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1.  Facilitating collaboration between pharmacists and physicians using an iterative interview process 
Objective
To elicit and describe mutually agreed upon common problems and subsequent solutions resulting from a facilitated face-to-face meeting between pharmacists and physicians.
Design
Descriptive, exploratory, non-experimental study.
Setting
Wisconsin from October to December 2011.
Participants
Physicians and community pharmacists
Intervention
Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with pharmacists and physicians from the same community, informed by previous individual interviews.
Main outcome measure
Methods to enhance collaboration and barriers to implementing collaboration between pharmacists and physicians
Results
Physicians and pharmacists generated ideas in which collaboration could improve patient care, including controlled substance monitoring, medication adherence, collaborative practice agreements for point of service issues, and a mechanism for urgent communication. Methods on how to collaborate on these issues were also discussed.
Conclusions
Bringing physicians and pharmacists together for a face-to-face interaction that was informed by information gained in previous individual interviews successfully stimulated conversation on ways in which each profession could help the other provide optimal patient care. This interaction appeared to dispel assumptions and build trust. Results of this project may provide pharmacists with the confidence to reach out to their physician colleagues.
doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2014.13104
PMCID: PMC3998751  PMID: 24362573
Collaboration; community pharmacist; physician
2.  A qualitative assessment of a community pharmacy cognitive pharmaceutical services program, using a work system approach 
Background
Although lack of time, trained personnel, and reimbursement have been identified as barriers to pharmacists providing cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS) in community pharmacies, the underlying contributing factors of these barriers have not been explored. One approach to better understand barriers and facilitators to providing CPS is to use a work system approach to examine different components of a work system and how the components may impact care processes.
Objectives
The goals of this study were to identify and describe pharmacy work system characteristics that pharmacists identified and changed to provide CPS in a demonstration program.
Methods
A qualitative approach was used for data collection. A purposive sample of 8 pharmacists at 6 community pharmacies participating in a demonstration program was selected to be interviewed. Each semistructured interview was audio recorded and transcribed, and the text was analyzed in a descriptive and interpretive manner by 3 analysts. Themes were identified in the text and aligned with 1 of 5 components of the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) work system model (organization, tasks, tools/technology, people, and environment).
Results
A total of 21 themes were identified from the interviews, and 7 themes were identified across all 6 interviews. The organization component of the SEIPS model contained the most (n = 10) themes. Numerous factors within a pharmacy work system appear important to enable pharmacists to provide CPS. Leadership and foresight by the organization to implement processes (communication, coordination, planning, etc.) to facilitate providing CPS was a key finding across the interviews. Expanding technician responsibilities was reported to be essential for successfully implementing CPS.
Conclusions
To be successful in providing CPS, pharmacists must be cognizant of the different components of the pharmacy work system and how these components influence providing CPS.
doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2011.06.001
PMCID: PMC3351586  PMID: 21824822
Medication therapy management; Community pharmacy; Human factors; Work systems

Results 1-2 (2)