This is a non-peer-reviewed author-reported erratum addressing that Zyflamend sensitizes tumor cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through upregulation of death receptors and downregulation of survival proteins: role of reactive oxygen species-dependent CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein–homologous protein pathway. Kim JH, Park B, Gupta SC, Kannappan R, Sung B, and Aggarwal BB. Antioxid Redox Signal
16:413–427, 2012. The authors claim that Figure 7 reporting Western blot data was erroneous. Specifically, the β-actin panel of Fig. 7B was found to be switched with that of Fig. 7D. The corrected version is reported here. The authors claim that this correction does not influence the conclusion of the study.
Aims: Insulin resistance is a hallmark of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to play a causal role in insulin resistance. However, evidence linking ROS to insulin resistance in disease settings has been scant. Since both oxidative stress and diabetes have been observed in patients with the Fanconi anemia (FA), we sought to investigate the link between ROS and insulin resistance in this unique disease model. Results: Mice deficient for the Fanconi anemia complementation group A (Fanca) or Fanconi anemia complementation group C (Fancc) gene seem to be diabetes-prone, as manifested by significant hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, and rapid weight gain when fed with a high-fat diet. These phenotypic features of insulin resistance are characterized by two critical events in insulin signaling: a reduction in tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and an increase in inhibitory serine phosphorylation of the IR substrate-1 in the liver, muscle, and fat tissues from the insulin-challenged FA mice. High levels of ROS, spontaneously accumulated or generated by tumor necrosis factor alpha in these insulin-sensitive tissues of FA mice, were shown to underlie the FA insulin resistance. Treatment of FA mice with the natural anti-oxidant Quercetin restores IR signaling and ameliorates the diabetes- and obesity-prone phenotypes. Finally, pairwise screen identifies protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-α and stress kinase double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) that mediate the ROS effect on FA insulin resistance. Innovation: These findings establish a pathogenic and mechanistic link between ROS and insulin resistance in a unique human disease setting. Conclusion: ROS accumulation contributes to the insulin resistance in FA deficiency by targeting both PTP-α and PKR. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000–000.
Aims: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increases angiogenesis by stimulating endothelial cell (EC) migration. VEGF-induced nitric oxide (•NO) release from •NO synthase plays a critical role, but the proteins and signaling pathways that may be redox-regulated are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to define the role of •NO-mediated redox regulation of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) in VEGF-induced signaling and EC migration. Results: VEGF-induced EC migration was prevented by the •NO synthase inhibitor, N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (LNAME). Either VEGF or •NO stimulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 45Ca2+ uptake, a measure of SERCA activity, and knockdown of SERCA2 prevented VEGF-induced EC migration and 45Ca2+ uptake. S-glutathione adducts on SERCA2b, identified immunochemically, were increased by VEGF, and were prevented by LNAME or overexpression of glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx-1). Furthermore, VEGF failed to stimulate migration of ECs overexpressing Glrx-1. VEGF or •NO increased SERCA S-glutathiolation and stimulated migration of ECs in which wild-type (WT) SERCA2b was overexpressed with an adenovirus, but did neither in those overexpressing a C674S SERCA2b mutant, in which the reactive cysteine-674 was mutated to a serine. Increased EC Ca2+ influx caused by VEGF or •NO was abrogated by overexpression of Glrx-1 or the C674S SERCA2b mutant. ER store-emptying through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and Ca2+ entry through Orai1 were also required for VEGF- and •NO-induced EC Ca2+ influx. Innovation and Conclusions: These results demonstrate that •NO-mediated activation of SERCA2b via S-glutathiolation of cysteine-674 is required for VEGF-induced EC Ca2+ influx and migration, and establish redox regulation of SERCA2b as a key component in angiogenic signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000–000.
