal brain tissues and glioma patient samples indicated a strong negative correlation between expression of AEG-1 and a primary glutamate transporter of astrocytes EAAT2. Gain and loss of function studies in normal primary human fetal astrocytes and T98G glioblastoma multiforme cells revealed that AEG-1 repressed EAAT2 expression at a transcriptional level by inducing YY1 activity to inhibit CBP function as a coactivator on the EAAT2 promoter. In addition, AEG-1-mediated EAAT2 repression caused a reduction of glutamate uptake by glial cells, resulting in induction of neuronal cell death. These findings were also confirmed in glioma patient samples demonstrating that AEG-1 expression negatively correlated with NeuN expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that AEG-1 contributes to glioma-induced neurodegeneration, a hallmark of this fatal tumor, through regulation of EAAT2 expression.
AEG-1; glioma; EAAT2; glutamate; glioma-induced neurodegeneration
Biodegradable polymer nanoparticle drug delivery systems provide targeted drug delivery, improved pharmacokinetic and biodistribution, enhanced drug stability and fewer side effects. These drug delivery systems are widely used for delivering cytotoxic agents. In the present study, we synthesized GC/5-FU nanoparticles by combining galactosylated chitosan (GC) material with 5-FU, and tested its effect on liver cancer in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro anti-cancer effects of this sustained release system were both dose- and time-dependent, and demonstrated higher cytotoxicity against hepatic cancer cells than against other cell types. The distribution of GC/5-FU in vivo revealed the greatest accumulation in hepatic cancer tissues. GC/5-FU significantly inhibited tumor growth in an orthotropic liver cancer mouse model, resulting in a significant reduction in tumor weight and increased survival time in comparison to 5-FU alone. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assays in hepatic cancer cells showed that GC/5-FU was associated with higher rates of G0–G1 arrest and apoptosis than 5-FU. Analysis of apoptosis pathways indicated that GC/5-FU upregulates p53 expression at both protein and mRNA levels. This in turn lowers Bcl-2/Bax expression resulting in mitochondrial release of cytochrome C into the cytosol with subsequent caspase-3 activation. Upregulation of caspase-3 expression decreased poly ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) at mRNA and protein levels, further promoting apoptosis. These findings indicate that sustained release of GC/5-FU nanoparticles are more effective at targeting hepatic cancer cells than 5-FU monotherapy in the mouse orthotropic liver cancer mouse model.
Glutamate is an essential excitatory neurotransmitter regulating brain functions. Excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)-2 is one of the major glutamate transporters expressed predominantly in astroglial cells and is responsible for 90% of total glutamate uptake. Glutamate transporters tightly regulate glutamate concentration in the synaptic cleft. Dysfunction of EAAT2 and accumulation of excessive extracellular glutamate has been implicated in the development of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Analysis of the 2.5-kb human EAAT2 promoter showed that NF-κB is an important regulator of EAAT2 expression in astrocytes. Screening of approximately 1,040 FDA-approved compounds and nutritionals led to the discovery that many β-lactam antibiotics are transcriptional activators of EAAT2 resulting in increased EAAT2 protein levels. Treatment of animals with ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, led to an increase of EAAT2 expression and glutamate transport activity in the brain. CEF has neuroprotective effects in both in vitro and in vivo models based on its ability to inhibit neuronal cell death by preventing glutamate excitotoxicity. CEF increases EAAT2 transcription in primary human fetal astrocytes (PHFA) through the NF-κB signaling pathway. The NF-κB binding site at −272 position was critical in CEF-mediated EAAT2 protein induction. These studies emphasize the importance of transcriptional regulation in controlling glutamate levels in the brain. They also emphasize the potential utility of the EAAT2 promoter for developing both low and high throughput screening assays to identify novel small molecule regulators of glutamate transport with potential to ameliorate pathological changes occurring during and causing neurodegeneration.
Human cancers are genetically and epigenetically heterogeneous and have the capacity to commandeer a variety of cellular processes to aid in their survival, growth and resistance to therapy. One strategy is to overexpress proteins that suppress apoptosis, such as the Bcl-2 family protein Mcl-1. The Mcl-1 protein plays a pivotal role in protecting cells from apoptosis and is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers.
