Open and arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement and resultant labral pathology has increased significantly over the past decade. Although the functional importance of the labrum and the labral seal has been established in biomechanical studies, good clinical results have been reported for both labral debridement and labral refixation.
The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing literature on the surgical treatment of labral pathology to provide treatment recommendations and direct future research. A systematic review was performed with the following research question in mind: Does preservation of the hip labrum improve outcomes as compared to labral debridement for the treatment of labral pathology?
The MEDLINE database was searched for level I, II, or III articles in English or German comparing labral debridement to labral refixation. Five studies were included in the analysis.
Good short-term results were reported for both groups. Three out of five papers report improved outcomes after labral refixation as compared to labral debridement.
In short-term follow-up, labral refixation appears to have slightly better outcomes than labral debridement. Studies with prospectively defined cohorts and longer follow-up are, however, necessary to provide definitive recommendations for labral treatment.
hip labrum; labral repair; labral refixation; labral debridement; FAI; femoroacetabular impingement
Saving bone by resurfacing the femoral head is not a new concept and the appeal for this type of hip replacement has remained despite the difficulties to find a bearing material suitable for this procedure.
In this article, the unique experience of a surgeon who has been performing hip resurfacing since its early development is presented, along with a comparative analysis of the performance of successive designs.
The overall 10-year Kaplan–Meier survivorship of the early designs with polyethylene bearings did not exceed 62% while that of the current Conserve®Plus metal-on-metal hybrid design implanted with second generation surgical technique is in excess of 92%. Further exceptional, in the 10-year survivorship, 99.7% has been achieved with femoral size of 46 mm and good bone quality. Cementless acetabular components provide better enduring fixation than cemented designs.
Metal-on-metal is currently and fortunately the only highly successful bearing material that can combine low wear rates and the manufacturing of a thin acetabular component to preserve bone and still accommodate the large femoral head of a hip resurfacing. The adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR) associated with metal-on-metal devices are not a bearing material issue per se but one of the device design and surgical technique. Almost all of ALTR and the rare events of systemic toxicity are due to abnormal wear patterns which can be prevented by proper acetabular component design and precise socket orientation in both the coronal and sagittal planes. Further improvements of the long-term durability with hip resurfacing can be anticipated with the use of recently developed trabecular bone-like tantalum or titanium porous coatings and with proper training of the surgeons interested in performing hip resurfacing arthroplasty.
hip resurfacing; long term; survivorship; history
Churg–Strauss Syndrome; eosinophilic myocarditis; hypereosinophila
Recent studies have recommended the discontinuation of metal-on-metal (MoM) components in total hip arthroplasty (THA) because of adverse effects reported with large-diameter MoM THA. This is despite favorable long-term results observed with 28 and 32 mm MoM bearings.
The aim of this study was to assess the value of calls for an end to MoM bearings as THA components. Specifically, we wish to address the risks associated with MoM bearings including adverse soft tissue reactions, metal ion release, and carcinogenic risk.
The study evaluates the arguments in the literature reporting on MoM (adverse soft tissue reactions, metal ion release, and carcinogenic risk) and the experience of the current authors who re-introduced these bearings in 1995. They are balanced by a benefit–risk review of the literature and the authors’ experience with MoM use.
Adverse reactions to metallic debris as well as metal ion release are predictable and can be prevented by adequate design (arc of coverage, clearance), metallurgy (forged instead of cast alloy, high-carbide content), and appropriate component orientation. There is no scientific evidence that carcinogenicity is increased in subjects with MoM hip prostheses. MoM articulations appear to be attractive allowing safe hip resurfacing, decreasing the risk of THA revision in active patients, and providing secure THA fixation with cement in cages in severely deformed hips. MoM bearings in women of child-bearing age are controversial, but long-term data on metallic devices in adolescents undergoing spinal surgery seem reassuring.
Adequate selection of MoM articulations ensures their safe use. These articulations are sensitive to orientation. Fifteen years of safe experience with 28- and 32-mm bearings of forged alloy and high-carbide content is the main reason for retaining them in primary and revision THA.
metal-on-metal bearing; metal sensitivity; chromium; wear; cobalt, ions; hip resurfacing; pseudotumors
The hip joint is generally considered a ball-and-socket joint, the center of which is used as an anatomic landmark in functional analyses and by surgical navigation systems. The location of the hip center has been estimated using functional techniques using various limb motions. However, it is not clear which specific motions best predicted the functional center.