Aims: Nrf2 is an essential transcription factor for protection against oxidant disorders. However, its role in organ development and neonatal disease has received little attention. Therapeutically administered oxygen has been considered to contribute to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in prematurity. The current study was performed to determine Nrf2-mediated molecular events during saccular-to-alveolar lung maturation, and the role of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of hyperoxic lung injury using newborn Nrf2-deficient (Nrf2−/−) and wild-type (Nrf2+/+) mice. Results: Pulmonary basal expression of cell cycle, redox balance, and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism genes was lower while lymphocyte immunity genes were more highly expressed in Nrf2−/− neonates than in Nrf2+/+ neonates. Hyperoxia-induced phenotypes, including mortality, arrest of saccular-to-alveolar transition, and lung edema, and inflammation accompanying DNA damage and tissue oxidation were significantly more severe in Nrf2−/− neonates than in Nrf2+/+ neonates. During lung injury pathogenesis, Nrf2 orchestrated expression of lung genes involved in organ injury and morphology, cellular growth/proliferation, vasculature development, immune response, and cell–cell interaction. Bioinformatic identification of Nrf2 binding motifs and augmented hyperoxia-induced inflammation in genetically deficient neonates supported Gpx2 and Marco as Nrf2 effectors. Innovation: This investigation used lung transcriptomics and gene targeted mice to identify novel molecular events during saccular-to-alveolar stage transition and to elucidate Nrf2 downstream mechanisms in protection from hyperoxia-induced injury in neonate mouse lungs. Conclusion:
Nrf2 deficiency augmented lung injury and arrest of alveolarization caused by hyperoxia during the newborn period. Results suggest a therapeutic potential of specific Nrf2 activators for oxidative stress-associated neonatal disorders including BPD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000–000.
Aims: To establish a functional link between microRNA-107 (miR-107) and stem cell survival during ischemic preconditioning (IPC) of stem cells with multiple cycles of brief anoxia/re-oxygenation (10 or 30 min, one to three cycles) and show that the cytoprotective effects were independent of hypoxamir-210. Results: We demonstrated the induction of miR-107 in response to the IPC-induced activation of Akt/hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells (PCMSC), which showed improved survival during subsequent exposure to 6 h of lethal anoxia (p<0.05 vs. non-preconditioned MSC[non-PCMSC]). In silico analysis and luciferase activity assay confirmed programmed cell death-10 (PDCD10) as a putative target of miR-107 in PCMSC, which was significantly reduced during IPC and inversely related to stem cell survival under 6 h of lethal anoxia. Loss-of-function studies with miR-107 antagomir showed a significantly reduced survival of PCMSC. A comparison of miR-107 and miR-210 showed that both miRs participated independently via their respective putative target genes Pdcd10 and Casp8ap2. The simultaneous abrogation of Pdcd10 and Casp8ap2 had a stronger effect on PCMSC survival under lethal anoxia. The transplantation of PCMSC in an acute model of myocardial infarction showed a significantly improved survival of transplanted PCMSC with concomitantly enhanced miR-107 expression in PCMSC-transplanted animal hearts. Innovation: Cytoprotection afforded by IPC is regulated by miR-107 induction via Pdcd10 independent of miR-210/Casp8ap2 signaling, and the simultaneous abrogation miR-107/miR-210 has a stronger effect on the loss of PCMSC survival. Conclusion: IPC enhances stem cell survival via the combined participation of hypoxia responsive miRs miR-107 and miR-210 via their respective putative target genes Pdcd10 and Casp8ap2. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000–000.
Marginal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency is a prevalent yet underappreciated risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Along with glutathione, ascorbate plays important roles in antioxidant defense and redox signaling. Production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species and their interaction, giving rise to nitroso and nitrosyl product formation, are key components of the redox regulation/signaling network. Numerous in vitro studies have demonstrated that these systems are interconnected via multiple chemical transformation reactions, but little is known about their dynamics and significance in vivo. Aims: We sought to investigate the time-course of changes in NO/redox status and vascular function during ascorbate depletion in rats unable to synthesize vitamin C. Results: We here show that both redox and protein nitros(yl)ation status in blood and vital organs vary dynamically during development of ascorbate deficiency. Prolonged marginal ascorbate deficiency is associated with cell/tissue-specific perturbations in ascorbate and glutathione redox and NO status. Scurvy develops earlier in marginally deficient compared to adequately supplemented animals, with blunted compensatory NO production and a dissociation of biochemistry from clinical symptomology in the former. Paradoxically, aortic endothelial reactivity is enhanced rather than impaired, irrespective of ascorbate status. Innovation/Conclusion: Enhanced NO production and protein nitros(yl)ation are integral responses to the redox stress of acute ascorbate deprivation. The elevated cardiovascular risk in marginal ascorbate deficiency is likely to be associated with perturbations of NO/redox-sensitive signaling nodes unrelated to the regulation of vascular tone. This new model may have merit for the future study of redox-sensitive events in marginal ascorbate deficiency. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 937–950.
