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1.  GEI-8, a Homologue of Vertebrate Nuclear Receptor Corepressor NCoR/SMRT, Regulates Gonad Development and Neuronal Functions in Caenorhabditis elegans 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e58462.
NCoR and SMRT are two paralogous vertebrate proteins that function as corepressors with unliganded nuclear receptors. Although C. elegans has a large number of nuclear receptors, orthologues of the corepressors NCoR and SMRT have not unambiguously been identified in Drosophila or C. elegans. Here, we identify GEI-8 as the closest homologue of NCoR and SMRT in C. elegans and demonstrate that GEI-8 is expressed as at least two isoforms throughout development in multiple tissues, including neurons, muscle and intestinal cells. We demonstrate that a homozygous deletion within the gei-8 coding region, which is predicted to encode a truncated protein lacking the predicted NR domain, results in severe mutant phenotypes with developmental defects, slow movement and growth, arrested gonadogenesis and defects in cholinergic neurotransmission. Whole genome expression analysis by microarrays identified sets of de-regulated genes consistent with both the observed mutant phenotypes and a role of GEI-8 in regulating transcription. Interestingly, the upregulated transcripts included a predicted mitochondrial sulfide:quinine reductase encoded by Y9C9A.16. This locus also contains non-coding, 21-U RNAs of the piRNA class. Inhibition of the expression of the region coding for 21-U RNAs leads to irregular gonadogenesis in the homozygous gei-8 mutants, but not in an otherwise wild-type background, suggesting that GEI-8 may function in concert with the 21-U RNAs to regulate gonadogenesis. Our results confirm that GEI-8 is the orthologue of the vertebrate NCoR/SMRT corepressors and demonstrate important roles for this putative transcriptional corepressor in development and neuronal function.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058462
PMCID: PMC3590189  PMID: 23484030
2.  NHR-23 dependent collagen and hedgehog-related genes required for molting 
NHR-23, a conserved member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors, is required for normal development in C. elegans where it plays a critical role in growth and molting. In a search for NHR-23 dependent genes, we performed whole genome comparative expression microarrays on both control and nhr-23 inhibited synchronized larvae. Genes that decreased in response to nhr-23 RNAi included several collagen genes. Unexpectedly, several hedgehog-related genes were also down-regulated after nhr-23 RNAi. A homozygous nhr-23 deletion allele was used to confirm the RNAi knockdown phenotypes and the changes in gene expression. Our results indicate that NHR-23 is a critical co-regulator of functionally linked genes involved in growth and molting and reveal evolutionary parallels among the ecdysozoa.
doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.08.124
PMCID: PMC3196369  PMID: 21910973
Nuclear hormone receptor; Caenorhabditis elegans; NHR-23; transcription; gene expression; development; hedgehog; molting; ROR
3.  Proteomic analysis uncovers a metabolic phenotype in C. elegans after nhr-40 reduction of function 
C. elegans has an unexpectedly large number (284) of genes encoding nuclear hormone receptors, most of which are nematode-specific and are of unknown function. We have exploited comparative two-dimensional chromatography of synchronized cultures of wild type C. elegans larvae and a mutant in nhr-40 to determine if proteomic approaches will provide additional insight into gene function. Chromatofocusing, followed by reversed-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry, identified altered chromatographic patterns for a set of proteins, many of which function in muscle and metabolism. Prompted by the proteomic analysis, we find that the penetrance of the developmental phenotypes in the mutant is enhanced at low temperatures and by food restriction. The combination of our phenotypic and proteomic analysis strongly suggests that NHR-40 provides a link between metabolism and muscle development. Our results highlight the utility of comparative two-dimensional chromatography to provide a relatively rapid method to gain insight into gene function.
doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.06.115
PMCID: PMC3418689  PMID: 18616929
Nuclear hormone receptors; Caenorhabditis elegans; NHR-40; transcription; development; muscle; chromatography
4.  Diversification of fasting regulated transcription in a cluster of duplicated nuclear hormone receptors in C. elegans 
Gene expression patterns : GEP  2010;10(6):227-236.
The genome of C. elegans encodes more than 280 nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) in contrast to the 48 NHRs in humans and 18 NHRs in Drosophila. The majority of the C. elegans NHRs are categorized as supplementary nuclear receptors (supnrs) that evolved by successive duplications of a single ancestral gene. The evolutionary pressures that lead to the expansion of NHRs in nematodes, as well as the function of the majority of supnrs, are not known. Here, we have studied the expression of seven genes organized in a cluster on chromosome V: nhr-206, nhr-208, nhr-207, nhr-209, nhr-154, nhr-153 and nhr-136. Reverse transcription – quantitative PCR and analyses using transgenic lines carrying GFP fusion genes with their putative promoters revealed that all seven genes of this cluster are expressed and five have partially overlapping expression patterns including in the pharynx, intestine, certain neurons, the anal sphincter muscle, and male specific cells. Four genes in this cluster are conserved between C. elegans and C. briggsae whereas three genes are present only in C. elegans, the apparent result of a relatively recent expansion. Interestingly, we find that a subset of the conserved and non-conserved genes in this cluster respond transcriptionally to fasting in tissue-specific patterns. Our results reveal the diversification of the temporal, spatial, and metabolic gene expression patterns coupled with evolutionary drift within supnr family members.
doi:10.1016/j.gep.2010.05.001
PMCID: PMC2910203  PMID: 20460175
Caenorhabditis elegans; Caenorhabditis briggsae; nuclear hormone receptor; gene expression; fasting
5.  Ontogenetic Profile of the Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptors in Rat and Human Corpora Cavernosa of the Penis 
The Journal of Sexual Medicine  2010;7(4pt1):1381-1390.
Introduction
In the last few years, various studies have underlined a correlation between thyroid function and male sexual function, hypothesizing a direct action of thyroid hormones on the penis.
Aim
To study the spatiotemporal distribution of mRNA for the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors (TR) α1, α2 and β in the penis and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the corpora cavernosa of rats and humans during development.
Methods
We used several molecular biology techniques to study the TR expression in whole tissues or primary cultures from human and rodent penile tissues of different ages.
Main Outcome Measure
We measured our data by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification, Northern blot and immunohistochemistry.
Results
We found that TRα1 and TRα2 are both expressed in the penis and in SMCs during ontogenesis without development-dependent changes. However, in the rodent model, TRβ shows an increase from 3 to 6 days post natum (dpn) to 20 dpn, remaining high in adulthood. The same expression profile was observed in humans. While the expression of TRβ is strictly regulated by development, TRα1 is the principal isoform present in corpora cavernosa, suggesting its importance in SMC function. These results have been confirmed by immunohistochemistry localization in SMCs and endothelial cells of the corpora cavernosa.
Conclusions
The presence of TRs in the penis provides the biological basis for the direct action of thyroid hormones on this organ. Given this evidence, physicians would be advised to investigate sexual function in men with thyroid disorders. Carosa E, Di Sante S, Rossi S, Castri A, D'Adamo F, Gravina GL, Ronchi P, Kostrouch Z, Dolci S, Lenzi A, and Jannini EA. Ontogenetic profile of the expression of thyroid hormone receptors in rat and human corpora cavernosa of the penis. J Sex Med 2010;7:1381–1390.
doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01701.x
PMCID: PMC3017743  PMID: 20141582
Corpora Cavernosa; Thyroid Hormone Receptor; Erectile Dysfunction; Thyroid Disorders and Sexual Dysfunction

Results 1-5 (5)