This study aims to compare the predicted functional center of the hip evaluated from multiplanar circumduction and star motions, and to compare this functional center with the geometric center.
Eight hips in four fresh–frozen cadavers were used and verified as morphologically normal in CT scans. Three-dimensional motion of each lower limb was recorded using arrays of reflective markers rigidly attached to the femur and pelvis. Each hip was manipulated to produce circumduction or star motion, i.e., abduction–adduction and flexion extension. The hip was then dissected and the bearing surface traced with a probe, from which a best-fit sphere was calculated. The functional center was calculated from the motion data and compared to the geometric technique.
There was no difference between the functional hip center predicted by circumduction or star motions, although this was offset from the geometric hip center by up to 14 mm. For all except two hips, the functional center was less than 6 mm from the geometric hip in each anatomic direction. Test–retest differences were smaller for circumduction than for star motions.
Estimation of the hip center based on motion of the femur relative to the pelvis could localize the geometric center of the joint within 14 mm and circumduction motions were more repeatable.
Many surgical navigation systems make use of the functional hip center as a landmark for alignment or reconstruction. Errors associated with this would have a very minor influence in lower limb alignment, e.g., for knee reconstruction, but could affect proximal femoral geometry relevant to hip reconstruction.
hip center; functional center; estimation; accuracy; surgical navigation
Labral tears have been associated with femoroacetabular impingement, instability, sports-related activity or trauma, capsular laxity or hypermobility, dysplasia, and degeneration. Disruption of the labrum increases the rate of acetabular cartilage compression and the contact stress between the femoral and acetabular cartilage. If left untreated, these lesions will alter normal hip joint function and may eventually lead to osteoarthritis.
For the labrum with adequate tissue (>7 mm), the labrum is repaired if it is detached or torn. If the labrum is bruised, a rim reduction and repair is performed, especially in the presence of cartilage damage and the labral–chondral junction. Labri are debrided only if there is enough substance to maintain the function of the labrum. Care must be taken to fix the labrum so that it provides adequate seal with the femoral head.
Two-year outcome on 122 patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment for femoroacetabular impingement and chondrolabral dysfunction showed that, overall, most patients showed an improvement in symptoms and function and were satisfied with the results. Independent predictors of improved outcomes were joint space >2 mm and repair of labral pathology instead of debridement. Several other studies have shown excellent results following labral refixation and repair.
Labral tears have been associated with femoroacetabular impingement, instability, sports-related activity or trauma, capsular laxity or hypermobility, dysplasia, and degeneration. Untreated labral tears can result in premature osteoarthritis of the hip. Debridement only used to be the standard of care, but excellent results reveal arthroscopic labral repair and refixation are an option with good outcomes.
labral tear; labral refixation; femoroacetabular impingement; acetabular rim
As our understanding of hip pathology evolves, the focus is shifting toward earlier identification of hip pathology. Therefore, it is vitally important to elucidate intra-articular versus extra-articular pathology of hip pain in every step of the patient encounter: history, physical examination, and imaging.
The objective was to address the following research questions: (1) Can an algorithmic approach to physical examination of a painful non-arthritic hip provide a more accurate diagnosis and improved treatment plan? (2) Does an anatomical layered concept of clinical diagnosis improve diagnostic accuracy? (3) What are the diagnostic tools necessary for the accurate application of a four-layer (osteochondral, inert, contractile, and neuromechanical) diagnosis?
An unrestricted computerized search of MEDLINE was conducted. Different terms were used in various combinations.
An algorithmic approach to physical examination of a painful nonarthritic hip, including history, physical examination (specific tests), and advanced imaging allow for better interpretation of debilitating intra- and extra-articular disorders and their effect on core performance. Additionally, it improves our understanding as to how underlying abnormal joint mechanics may predispose the hip joint and the associated hemipelvis to asymmetric loads. These abnormal joint kinematics (layer I) can lead to cartilage and labral injury (layer II), as well as resultant injury to the musculotendinous (layer III) and neural structures (layer IV) about the hip joint and the hemipelvis. The layer concept is a systematic means of determining which structures about the hip are the source of hip pathology and how to best implement treatment.