Significance: S-nitrosothiol formation and protein S-nitrosation is an important nitric oxide (NO)-dependent signaling paradigm that is relevant to almost all aspects of cell biology, from proliferation, to homeostasis, to programmed cell death. However, the mechanisms by which S-nitrosothiols are formed are still largely unknown, and there are gaps of understanding between the known chemical biology of S-nitrosothiols and their reported functions. Recent Advances: This review attempts to describe the biological chemistry of S-nitrosation and to point out where the challenges lie in matching the known chemical biology of these compounds with their reported functions. The review will detail new discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the formation of S-nitrosothiols in biological systems. Critical Issues: Although S-nitrosothiols may be formed with some degree of specificity on particular protein thiols, through un-catalyzed chemistry, and mechanisms for their degradation and redistribution are present, these processes are not sufficient to explain the vast array of specific and targeted responses of NO that have been attributed to S-nitrosation. Elements of catalysis have been discovered in the formation, distribution, and metabolism of S-nitrosothiols, but it is less clear whether these represent a specific network for targeted NO-dependent signaling. Future Directions: Much recent work has uncovered new targets for S-nitrosation through either targeted or proteome-wide approaches There is a need to understand which of these modifications represent concerted and targeted signaling processes and which is an inevitable consequence of living with NO. There is still much to be learned about how NO transduces signals in cells and the role played by protein S-nitrosation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 969–980.
S-nitrosylation is a redox-sensitive protein modification, which is a highly specific, but reversible mechanism that regulates several signal transduction cascades. Oxidative stress plays a causal role in the ototoxic effects of an anti-neoplastic drug, cisplatin. Despite emerging evidence implicating nitroxidative stress as a critical factor in cisplatin toxicity, the significance of the cochlear protein S-nitrosylation in cisplatin ototoxicity is yet to be understood. In the present study, a 16-mg/kg dose of cisplatin, induced a significant shift in the amplitudes of distortion product otoacoustic emissions, a measure of outer hair cell activity, in Wistar rats, 3 days post-treatment. These ototoxic effects were accompanied by significant increases in the S-nitrosylation of at least three cochlear proteins. Biological significance of these S-nitrosylated proteins was indicated by their immunolocalization in organ of Corti, stria vascularis, and spiral ganglions, which are known cochlear targets of cisplatin toxicity. In addition, co-treatment with Trolox, an inhibitor of peroxynitrite, attenuated cisplatin-induced S-nitrosylation of cochlear proteins and prevented the associated hearing loss. The cisplatin-induced S-nitrosylation of inner ear proteins, their sensitive cochlear localization, and their potential association with cisplatin-induced hearing loss suggests that S-nitrosylation of cochlear proteins might play a crucial role in mediating cisplatin ototoxicity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 929–933.
The S-nitrosation (also referred to as S-nitrosylation) of cysteine residues is an important post-translational protein modification that regulates protein function and cell signaling. The original research articles and reviews in this Forum cover important concepts in protein S-nitrosation and identify key developments and opportunities for progress in this area. Defining the mechanisms by which S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) may be formed and decomposed in cells and tissues, the integration of the biological chemistry associated with nitric oxide (NO) and other derivatives such as nitrite, and the development of new methodologies merging proteomics and direct quantitation are all key issues that we believe would require detailed attention. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 934–936.
S-Nitrosothiol (RSNO) formation is one manner by which nitric oxide (•NO) exerts its biological effects. There are several proposed mechanisms of formation of RSNO in vivo: auto-oxidation of •NO, transnitrosation, oxidative nitrosylation, and from dinitrosyliron complexes (DNIC). Both free •NO, generated by •NO donors, and S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO) are widely used to study •NO biology and signaling, including protein S-nitrosation. It is assumed that the cellular effects of both compounds are analogous and indicative of in vivo •NO biology. A quantitative comparison was made of formation of DNIC and RSNO, the major •NO-derived cellular products. In RAW 264.7 cells, both •NO and CysNO were metabolized, leading to rapid intracellular RSNO and DNIC formation. DNIC were the dominant products formed from physiologic •NO concentrations, however, and RSNO were the major product from CysNO treatment. Chelatable iron was necessary for DNIC assembly from either •NO or CysNO, but not for RSNO formation. These profound differences in RSNO and DNIC formation from •NO and CysNO question the use of CysNO as a surrogate for physiologic •NO. Researchers designing experiments intended to elucidate the biological signaling mechanisms of •NO should be aware of these differences and should consider the biological relevance of the use of exogenous CysNO. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 962–968.