Targeting Mcl-1 for extinction in these cancers, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, represents a potentially effectual means of developing new efficacious cancer therapeutics. Here we review the multiple strategies that have been employed in targeting this fundamental protein, as well as the significant potential these targeting agents provide in not only suppressing cancer growth, but also in reversing resistance to conventional cancer treatments.
We discuss the potential issues that arise in targeting Mcl-1 and other Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic proteins, as well problems with acquired resistance. The application of combinatorial approaches that involve inhibiting Mcl-1 and manipulation of additional signaling pathways to enhance therapeutic outcomes is also highlighted. The ability to specifically inhibit key genetic/epigenetic elements and biochemical pathways that maintain the tumor state represent a viable approach for developing rationally based, effective cancer therapies.
The effectiveness of immunotherapy for postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients is still controversial. To address this issue, we did a systemic review of the literatures and analyzed the data with emphasis on the recurrence and survival.
We searched six randomized controlled trials that included adoptive immunotherapy in the postoperative management of hepatocellular carcinoma and compared with non-immunotherapy postoperation. A meta-analysis was carried out to examine one- and 3-year recurrence and survival.
The overall analysis revealed significantly reduced risk of 1-year recurrence in patients receiving adoptive immunotherapy (OR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.71; p = 0.003), in that the risk of 3-year recurrence with a pooled OR estimated at 0.31 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.61; p = 0.001). However, no statistically significant difference was observed for 3-year survival between groups with adoptive immunotherapy and without adjuvant treatment (OR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.84; P = 0.792).
Adjuvant immunotherapy with cytokine induced killer cells or lymphokine activated killer cells may reduce recurrence in postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients, but may not improve survival.
Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are important regulators of immune responses. We evaluated the mechanistic role of MDSC depletion on antigen presenting cell (APC), NK, T cell activities and therapeutic vaccination responses in murine models of lung cancer.
Individual antibody mediated depletion of MDSC (anti-Gr1 or anti-Ly6G) enhanced the antitumor activity against lung cancer. In comparison to controls, MDSC depletion enhanced the APC activity and increased the frequency and activity of the NK and T cell effectors in the tumor. Compared to controls, the anti-Gr1 or anti-Ly6G treatment led to increased: (i) CD8 T cells, (ii) NK cells, (iii) CD8 T or NK intracytoplasmic expression of IFNγ, perforin and granzyme (iv) CD3 T cells expressing the activation marker CD107a and CXCR3, (v) reduced CD8 T cell IL-10 production in the tumors (vi) reduced tumor angiogenic (VEGF, CXCL2, CXCL5, and Angiopoietin1&2) but enhanced anti-angiogenic (CXCL9 and CXCL10) expression and (vii) reduced tumor staining of endothelial marker Meca 32. Immunocytochemistry of tumor sections showed reduced Gr1 expressing cells with increased CD3 T cell infiltrates in the anti-Gr1 or anti-Ly6G groups. MDSC depletion led to a marked inhibition in tumor growth, enhanced tumor cell apoptosis and reduced migration of the tumors from the primary site to the lung compared to controls. Therapeutic vaccination responses were enhanced in vivo following MDSC depletion with 50% of treated mice completely eradicating established tumors. Treated mice that rejected their primary tumors acquired immunological memory against a secondary tumor challenge. The remaining 50% of mice in this group had 20 fold reductions in tumor burden compared to controls.
Our data demonstrate that targeting MDSC can improve antitumor immune responses suggesting a broad applicability of combined immune based approaches against cancer. This multifaceted approach may prove useful against tumors where MDSC play a role in tumor immune evasion.