A clear understanding of the differential diagnosis of hip pain through a detailed and systematic physical examination, diagnostic imaging assessment, and the interpretation of how mechanical factors can result in such a wide range of compensatory injury patterns about the hip can facilitate the diagnosis and treatment recommendations.
hip pain; mechanical hip pain; intra-articular hip pathology; extra-articular hip pathology; physical examination of the hip joint
Assessment of diaphyseal deformity in the tibia consists of delineating anatomic axes or cortical lines with resultant apices of deformity. Single-apex deformities have been well described both in terms of assessment and treatment, whereas double-level deformities with metaphyseal and/or juxtacortical involvement are less straightforward. Multiapical deformities of the lower extremity, though uncommon, are the next level of complexity and provide the surgeon with a difficult correctional mission.
We report two cases of multiapical deformity of the tibia, both of which were secondary to a distant history of tibial fracture with resultant knee and ankle joint degeneration and deformity. Both cases had three levels of deformity that were addressed with tibial osteotomy, ankle fusion, and total knee replacement. Initial presentation, problem lists, surgical treatment, and subsequent results are reviewed.
Treatment of a post-traumatic three-level deformity has never specifically been addressed in the literature, although the principles of treatment are the same as for less complex deformities.
Purposes and Clinical Relevance
These two cases present a treatment approach for complex, multiapical deformity of the tibia. The same principles of deformity correction used to treat less complex deformities are applied to these patients with an overarching synthesis that takes all aspects of the three deformities into account. Although these cases are complex and difficult, good results in terms of deformity correction and pain relief can be obtained.
Surgeons undertaking total hip arthroplasty (THA) routinely perform a distal femoral neck resection. It has been argued that retaining the femoral neck during THA can provide mechanical and biological advantages.
The objectives of this study were to review: (1) the current evidence on the advantages of femoral neck preservation during THA and (2) the clinical and radiological outcome of neck-preserving femoral stems.
A search of the English-language literature on neck-preserving THA and on the individual neck-preserving implants was performed using PubMed, Ovid SP and Science Direct.
Studies have indicated that neck preservation offers superior tri-planar implant stability and allows more accurate restoration of the hip geometry and biomechanics. The trend towards tissue sparing surgery has contributed to the development of bone-conserving short-stem implants that offer variable levels of neck preservation. Despite an initial learning curve, these implants have generated promising early clinical results, with low revision rates and high outcome scores. However, radiological evaluation of some neck-preserving implants has detected a characteristic pattern of proximal femoral bone loss with distal cortical hypertrophy. The long-term implications of this finding are not yet known.
Preserving the femoral neck during THA has biomechanical advantages. However, long-term outcome data are needed on neck-preserving femoral stems to evaluate on-going bone remodelling and assess implant performance and survival.
total hip arthroplasty; neck preservation; femoral stems
Ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings have excellent tribologic properties because of the smoothness, hardness, and wettability of the material. Therefore, their use has been proposed in younger, active patients who may wear out a traditional metal-on-polyethylene bearing. The same material properties that are beneficial to tribology may also create problems, however. For example, squeaking and fracture of the bearing materials have been reported to occur.
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the literature reporting the complications of ceramic bearings and attempt to provide insight into their implications.
The US National Library of Medicine Database (PubMed) was searched using the terms “ceramic-ceramic total hip replacement,” “complications,” “squeaking,” and “fracture.” Only clinical studies with a clear reporting of the incidence of these complications were included.
The literature reports that squeaking of the CoC bearing occurs in a certain percentage of patients and is likely indicative of edge loading and excessive wear. Other factors, such as patient height, weight, range of motion, and implant design, may contribute to the propensity for squeaking. Fracture is a unique risk of the CoC articulation that requires revision surgery. Though improvements in manufacturing techniques have reduced the fracture risk to a very low percentage, the ceramic material remains susceptible to this complication by impingement and component malposition.