Significance: Posttranslational modification of proteins through phosphorylation, glycosylation, and oxidation adds complexity to the proteome by reversibly altering the structure and function of target proteins in a highly controlled fashion. Recent Advances: The study of reversible cysteine oxidation highlights a role for this oxidative modification in complex signal transduction pathways. Nitric oxide (NO), and its respective metabolites (including reactive nitrogen species), participates in a variety of these cellular redox processes, including the reversible oxidation of cysteine to S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs). RSNOs act as endogenous transporters of NO, but also possess beneficial effects independent of NO-related signaling, which suggests a complex and versatile biological role. In this review, we highlight the importance of RSNOs as a required posttranslational modification and summarize the current methods available for detecting S-nitrosation. Critical Issues: Given the limitations of these indirect detection methods, the review covers recent developments toward the direct detection of RSNOs by phosphine-based chemical probes. The intrinsic properties that dictate this phosphine/RSNO reactivity are summarized. In general, RSNOs (both small molecule and protein) react with phosphines to yield reactive S-substituted aza-ylides that undergo further reactions leading to stable RSNO-based adducts. Future Directions: This newly explored chemical reactivity forms the basis of a number of exciting potential chemical methods for protein RSNO detection in biological systems. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 981–991.
Significance: Nitric oxide (NO) plays diverse physiological roles in the central nervous system, where it modulates neuronal communication, regulates blood flow, and contributes to the innate immune responses. In a number of brain pathologies, the excessive production of NO also leads to the formation of reactive and toxic intermediates generically termed reactive nitrogen species (RNS). RNS cause irreversible or poorly reversible damage to brain cells. Recent Advances: Recent work in the field focused on the ability of NO and RNS to yield protein modifications, including the S-nitrosation of cysteine residues, which, in many instances, impact cellular functions and viability. Critical Issues: The vast majority of neuropathological studies focus on the loss of cell viability, but nitrosative stress may also strongly impair the functions of neuronal processes: axonal projections and dendritic trees. The functional integrity of axons and dendrites critically depends on local metabolism and effective delivery of metabolic enzymes and organelles. Here, we summarize the existing literature describing the effects of nitrosative stress on the major pathways of energetic metabolism: glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and mitochondrial respiration, with the emphasis on modifications of protein thiols. Future Directions: We propose that axons and dendrites are highly vulnerable to nitrosative stress because of their low glycolytic capacity and high dependence on timely delivery of metabolic enzymes and organelles from the cell body. Thus, supplementation with the end products of glycolysis, pyruvate or lactate, may help preserve metabolism in distal neuronal processes and protect or restore synaptic function in the ailing brain. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 992–1012.
Aims: Once dismissed as an inert byproduct of nitric oxide (NO) auto-oxidation, nitrite (NO2-) is now accepted as an endocrine reservoir of NO that elicits biological responses in major organs. While it is known that tissue nitrite is derived from NO oxidation and the diet, little is known about how nitrite is metabolized by tissue, particularly at intermediate oxygen tensions. We investigated the rates and mechanisms of tissue nitrite metabolism over a range of oxygen concentrations. Results: We show that the rate of nitrite consumption differs in each organ. Further, oxygen regulates the rate and products of nitrite metabolism. In anoxia, nitrite is reduced to NO, with significant formation of iron–nitrosyl proteins and S-nitrosothiols. This hypoxic nitrite metabolism is mediated by different nitrite reductases in each tissue. In contrast, low concentrations (∼3.5 μM) of oxygen increase the rate of nitrite consumption by shifting nitrite metabolism to oxidative pathways, yielding nitrate. While cytochrome P450 and myoglobin contribute in the liver and heart, respectively, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase plays a significant role in nitrite oxidation, which is inhibited by cyanide. Using cyanide to prevent artifactual nitrite decay, we measure metabolism of oral and intraperitoneally administered nitrite in mice. Innovation: These data provide insight into the fate of nitrite in tissue, the enzymes involved in nitrite metabolism, and the role of oxygen in regulating these processes. Conclusion: We demonstrate that even at low concentrations, oxygen is a potent regulator of the rate and products of tissue nitrite metabolism. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 951–961.
