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1.  ER vs. ED: A Comparison of Televised and Real-Life Emergency Medicine 
The Journal of emergency medicine  2012;43(6):1160-1166.
Background
Although accurate health-related representations of medical situations on television can be valuable, inaccurate portrayals can engender misinformation.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to compare socio-demographic and medical characteristics of patients depicted on television vs. actual U.S. Emergency Department (ED) patients.
Methods
Two independently working coders analyzed all 22 programs in one complete year of the popular emergency room drama ER. Inter-rater reliability was excellent, and all initial coding differences were easily adjudicated. Actual health data were obtained from the National Heath and Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data from the same year. We used Pearson’s chi-squared test to compare televised vs. real distribution across key socio-demographic and medical variables.
Results
Ages at the extremes (e.g., ≤4 and ≥45) were less commonly represented on television compared with reality. Compared with reality, characters on television were less commonly women (31.2% vs. 52.9%), African American (12.7% vs. 20.3%) or Hispanic (7.1% vs. 12.5%). The two most common acuity categories for television were the extreme categories “non-urgent” and “emergent,” whereas the two most common categories for reality were the middle categories “semi-urgent” and “urgent.” Compared with reality, televised visits were most commonly due to injury (63.5% vs. 37.0%), and televised injuries were less commonly work-related (4.2% vs. 14.8%).
Conclusions
Comparison of represented and actual characteristics of ED patients may be valuable in helping us determine what types of patient misperceptions may exist as well as what types of interventions may be beneficial in correcting that potential misinformation.
doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2011.11.002
PMCID: PMC3573875  PMID: 22766407
Television; emergency department; content analysis; NHAMCS; health disparities
2.  Alcohol Brand Appearances in U.S. Popular Music 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2011;107(3):557-566.
Aims
The average US adolescent is exposed to 34 references to alcohol in popular music daily. Although brand recognition is an independent, potent risk factor for alcohol outcomes among adolescents, alcohol brand appearances in popular music have not been systematically assessed. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and contextual elements associated with alcohol brand appearances in U.S. popular music.
Design
Qualitative content analysis.
Setting
We used Billboard Magazine to identify songs to which US adolescents were most exposed in 2005-2007. For each of the 793 songs, two trained coders independently analyzed the lyrics of each song for references to alcohol and alcohol brand appearances. Subsequent in-depth assessments utilised Atlas.ti to determine contextual factors associated with each of the alcohol brand appearances.
Measurements
Our final code book contained 27 relevant codes representing 6 categories: alcohol types, consequences, emotional states, activities, status, and objects.
Findings
Average inter-rater reliability was high (κ=0.80), and all differences were easily adjudicated. Of the 793 songs in our sample, 169 (21.3%) explicitly referred to alcohol, and of those, 41 (24.3%) contained an alcohol brand appearance. Consequences associated with alcohol were more often positive than negative (41.5% vs. 17.1%, P<.001). Alcohol brand appearances were commonly associated with wealth (63.4%), sex (58.5%), luxury objects (51.2%), partying (48.8%), other drugs (43.9%), and vehicles (39.0%).
Conclusions
One-in-five songs sampled from U.S. popular music had explicit references to alcohol, and one quarter of these mentioned a specific alcohol brand. These alcohol brand appearances are commonly associated with a luxury lifestyle characterised by wealth, sex, partying, and other drugs.
doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03649.x
PMCID: PMC3273659  PMID: 22011113
Alcohol; music; product placement; marketing; advertising; adolescent; vodka; tequila; rap music; hip-hop music; country music
3.  U.S. Hookah Tobacco Smoking Establishments Advertised on the Internet 
Background
Establishments dedicated to hookah tobacco smoking have recently proliferated and helped introduce hookah use to U.S. communities.
Purpose
To conduct a comprehensive, qualitative assessment of websites promoting these establishments.
Methods
In June 2009, a systematic search process was initiated to access the universe of websites representing major hookah tobacco smoking establishments. In 2009–2010, codebook development followed an iterative paradigm involving three researchers and resulted in a final codebook consisting of 36 codes within eight categories. After two independent coders had nearly perfect agreement (Cohen’s κ=0.93) on double-coding the data in the first 20% of sites, the coders divided the remaining sites and coded them independently. A thematic approach to the synthesis of findings and selection of exemplary quotations was used.