Because of these possible negative outcomes associated with the ceramic material, the CoC bearing is too unpredictable to use regularly, and its use should be limited to patients who would benefit the most from it.
ceramic; total hip arthroplasty; squeaking; complications; bearing surfaces
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a commonly performed procedure with increasing frequency in the young adult. While most available outcome measures can document postoperative improvement in pain and function, they do not measure the ability to perform high-demand activities.
We present and validate a user-friendly discriminating hip scoring system (the functional hip score) for use in younger, “high-demand” patients undergoing hip arthroplasty surgery.
We studied 38 subjects without any hip symptoms and 72 patients undergoing THA for osteoarthritis of the hip. Preprocedure and postprocedure scores were collected in the latter cohort of patients. SF-36 and WOMAC scores were used to validate our functional scoring system. The functional hip score was tested for internal consistency, reliability, and criterion validity.
The functional hip score had high test–retest reliability, internal consistency, and criterion validity. This can be used to measure functional outcome in the younger high-demand adult patient undergoing THA.
Our discriminating functional hip score can reliably measure improvement in hip function in the younger high-demand adult. Current scoring systems have ceiling effects and are unable to differentiate a high performing hip replacement from the routine hip replacement. The use of functional tasks that are measured objectively allows better documentation of improvement in hip function.
outcomes; functional scores; hip outcomes; young adult hip
Background and Purpose:
Groin pain after metal on metal hip resurfacing has been previously reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of a cohort of patients with groin pain after hip resurfacing previously reported on and incidence of revision surgery.
Our group previously reported an 18% incidence of groin pain at a mean of 18 months post hip resurfacing. This cohort of groin pain patients was prospectively followed. Patients were evaluated using a visual analog pain rating score, the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Physical Activity Index, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) Index. Functional outcome scores were compared from initial to latest follow up using the paired Student’s t test. Further diagnostic evaluation and/or intervention or other complication was also recorded.
The latest mean follow up from surgery was 63 ± 15 months. The mean pain rating, UCLA, and WOMAC scores all improved at latest follow up, although WOMAC score improvement was not statistically significant. Mean pain rating score improved from 5.2 ± 2.0 to 2.5 ± 1.4 (p = 0.0001). UCLA activity score improved from 6.4 ± 2.0 to 6.9 ± 1.6 (p = 0.03). Total WOMAC score improved from 75.6 ± 20.5 to 84.5 ± 14.8 (p = 0.15). Only one patient was revised for an adverse local tissue reaction.
Groin pain post hip resurfacing has a multifactorial etiology, and in the vast majority of cases improves over time with no significant functional limitations. However, the surgeon should be aware of the many potential causes, and help minimize the possibility with proper patient selection and surgical technique.
metal-on-metal; hip resurfacing; groin pain
Metal-on-metal bearing with cemented femoral component and cementless acetabular fixation is the current standard in surface replacement arthroplasty (RSA) of the hip. Because of concerns about the long-term survivorship of cemented stems in conventional hip arthroplasty, it seems logical to achieve cementless fixation on the femoral side with RSA.
The goals of this review were to evaluate clinical and radiological data reported from previously published cementless RSA series. In addition, we intend to review author’s preliminary experience with Conserve Plus cementless devices specifically assessing the clinical outcomes, the complications rate, the survivorship, and the metallic ions levels measured in follow-up.
A references search was done with PubMed using the key words “cementless hip resurfacing”, “cementless hip resurfacing prosthesis”, and “femoral cementless hip resurfacing”. Additionally, the clinical outcomes, the complications rate, the survivorship, and the metallic ions levels were measured in 94 cementless Conserve Plus© devices in 90 patients (68 males and 22 females) with a mean age of 41.1 years (18–59). Mean follow-up was 13.1 months (8–16).
No revision was performed during the observed follow-up. Neither radiological signs of loosening nor neck narrowing >10% were evident. Chromium and cobalt levels in whole blood samples rose respectively from 0.53 μg/l (0.1–1.7) to 1.7 μg/l (0.6–2.9) and from 0.54 μg/l (0.1–1.4) to 1.98 μg/l (0.1–2.8).