Aims: In this study we identified viral gene targets of the important redox regulator thioredoxin (Trx), and explored in depth how Trx interacts with the immediate early gene #1 (IE1) of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Results: In a pull-down assay, we found that recombinant Trx bound to IE1 under oxidizing conditions, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that Trx bound to WSSV IE1 when the transfected cells were subjected to oxidative stress. A pull-down assay with Trx mutants showed that no IE1 binding occurred when cysteine 62 was replaced by serine. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that the DNA binding activity of WSSV IE1 was downregulated under oxidative conditions, and that Penaeus monodon Trx (PmTrx) restored the DNA binding activity of the inactivated, oxidized WSSV IE1. Another EMSA experiment showed that IE1's Cys-X-X-Cys motif and cysteine residue 55 were necessary for DNA binding. Measurement of the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in WSSV-infected shrimp showed that oxidative stress was significantly increased at 48 h postinfection. The biological significance of Trx was also demonstrated in a double-strand RNA Trx knockdown experiment where suppression of shrimp Trx led to significant decreases in mortality and viral copy numbers. Innovation and Conclusion: WSSV's pathogenicity is enhanced by the virus' use of host Trx to rescue the DNA binding activity of WSSV IE1 under oxidizing conditions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 914–926.
Increased oxidative stress is associated with various diseases and aging, while adaptation to heat stress is an important determinant of survival and contributes to longevity. However, the impact of oxidative stress on heat resistance remains largely unclear. Aim: In this study we investigated how oxidative stress impinges on heat stress responses. Results: We report that hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2) pretreatment inhibits both acquired thermotolerance and heat-induced Hsp70 expression in mammalian cells, as well as acquired thermotolerance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, via RNA interference. Moreover, we demonstrate that elimination of RNA interference by silencing key enzymes in microRNA biogenesis, dcr-1 or pash-1, restores the diminished intrinsic thermotolerance of aged and H2O2-elimination compromised (catalase-2 and peroxiredoxin-2 deficient) worms. Innovation and Conclusion: These results uncover a novel post-transcriptional element in the regulation of heat stress adaptation under oxidative conditions that may have implications in disease susceptibility and aging. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 890–901.
Aims: We investigated the molecular mechanism by which ethyl pyruvate (EP) induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in RAW 264.7 cells and its effect on survival rate in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced wild-type (WT) and HO-1 knockout (HO-1−/−) septic mice. Results: EP induced HO-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was mediated through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling cascade in RAW 264.7 cells. EP significantly inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release in RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect of EP on LPS-stimulated iNOS expression and HMGB1 release was reversed by transfection with siHO-1RNA in RAW 264.7 cells, but EP failed to reduce them in HO-1−/− peritoneal macrophages treated with LPS. Moreover, treatment of cells with glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-Et), SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor), siHO-1, or p38-siRNA transfection inhibited anti-inflammatory effect of EP. Interestingly, both HO-1 induction and phosphorylation of p38 by EP were reversed by GSH-Et, and antioxidant redox element-luciferase activity by EP was reversed by SB203580 in LPS-activated cells. EP increased survival and decreased serum HMGB1 in CLP-WT mice, whereas it did not increase survival or decrease circulating HMGB1 in HO-1−/− CLP-mice. Innovation and Conclusion: Our work provides new insights into the understanding the molecular mechanism by showing that EP induces HO-1 through a p38 MAPK- and NRF2-dependent pathway by decreasing GSH cellular levels. We conclude that EP inhibits proinflammatory response to LPS in macrophages and increases survival in CLP-induced septic mice by upregulation of HO-1 level, in which p38 MAPK and Nrf2 play an important role. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 878–889.