Results
The search yielded a sample of 144 websites originating from states in all U.S. regions. Among the hookah establishments promoted on the websites, 79% served food and 41% served alcohol. Of the websites, none required age verification, <1% included a tobacco-related warning on the first page, and 4% included a warning on any page. Although mention of the word tobacco was relatively uncommon (appearing on the first page of only 26% sites and on any page of 58% of sites), the promotion of flavorings, pleasure, relaxation, product quality, and cultural and social aspects of hookah smoking was common.
Conclusions
Websites may play a role in enhancing or propagating misinformation related to hookah tobacco smoking. Health education and policy measures may be valuable in countering this misinformation.
doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.10.013
PMCID: PMC3391575  PMID: 22261211
4.  Exploring successful community pharmacist-physician collaborative working relationships using mixed methods 
Background
Collaborative working relationships (CWRs) between community pharmacists and physicians may foster the provision of medication therapy management services, disease state management, and other patient care activities; however, pharmacists have expressed difficulty in developing such relationships. Additional work is needed to understand the specific pharmacist-physician exchanges that effectively contribute to the development of CWR. Data from successful pairs of community pharmacists and physicians may provide further insights into these exchange variables and expand research on models of professional collaboration.
Objective
To describe the professional exchanges that occurred between community pharmacists and physicians engaged in successful CWRs, using a published conceptual model and tool for quantifying the extent of collaboration.
Methods
A national pool of experts in community pharmacy practice identified community pharmacists engaged in CWRs with physicians. Five pairs of community pharmacists and physician colleagues participated in individual semistructured interviews, and 4 of these pairs completed the Pharmacist-Physician Collaborative Index (PPCI). Main outcome measures include quantitative (ie, scores on the PPCI) and qualitative information about professional exchanges within 3 domains found previously to influence relationship development: relationship initiation, trustworthiness, and role specification.
Results
On the PPCI, participants scored similarly on trustworthiness; however, physicians scored higher on relationship initiation and role specification. The qualitative interviews revealed that when initiating relationships, it was important for many pharmacists to establish open communication through face-to-face visits with physicians. Furthermore, physicians were able to recognize in these pharmacists a commitment for improved patient care. Trustworthiness was established by pharmacists making consistent contributions to care that improved patient outcomes over time. Open discussions regarding professional roles and an acknowledgment of professional norms (ie, physicians as decision makers) were essential.
Conclusions
The findings support and extend the literature on pharmacist-physician CWRs by examining the exchange domains of relationship initiation, trustworthiness, and role specification qualitatively and quantitatively among pairs of practitioners. Relationships appeared to develop in a manner consistent with a published model for CWRs, including the pharmacist as relationship initiator, the importance of communication during early stages of the relationship, and an emphasis on high-quality pharmacist contributions.
doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2009.11.008
PMCID: PMC3004536  PMID: 21111388
Pharmacists; Physicians; Collaborative working relationships; Pharmacist-physician collaborative index; Community
5.  Waterpipe and Cigarette Smoking Among College Athletes in the United States 
Purpose
Tobacco use using a waterpipe is an emerging trend among college students. Although cigarette smoking is low among college athletes, waterpipe tobacco smoking may appeal to this population. The purpose of this study was to compare cigarette and waterpipe tobacco smoking in terms of their associations with organized sport participation.
Methods
In the spring of 2008, we conducted an online survey of 8,745 college students at eight institutions as part of the revised National College Health Assessment. We used multivariable regression models to assess the associations between tobacco use (cigarette and waterpipe) and organized sports participation.
Results
Participants reported participation in varsity (5.2%), club (11.9%), and intramural (24.9%) athletics. Varsity athletes and individuals who were not varsity athletes had similar rates of waterpipe tobacco smoking (27.6% vs. 29.5%, p = .41). However, other types of athletes were more likely than their counterparts to have smoked waterpipe tobacco (35.1% vs. 28.7%, p < .001 for club sports and 34.8% vs. 27.7%, p < .001 for intramural sports). In fully-adjusted multivariable models, sports participants of any type had lower odds of having smoked cigarettes, whereas participants who played intramural sports (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1.29) or club sports (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.001, 1.33) had significantly higher odds of having smoked waterpipe tobacco.
Conclusions
College athletes are susceptible to waterpipe tobacco use. In fact, compared with their nonathletic counterparts, club sports participants and intramural sports participants generally had higher odds of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Allure for waterpipe tobacco smoking may exist even for individuals who are traditionally considered at low risk for tobacco use.
doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.05.004
PMCID: PMC3001225  PMID: 20123257
Athletes; Waterpipe; Hookah; Tobacco; Team sports; Club sports; Intramural sports; Varsity sports; Organized sports; College

Results 1-5 (5)