Cementless “fit and fill” femoral-side fixation, which seems to be potentially evolved and design-related, should be considered for future hip-resurfacing device generations.
hip resurfacing; cementless device; cement; bone necrosis
Over the last several years, a trend towards increasing femoral head size in total hip arthroplasty to improve stability and impingement free range of motion has been observed.
The specific questions we sought to answer in our review were: (1) What are the potential advantages and disadvantages of metal-on-metal, ceramic-on-ceramic, and metal-on-polyethylene bearings? (2) What is effect that femoral head size has on joint kinematics? (3) What is the effect that large femoral heads have on bearing surface wear?
A PubMed search and a review of 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society abstracts was performed and articles were chosen that directly answered components of the specific aims and that reported outcomes with contemporary implant designs or materials.
A review of the literature suggests that increasing femoral head size decreases the risk of postoperative dislocation and improves impingement free range of motion; however, volumetric wear increases with large femoral heads on polyethylene and increases corrosion of the stem in large metal-on-metal modular total hip arthroplasty (THA); however, the risk of potentially developing osteolysis or adverse reactions to metal debris respectively is still unknown. Further, the effect of large femoral heads with ceramic-on-ceramic THA is unclear, due to limited availability and published data.
Surgeons must balance the benefits of larger head size with the increased risk of volumetric wear when determining the appropriate head size for a given patient.
femoral head size; total hip arthroplasty; volumetric wear; large femoral heads; dislocation
Promethazine is a commonly used medication to treat nausea and motion sickness. Case reports have recently surfaced on the dangers of parenteral administration of promethazine. We present a case report of a presumed intravenous injection of promethazine into an antecubital intravenous line resulting in necrosis of the ring finger distal to the DIP joint and hypoperfusion of the digits. Peripheral sympathectomy was performed to improve nutritional flow and improve ischemic pain. However, although this novel treatment option was successful, ultimately the patient had an amputation of her ring finger at the level of her middle phalanx. Although no proven successful treatment exists, the updated treatment options following inadvertent intra-arterial or perivascular administration are presented. Given the limited success of current treatment options for intra-arterial or perivascular extravasation, the staggering medical malpractice awards in such cases, and the numerous therapeutic alternatives to promethazine, the medical community should question the safety and continued administration of promethazine by an intravenous route.
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is an alternative to traditional total hip replacement (THR) that allows for the preservation of femoral bone. It is a more technically difficult procedure that has led some researchers to report an unsatisfactory learning curve (Berend et al., J Bone Joint Surg Am Suppl 2:89–92, 2011; Mont et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 465:63–70, 2007).
The purpose of this study was to investigate the adoption of HRA at our institution, examining the clinical results, revision rate, and modes of failure. Additionally, a comparison of three different implant systems was performed.
A retrospective review of a consecutive series of HRA performed at our institution between the years 2004 and 2009 was carried out. A total of 820 HRA with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up were included in the study. The majority of included patients were males (70%), with osteoarthritis (92%). The average age was 49.8 years, and the mean BMI was 27.5 kg/m2.
The average Harris hip score improved from 61 to 96.5 postoperatively. Thirteen revisions (1.6%) were performed for femoral neck fracture, femoral head osteonecrosis, acetabular loosening, metal reactivity/metallosis, and metal allergy. The overall Kaplan–Meier survival curve with revision surgery as an endpoint showed 98.5% survival at 5 years. There were no observable differences in clinical scores or revision rates between the different implant systems.
HRA can be successfully adopted with a low complication rate, given careful patient selection, specialized surgical training, and use of good implant design.
hip resurfacing arthroplasty; results; complications; learning curve
Open and arthroscopic procedures are treatment options for patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Age has been found to be a predictive factor in the outcome of patients undergoing periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for hip dysplasia. It is unclear if older age contraindicates joint preservation through a surgical hip dislocation (SHD).
The purpose of this retrospective case series was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of patients over 40 years of age without radiographic evidence of end-stage arthritis who underwent SHD for the treatment of FAI and to determine whether older age should be a contraindication for joint-preserving procedures in these patients. Our specific aims included (1) documenting the intraoperative findings and procedures, (2) assessing pain relief provided, and (3) assessing treatment failures and postoperative complications, noting the number of patients that ultimately required total hip arthroplasty (THA).