Aims: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gaseous mediator, has been recognized to protect neurons from overexcitation by enhancing the activity of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel. However, no direct evidence supports that the K-ATP channel contributes to the neuroprotective effect of H2S in neurodegeneration. Herein, wild-type and Kir6.2 knockout (Kir6.2−/−) mice were used to establish the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD) so as to investigate the involvement of K-ATP channels in the neuroprotection of H2S. Results: Systemic administration of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (an H2S donor, 5.6 mg/kg/day) for 7 days rescued MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in substantia nigra compacta of both Kir6.2+/+ and Kir6.2−/− mice. Consistently, NaHS (100 μM) protected primary mesencephalic neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cytotoxicity in both genotypes. We further found that deficiency of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and functions as upstream to the K-ATP channel in determining vulnerability of DA neurons, abolished the protective effects of H2S against either DA neuron degeneration in the PD mouse model or MPP+-induced injury in primary mesencephalic neurons. Rationally, UCP2 evokes mild uncoupling, which in turn diminishes ROS accumulation in DA neurons. Furthermore, H2S exerted neuroprotective effect via enhancing UCP2-mediated antioxidation and subsequently suppressing ROS-triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as ultimately inhibiting caspase 12-induced neuronal apoptosis. Innovation and Conclusion: H2S protects DA neurons against degeneration in a UCP2 rather than Kir6.2/K-ATP channel-dependent mechanism, which will give us an insight into the potential of H2S in terms of opening up new therapeutic avenues for PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 849–859.
Aims: Peroxiredoxins (PRXs) are a newly characterized family of peroxide scavenging enzymes that not only help maintain cellular redox homeostasis but also may directly engage in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways. PRX2 is a neuronal-specific PRX believed to participate in cerebral antioxidant responses in several neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigates the potential neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanism of PRX2 in models of ischemic neuronal injury. Results: Transgenic mice overexpressing PRX2 showed reduced brain injury and improved neurological recovery up to 3 weeks after transient focal cerebral ischemia compared to wild-type littermates. In primary cultures of cortical neurons, transfection of PRX2 but not the loss-of-catalytic-site PRX2 mutant conferred neuroprotection against cell death induced by oxygen glucose deprivation. PRX2 exhibited potent pro-survival effects in ischemic neurons by maintaining thioredoxin (Trx) in its reduced state, thereby preventing oxidative stress-mediated activation of apoptosis signal–regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and the downstream MKK/JNK pro-death signaling pathway. PRX2 failed to provide additional neuroprotection against ischemic injury in Trx- or ASK1-knockdown neuron cultures and in mice treated with a JNK inhibitor. Innovation: This study provides evidence that neuronal overexpression of PRX2 confers prolonged neuroprotection against ischemic/reperfusion brain injury. Moreover, the results suggest a signaling pathway by which PRX2 suppresses ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis. Conclusions: Enhanced neuronal expression and activity of PRX2 protect against ischemic neuronal injury by directly modulating the redox-sensitive Trx-ASK1 signaling complex. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 719–732.
Aims: Chloroquine (CQ) kills Plasmodium falciparum by binding heme, preventing its detoxification to hemozoin in the digestive vacuole (DV) of the parasite. CQ resistance (CQR) is associated with mutations in the DV membrane protein P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT), mediating the leakage of CQ from the DV. However, additional factors are thought to contribute to the resistance phenotype. This study tested the hypothesis that there is a link between glutathione (GSH) and CQR. Results: Using isogenic parasite lines carrying wild-type or mutant pfcrt, we reveal lower levels of GSH in the mutant lines and enhanced sensitivity to the GSH synthesis inhibitor l-buthionine sulfoximine, without any alteration in cytosolic de novo GSH synthesis. Incubation with N-acetylcysteine resulted in increased GSH levels in all parasites, but only reduced susceptibility to CQ in PfCRT mutant-expressing lines. In support of a heme destruction mechanism involving GSH in CQR parasites, we also found lower hemozoin levels and reduced CQ binding in the CQR PfCRT-mutant lines. We further demonstrate via expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes that the mutant alleles of Pfcrt in CQR parasites selectively transport GSH. Innovation: We propose a mechanism whereby mutant pfcrt allows enhanced transport of GSH into the parasite's DV. The elevated levels of GSH in the DV reduce the level of free heme available for CQ binding, which mediates the lower susceptibility to CQ in the PfCRT mutant parasites. Conclusion: PfCRT has a dual role in CQR, facilitating both efflux of harmful CQ from the DV and influx of beneficial GSH into the DV. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 683–695.