Creating new molecules that simultaneously enhance tumor cell killing and permit diagnostic tracking is vital to overcoming the limitations rendering current therapeutic regimens for terminal cancers ineffective. Accordingly, we investigated the efficacy of an innovative new multi-functional targeted anti-cancer molecule, SM7L, using models of the lethal brain tumor Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Designed using predictive computer modeling, SM7L incorporates the therapeutic activity of the promising anti-tumor cytokine MDA-7/IL-24, an enhanced secretory domain, and diagnostic domain for non-invasive tracking. In vitro assays revealed the diagnostic domain of SM7L produced robust photon emission, while the therapeutic domain showed marked anti-tumor efficacy and significant modulation of p38MAPK and ERK pathways. In vivo, the unique multi-functional nature of SM7L allowed simultaneous real-time monitoring of both SM7L delivery and anti-tumor efficacy. Utilizing engineered stem cells as novel delivery vehicles for SM7L therapy (SC-SM7L), we demonstrate that SC-SM7L significantly improved pharmacokinetics and attenuated progression of established peripheral and intracranial human GBM xenografts. Furthermore, SC-SM7L anti-tumor efficacy was augmented in vitro and in vivo by concurrent activation of caspase-mediated apoptosis induced by adjuvant SC-mediated S-TRAIL delivery. Collectively, these studies define a promising new approach to treating highly aggressive cancers, including GBM, using the optimized therapeutic molecule SM7L.
Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is highly elevated in many solid tumors. High IFP has been associated with low radiocurability and high metastatic frequency in human melanoma xenografts and with poor survival after radiation therapy in cervical cancer patients. Abnormalities in tumor vascular networks have been identified as an important cause of elevated tumor IFP. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor IFP and the functional and morphological properties of tumor vascular networks.
Materials and Methods
A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP human melanomas growing in dorsal window chambers in BALB/c nu/nu mice were used as preclinical tumor models. Functional and morphological parameters of the vascular network were assessed from first-pass imaging movies and vascular maps recorded after intravenous bolus injection of 155-kDa tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled dextran. IFP was measured in the center of the tumors using a Millar catheter. Angiogenic profiles of A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP cells were obtained with a quantitative PCR array.
High IFP was associated with low growth rate and low vascular density in A-07-GFP tumors, and with high growth rate and high vascular density in R-18-GFP tumors. A-07-GFP tumors showed chaotic and highly disorganized vascular networks, while R-18-GFP tumors showed more organized vascular networks with supplying arterioles in the tumor center and draining venules in the tumor periphery. Furthermore, A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP cells differed substantially in angiogenic profiles. A-07-GFP tumors with high IFP showed high geometric resistance to blood flow due to high vessel tortuosity. R-18-GFP tumors with high IFP showed high geometric resistance to blood flow due to a large number of narrow tumor capillaries.
High IFP in A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP human melanoma xenografts was primarily a consequence of high blood flow resistance caused by tumor-line specific vascular abnormalities.
There is virtually no effective treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and novel targets need to be identified to develop effective treatment. We recently documented that the oncogene Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a seminal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Employing yeast two-hybrid assay and co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry we identified Staphylococcal nuclease domain containing 1 (SND1), a nuclease in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) facilitating RNAi-mediated gene silencing, as an AEG-1 interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization studies confirmed that AEG-1 is also a component of RISC and both AEG-1 and SND1 are required for optimum RISC activity facilitating siRNA and miRNA-mediated silencing of luciferase reporter gene. In 109 human HCC samples SND1 was overexpressed in ∼74% cases compared to normal liver. Correspondingly, significantly higher RISC activity was observed in human HCC cells compared to immortal normal hepatocytes. Increased RISC activity, conferred by AEG-1 or SND1, resulted in increased degradation of tumor suppressor mRNAs that are target of oncomiRs. Inhibition of enzymatic activity of SND1 significantly inhibited proliferation of human HCC cells. As a corollary, stable overexpression of SND1 augmented and siRNA-mediated inhibition of SND1 abrogated growth of human HCC cells in vitro and in vivo thus revealing a potential role of SND1 in hepatocarcinogenesis.
We unravel a novel mechanism that overexpression of AEG-1 and SND1 leading to increased RISC activity might contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis. Targeted inhibition of SND1 enzymatic activity might be developed as an effective therapy for HCC.