Patients and Methods
All patients at age 40 and older who had SHD for the treatment of FAI were identified from a series of patients treated with SHD. Clinical notes, radiographs, and operative reports were reviewed to determine clinical results, complications, and the need for additional procedures. The minimum follow-up was 1 year (mean 3.9 years; range 1–8 years).
At final follow-up, 11/22 (50%) of hips had pain relief, while 11/22 (50%) either continued having significant symptoms or required THA. Five (23%) reported nontrochanteric pain symptoms that were the same or worse than before surgery, and six hips (27%) underwent subsequent THA). The average time between SHD and THA was 1.9 years (0.9–6.2). The average age of patients who went on to require THA was 45 (42–50) years.
Surgical hip dislocation can be used for the treatment of FAI in patients over age 40, but strict selection criteria should be adhered to, as only half of the patients experienced significant improvement in their hip pain. THA was required in one-third of hips for continued pain and radiographic progression of arthritis. SHD for treatment of pathology that is not amenable to hip arthroscopy should remain a surgical option in older patients with FAI only if joint degeneration is not present.
hip offset; femoracetabular impingement; joint preservation; surgical hip dislocation
Cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can impose elevated mechanical loading in the hip, potentially leading to an eventual mechanical failure of the joint. Since in vivo data on the pathomechanisms of FAI are limited, it is still unclear how this deformity leads to osteoarthritis.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cam FAI on hip joint mechanical loading using finite element analysis, by incorporating subject-specific geometries, kinematics, and kinetics.
The research objectives were to address and determine: (1) if hips with cam FAI demonstrate higher maximum shear stresses, in comparison with control hips; (2) the magnitude of the peak maximum shear stresses; and (3) the locations of the peak maximum shear stresses.
Using finite element analysis, two patient models were control-matched and simulated during quasi-static positions from standing to squatting. Intersegmental hip forces, from a previous study, were applied to the subject-specific hip geometries, segmented from CT data, to evaluate the maximum shear stresses on the acetabular cartilage and underlying bone.
Peak maximum shear stresses were found at the anterosuperior region of the underlying bone during squatting. The peaks at the anterosuperior acetabulum were substantially higher for the patients (15.2 ± 1.8 MPa) in comparison with the controls (4.5 ± 0.1 MPa).
Peaks were not situated on the cartilage, but instead located on the underlying bone. The results correspond with the locations of initial cartilage degradation observed during surgical treatment and from MRI.
These findings support the pathomechanism of cam FAI. Changes may originate from the underlying subchondral bone properties rather than direct shear stresses to the articular cartilage.
hip; impingement; cam femoroacetabular impingement; finite element analysis; subject-specific; finite element model
The incidence of hip replacements in the younger patient is ever increasing. With this in mind, improving the longevity of hip arthroplasties is paramount. Alumina ceramic is a promising bearing surface due to its low wear rate and biological inertness.
This study aims to review our experience with ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty, reporting on the need for revision as well as the cause of failure. Our secondary purpose is to review our experience with the phenomenon of squeaking analysing and its effect on clinical outcome with specific emphasis on component positioning. Also reported are the results of our retrieval analysis of explanted components documenting the wear rate and our analysis of strip wear.
A consecutive series of 301 primary cementless alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasties at a minimum of 10 years follow-up was reviewed. These arthroplasties all had third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic bearings performed through a posterior approach with repair of capsule and external rotators to bone. We analysed hips both clinically and radiographically. Analysis of wear in 62 ceramic bearings was performed using a Roundtest RA300 machine (Mitutoyo; Andover, UK), which has an accuracy of 0.01 μm.
Overall, the survival rate of the implants was 98% at 10 years. No ceramic fractures were encountered in this study. Seventy-four patients reported squeaking hips, and two cases were revised due to squeaking (0.6%). No failures were related to bearing wear.
We believe that ceramic-on-ceramic is a safe bearing coupling with excellent survivorship at 10 years.
ceramic-on-ceramic; alumina; review; squeaking; alumina fracture
Although pelvic osteotomy in children has been effective in re-establishing containment of the hip joint, its impact on hip joint development with respect to acetabular coverage is ill defined.