Significance: The cysteine (Cys) residues of proteins play two fundamentally important roles. They serve as sites of post-translational redox modifications as well as influence the conformation of the protein through the formation of disulfide bonds. Recent Advances: Redox-related and redox-associated protein folding in protozoan parasites has been found to be a major mode of regulation, affecting myriad aspects of the parasitic life cycle, host-parasite interactions, and the disease pathology. Available genome sequences of various parasites have begun to complement the classical biochemical and enzymological studies of these processes. In this article, we summarize the reversible Cys disulfide (S-S) bond formation in various classes of strategically important parasitic proteins, and its structural consequence and functional relevance. Critical Issues: Molecular mechanisms of folding remain under-studied and often disconnected from functional relevance. Future Directions: The clinical benefit of redox research will require a comprehensive characterization of the various isoforms and paralogs of the redox enzymes and their concerted effect on the structure and function of the specific parasitic client proteins. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 674–683.
Significance: Parasite survival and virulence relies on effective defenses against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by the host immune system. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous enzymes now thought to be central to such defenses and, as such, have potential value as drug targets and vaccine antigens. Recent Advances: Plasmodial and kinetoplastid Prx systems are the most extensively studied, yet remain inadequately understood. For many other parasites our knowledge is even less well developed. Through parasite genome sequencing efforts, however, the key players are being discovered and characterized. Here we describe what is known about the biochemistry, regulation, and cell biology of Prxs in parasitic protozoa, helminths, and fungi. At least one Prx is found in each parasite with a sequenced genome, and a notable theme is the common patterns of expression, localization, and functionality among sequence-similar Prxs in related species. Critical Issues: The nomenclature of Prxs from parasites is in a state of disarray, causing confusion and making comparative inferences difficult. Here we introduce a systematic Prx naming convention that is consistent between organisms and informative about structural and evolutionary relationships. Future Directions: The new nomenclature should stimulate the crossfertilization of ideas among parasitologists and with the broader redox research community. The diverse parasite developmental stages and host environments present complex systems in which to explore the variety of roles played by Prxs, with a view toward parlaying what is learned into novel therapies and vaccines that are urgently needed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 608–633.
Aims: Protein phosphorylation is a principal signaling mechanism that mediates regulation of enzymatic activities, modulation of gene expression, and adaptation to environmental changes. Recent studies have shown a ubiquitous distribution of eukaryotic-type Serine/Threonine protein kinases in prokaryotic genomes, though the functions, substrates, and possible regulation of these enzymes remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether cyanobacterial protein phosphorylation may be subject to redox regulation through modulation of the cysteine redox state, as has previously been reported for animals and plants. We also explored the role of a cyanobacterial Serine/Threonine kinase in oxidative stress tolerance. Results: The Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Serine/Threonine kinase SpkB was found to be inhibited by oxidation and reactivated by thioredoxin-catalyzed reduction. A Synechocystis mutant devoid of the SpkB kinase was unable to phosphorylate the glycyl-tRNA synthetase β-subunit (GlyS), one of the most prominent phosphoproteins in the wild type, and recombinant purified SpkB could phosphorylate purified GlyS. In vivo characterization of the SpkB mutant showed a pronounced hypersensitivity to oxidative stress and displayed severe growth retardation or death in response to menadione, methyl viologen, and elevated light intensities. Innovation: This study points out a previously unrecognised complexity of prokaryotic regulatory pathways in adaptation to the environment and extends the roles of bacterial eukaryotic-like Serine/Threonine kinases to oxidative stress response. Conclusion: The SpkB kinase is required for survival of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under conditions implying increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species, and the activity of SpkB depends on the redox state of its cysteines. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 521–533.