AEG-1; SND1; protein-protein interaction; RNAi; hepatocarcinogenesis
AEG-1; protective autophagy; AMPK; ATG5
The transcription factor LSF (Late SV40 Factor), also known as TFCP2, belongs to the LSF/CP2 family related to Grainyhead family of proteins and is involved in many biological events, including regulation of cellular and viral promoters, cell cycle, DNA synthesis, cell survival and Alzheimer’s disease. Our recent studies establish an oncogenic role of LSF in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LSF overexpression is detected in human HCC cell lines and in more than 90% cases of human HCC patients, compared to normal hepatocytes and liver, and its expression level showed significant correlation with the stages and grades of the disease. Forced overexpression of LSF in less aggressive HCC cells resulted in highly aggressive, angiogenic and multi-organ metastatic tumors in nude mice. Conversely, inhibition of LSF significantly abrogated growth and metastasis of highly aggressive HCC cells in nude mice. Microarray studies revealed that as a transcription factor LSF modulated specific genes regulating invasion, angiogenesis, chemoresistance and senescence. LSF transcriptionally regulates thymidylate synthase (TS) gene, thus contributing to cell cycle regulation and chemoresistance. Our studies identify a network of proteins, including osteopontin (OPN), Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), c-Met and complement factor H (CFH), that are directly regulated by LSF and play important role in LSF-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. A high throughput screening identified small molecule inhibitors of LSF DNA binding and the prototype of these molecules, Factor Quinolinone inhibitor 1 (FQI1), profoundly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in human HCC cells without exerting harmful effects to normal immortal human hepatocytes and primary mouse hepatocytes. In nude mice xenograft studies, FQI1 markedly inhibited growth of human HCC xenografts as well as angiogenesis without exerting any toxicity. These studies establish a key role of LSF in hepatocarcinogenesis and usher in a novel therapeutic avenue for HCC, an invariably fatal disease.
Late SV40 Factor (LSF); hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); osteopontin (OPN); matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9); c-Met; thymidylate synthase (TS); angiogenesis; metastasis; cell cycle regulation; small molecule inhibitors; FQI1
Since its initial identification and cloning in 2002, Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1), also known as metadherin (MTDH), 3D3 and LYsine-RIch CEACAM1 co-isolated (LYRIC), has emerged as an important oncogene that is overexpressed in all cancers analyzed so far. Examination of a large cohort of patient samples representing diverse cancer indications has revealed progressive increase in AEG-1 expression with stages and grades of the disease and an inverse relationship between AEG-1 expression level and patient prognosis. AEG-1 functions as a bona fide oncogene by promoting transformation. In addition, it plays a significant role in invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and chemoresistance, all important hallmarks of an aggressive cancer. AEG-1 is also implicated in diverse physiological and pathological processes, such as development, inflammation, neurodegeneration, migraine and Huntington disease. AEG-1 is a highly basic protein with a transmembrane domain and multiple nuclear localization signals and it is present in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleolus and endoplasmic reticulum. In each location, AEG-1 interacts with specific proteins thereby modulating diverse intracellular processes the combination of which contributes to its pleiotrophic properties. The present review provides a snapshot of the current literature along with future perspectives on this unique molecule.
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1); Oncogene; Metastasis; Chemoresistance; Angiogenesis; Neurodegeneration
The present studies focused on determining whether the autophagy-inducing drug OSU-03012 (AR-12) could enhance the toxicity of recombinant adenoviral delivery of melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. The toxicity of a recombinant adenovirus to express MDA-7/IL-24 (Ad.mda-7) was enhanced by OSU-03012 in a diverse panel of primary human GBM cells. The enhanced toxicity correlated with reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and expression of MCL-1 and BCL-XL, and was blocked by molecular activation of ERK1/2 and by inhibition of the intrinsic, but not the extrinsic, apoptosis pathway. Both OSU-03012 and expression of MDA-7/IL-24 increased phosphorylation of PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) that correlated with increased levels of autophagy and expression of dominant negative PERK blocked autophagy induction and tumor cell death. Knockdown of ATG5 or Beclin1 suppressed OSU-03012 enhanced MDA-7/IL-24-induced autophagy and blocked the lethal interaction between the two agents. Ad.mda-7-infected GBM cells secreted MDA-7/IL-24 into the growth media and this conditioned media induced expression of MDA-7/IL-24 in uninfected GBM cells. OSU-03012 interacted with conditioned media to kill GBM cells and knockdown of MDA-7/IL-24 in these cells suppressed tumor cell killing. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the induction of autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction by a combinatorial treatment approach represents a potentially viable strategy to kill primary human GBM cells.
ROS; caspase; ER stress; CD95; cell death