The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of acetabular overcoverage in patients who had pelvic osteotomy during childhood and its impact on patient function.
Patients and Methods
Between 1980 and 2008, all patients who had a pelvic osteotomy done at our institution for non-neuropathic hip dysplasia (DDH) or secondary to Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease (LCP) prior to skeletal maturity were reviewed. A clinical assessment and the WOMAC, UCLA Activity Score, Marx activity score, and SF-36 quality-of-life questionnaires were completed. A standardized AP pelvic X-ray was performed to determine the acetabular coverage, signs of retroversion, and degenerative changes.
Twenty-eight patients (32 hips) were identified, of which 14 (9 DDH, 5 LCP) agreed to participate. Impingement sign was positive in eight patients (six DDH, two LCP). Crossover and ischial spine signs were each present in ten hips. Tonnis grades were: 0 in 1 hip, 1 in 10 hips, 2 in 2 hips, and 3 in 1 hip. The mean Tonnis angle was 11.6 ± 8.6°. The mean CE angle was 24.0 ± 15.9° with six hips having a CE angle <20° and one hip with a CE angle >40°. There was no correlation between crossover sign or ischial sign and Tonnis grade (p = 0.739), hip pain (p = 0.520), or impingement sign (p = 1.00).
Acetabular overcoverage is common in patients who underwent pelvic osteotomy during childhood. No correlation was identified between retroversion and hip pain in our patient cohort.
pelvic osteotomy; acetabular coverage; retroversion; pediatric
Adverse reaction to metal debris is a relatively recently described and often a silent complication of metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip replacements (THR). The Norfolk & Norwich University Hospital has been performing metal artefact reduction (MARS) MRI for 8 years in a variety of different types of MOM THR.
The aims of this review are to describe the experience of using MARS MRI in Norwich and to compare our experience with that published by other groups.
A MEDLINE keyword search was performed for studies including MRI in MOM THR. Relevant publications were reviewed and compared with published data from the Norfolk & Norwich University Hospital. The similarities and differences between these data were compared and possible explanations for these discussed.
MARS MRI appears to be the most useful tool for diagnosing, staging and monitoring adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD). There appears to be no clinically useful association between clinical and serological markers of disease and the severity of MR findings. Although severe early ARMD is associated with significant morbidity, mild disease is often stable for years. If patients with normal initial MR examinations develop ARMD, this usually occurs 7 years. A 1-year interval between MRI examinations is reasonable in asymptomatic patients.
There is a general international consensus that ARMD is prevalent in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with MOM THR and that while appearances vary with the type of prosthesis, there are characteristic features that make MARS MRI essential for diagnosis, staging and surveillance of the disease.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11420-013-9357-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
hip; arthroplasty; metal-on-metal; ALVAL; MRI
Preoperative donation of autologous blood has been widely used to minimize the potential risk of allogeneic transfusions in total knee arthroplasty. A previous study from our center revealed that preoperative autologous donation reduces the allogeneic blood exposure for anemic patients but has no effect for non-anemic patients.
The current study investigates the impact of a targeted blood donation protocol on overall transfusion rates and the incidence of allogeneic blood transfusions.
Prospectively, 372 patients undergoing 425 unilateral primary knee replacements were preoperatively screened by the Blood Preservation Center between 2009 and 2012. Anemic patients with a hemoglobin level less than 13.5 g/dL were advised to donate blood, while non-anemic patients did not donate.
Non-anemic patients who did not donate blood required allogeneic blood transfusions in 5.9% of the patients. The overall rate of allogeneic transfusion was significantly lower for anemic patients who donated autologous blood (group A, 9%) than those who did not donate (group B, 33%; p < 0.001). Donating autologous blood did increase the overall transfusion rate of anemic patients to 0.84 per patient in group A compared to 0.41 per patient in group B (p < 0.001).
This investigation confirms that abandoning preoperative autologous blood donation for non-anemic patients does not increase allogeneic blood transfusion rates but significantly lowers overall transfusion rates.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11420-013-9346-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
anemia; total knee arthroplasty; blood management; preoperative autologous blood donation; allogeneic transfusion