Aims: Carbon monoxide (CO) delivered to cells and tissues by CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) has beneficial and toxic effects not mimicked by CO gas. The metal carbonyl Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate) (CORM-3) is a novel, potent antimicrobial agent. Here, we established its mode of action. Results: CORM-3 inhibits respiration in several bacterial and yeast pathogens. In anoxic Escherichia coli suspensions, CORM-3 first stimulates, then inhibits respiration, but much higher concentrations of CORM-3 than of a classic protonophore are required for stimulation. Proton translocation measurements (H+/O quotients, i.e., H+ extrusion on pulsing anaerobic cells with O2) show that respiratory stimulation cannot be attributed to true “uncoupling,” that is, dissipation of the protonmotive force, or to direct stimulation of oxidase activity. Our data are consistent with CORM-3 facilitating the electrogenic transmembrane movement of K+ (or Na+), causing a stimulation of respiration and H+ pumping to compensate for the transient drop in membrane potential (ΔΨ). The effects on respiration are not mimicked by CO gas or control Ru compounds that do not release CO. Inhibition of respiration and loss of bacterial viability elicited by CORM-3 are reversible by white light, unambiguously identifying heme-containing oxidase(s) as target(s). Innovation: This is the most complete study to date of the antimicrobial action of a CO-RM. Noteworthy are the demonstration of respiratory stimulation, electrogenic ion transport, and photosensitive activity, establishing terminal oxidases and ion transport as primary targets. Conclusion: CORM-3 has multifaceted effects: increased membrane permeability, inhibition of terminal oxidases, and perhaps other unidentified mechanisms underlie its effectiveness in tackling microbial pathogenesis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 497–509.
Supplementation of standardized fermented papaya preparation (FPP) to adult diabetic mice improves dermal wound healing outcomes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients elicit a compromised respiratory burst activity resulting in increased risk of infections for the diabetic patients. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to determine the effect of FPP supplementation on human diabetic PBMC respiratory burst activity and to understand underlying mechanisms of such action of FPP. Results: When stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, the production of reactive oxygen species by T2DM PBMC was markedly compromised compared to that of the PBMC from non-DM donors. FPP treated ex vivo improved respiratory burst outcomes in T2DM PBMC. FPP treatment significantly increased phosphorylation of the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase. In addition, the protein and mRNA expression of Rac2 was potently upregulated after FPP supplemention. The proximal human Rac2 gene promoter is G–C rich and contains consensus binding sites for Sp1 and AP-1. While FPP had no significant effect on the AP-1 DNA binding activity, the Sp1 DNA binding activity was significantly upregulated in PBMC after treatment of the cells with FPP. Innovation: This work provided first evidence that compromised respiratory burst performance of T2DM PBMC may be corrected by a nutritional supplement. Conclusion: FPP can correct respiratory burst performance of T2DM PBMC via an Sp-1-dependant pathway. Studies testing the outcome of FPP supplementation in diabetic patients are warranted. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 485–491.
Oxygen is a pulmonary vasodilator, but data suggest high O2 concentrations impede that response. We previously reported 24 h of 100% O2 increased phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) activity in fetal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (FPASMC) and in ventilated neonatal lambs. PDE5 degrades cyclic GMP (cGMP) and inhibits nitric oxide (NO)-mediated cGMP-dependent vasorelaxation. We sought to determine the mechanism by which hyperoxia initiates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and regulates PDE5. Results: Thirty minutes of hyperoxia increased mitochondrial ROS versus normoxia (30.3±1.7% vs. 21.1±2.8%), but had no effect on cytosolic ROS, measured by roGFP, a ratiometric protein thiol redox sensor. Hyperoxia increased PDE5 activity (220±39%) and decreased cGMP responsiveness to NO (37±17%). Mitochondrial catalase overexpression attenuated hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial roGFP oxidation, compared to FPASMC infected with empty adenoviral vector (50±3% of control) or mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. MitoTEMPO, mitochondrial catalase, and DT-3, a cGMP-dependent protein kinase I alpha inhibitor, decreased PDE5 activity (32±13%, 26±21%, and 63±10% of control, respectively), and restored cGMP responsiveness to NO (147±16%,172±29%, and 189±43% of control, respectively). C57Bl6 mice exposed to 90%–100% O2 for 45 min±mechanical ventilation had increased PA PDE5 activity (206±39% and 235±75%, respectively). Innovation: This is the first description that hyperoxia induces ROS in the mitochondrial matrix prior to the cytosol. Our results indicate that short hyperoxia exposures can produce significant changes in critical cellular signaling pathways. Conclusions: These results indicate that mitochondrial matrix oxidant signals generated during hyperoxia, specifically H2O2, activate PDE5 in a cGMP-dependent protein kinase–dependent manner in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 460–470.