The functional annotation of the cancer genome can reveal new opportunities for cancer therapies. The wealth of genomic data on various cancers has not yet been mined for clinically and therapeutically useful information. We use cross-comparisons of genomic data with the results of unbiased genetic screens to prioritize genomic changes for further study.1,2 In this manner, we have identified a soluble variant of the ephrin receptor A7 (EPHA7TR) as a tumor suppressor that is lost in lymphoma. We also developed antibody-based delivery to restore this tumor suppressor to the cancer cells in situ. We will discuss our strategy of screening genomic data, specific findings concerning EPHA7 and the potential for future discoveries.
genomic data; lymphoma; tumor suppressor; EPHA7
The transcriptional co-activator YAP is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of organ size and progenitor cell proliferation. YAP is overexpressed at high frequency in many common human cancers and can directly drive cancer development in mouse models. YAP abundance and nuclear localization are negatively regulated by the Hippo kinase cascade, which, in epithelia, is activated by physiological cell-cell contact. recent work in intestinal epithelium has established that YAP is constitutively inhibited by the Hippo pathway and entirely dispensable for normal development and homeostasis. YAP serves only in a standby capacity; should cell-cell contact be abrogated, as after intestinal damage, the loss of Hippo input permits increased YAP abundance and nuclear residence. in turn, YAP cooperates with β-catenin to transactivate genes that promote stem cell expansion for epithelial repair. This interplay between overexpressed YAP and β-catenin also drives proliferation of colon cancer cells. The dispensability of YAP in normal intestine makes YAP's expression or outputs attractive targets for cancer therapy.
YAP; Hippo; intestinal stem cell; β-catenin; colon cancer; liver cancer
The deubiquitinating enzyme USP2a has shown oncogenic properties in many cancer types by impairing ubiquitination of FASN, MDM2, MDMX or Aurora A. Aberrant expression of USP2a has been linked to progression of human tumors, particularly prostate cancer. However, little is known about the role of USP2a or its mechanism of action in bladder cancer. Here, we provide evidence that USP2a is an oncoprotein in bladder cancer cells. Enforced expression of USP2a caused enhanced proliferation, invasion, migration and resistance to several chemotherapeutic reagents, while USP2a loss resulted in slower proliferation, greater chemosensitivity and reduced migratory/invasive capability compared with control cells. USP2a, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, enhanced proliferation in immortalized TRT-HU1 normal human bladder epithelial cells. USP2a bound to cyclin A1 and prevented cyclin A1 ubiquitination, leading to accumulation of cyclin A1 by a block in degradation. Enforced expression of wild-type USP2a, but not an inactive USP2a mutant, resulted in cyclin A1 accumulation and increased cell proliferation. We conclude that USP2a impairs ubiquitination and stabilizes an important cell cycle regulator, cyclin A1, raising the possibility of USP2a targeting as a therapeutic strategy against bladder tumors in combination with chemotherapy.
USP2a; cyclin A1; bladder cancer; cisplatin resistance; deubiquitination
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is notoriously resistant to treatment. Therefore, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. ATM elicits the DNA damage response (DDR), which confers cellular radioresistance; thus, targeting the DDR with an ATM inhibitior (ATMi) is very attractive. Herein, we show that dynamic ATM kinase inhibition in the nanomolar range results in potent radiosensitization of human glioma cells, inhibits growth and does not conflict with temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. The second generation ATMi analog KU-60019 provided quick, reversible and complete inhibition of the DDR at sub-micromolar concentrations in human glioblastoma cells. KU-60019 inhibited the phosphorylation of the major DNA damage effectors p53, H2AX and KAP1 as well as AKT. Colony-forming radiosurvival showed that continuous exposure to nanomolar concentrations of KU-60019 effectively radiosensitized glioblastoma cell lines. When cells were co-treated with KU-60019 and TMZ, a slight increase in radiation-induced cell killing was noted, although TMZ alone was unable to radiosensitize these cells. In addition, without radiation, KU-60019 with or without TMZ reduced glioma cell growth but had no significant effect on the survival of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived astrocytes. Altogether, transient inhibition of the ATM kinase provides a promising strategy for radiosensitizing GBM in combination with standard treatment. In addition, without radiation, KU-60019 limits growth of glioma cells in co-culture with human astrocytes that seem unaffected by the same treatment. Thus, inter-fraction growth inhibition could perhaps be achieved in vivo with minor adverse effects to the brain.
AKT; DNA repair; KU-60019; temozolomide
TopBP1 is critical for both DNA replication and checkpoint regulation in vertebrate cells. In this study, we have identified Rif1 as a binding partner of TopBP1 in Xenopus egg extracts. In addition, Rif1 also interacts with both ATM and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, which are key regulators of checkpoint responses to double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Depletion of Rif1 from egg extracts compromises the activation of Chk1 in response to DSBs but not stalled replication forks. Removal of Rif1 also has a significant impact on the chromatin-binding behavior of key checkpoint proteins. In particular, binding of TopBP1, ATR and the MRN complex to chromatin containing DSBs is reduced in the absence of Rif1. Rif1 interacts with chromatin in a highly regulated and dynamic manner. In unperturbed egg extracts, the association of Rif1 with chromatin depends upon formation of replication forks. In the presence of DSBs, there is elevated accumulation of Rif1 on chromatin under conditions where the activation of ATM is suppressed. Taken together, these results suggest that Rif1 plays a dynamic role in the early steps of a checkpoint response to DSBs in the egg-extract system by promoting the correct accumulation of key regulators on the DNA.
Rif1; TopBP1; ATR; Chk1; cell cycle control; checkpoint mechanisms; Xenopus egg extract
Cisplatin was shown to induce the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent phosphorylation of tumor protein p63 isoform, (ΔNp63α), leading to a transcriptional regulation of specific genes implicated in the control of cell death of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. We previously observed that the cisplatin-induced phosphorylated (p)-ΔNp63α transcriptionally regulates the expression of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in SCC cells. We found here that cisplatin exposure of SCC cells led to modulation of the members of the autophagic pathway, such as Atg1/Ulk1, Atg3, Atg4A, Atg5, Atg6/Becn1, Atg7, Atg9A and Atg10, by a direct p-ΔNp63α-dependent transcriptional regulation. We further found that specific miRNAs (miR-181a, miR-519a, miR-374a and miR-630), which are critical downstream targets of the p-ΔNp63α, modulated the protein levels of ATG5, ATG6/BECN1, ATG10, ATG12, ATG16L1 and UVRAG, adding another level of expression control for autophagic pathways in SCC cells upon cisplatin exposure. Our data support the notion that the cisplatin-induced p-ΔNp63α could regulate key pathways implicated in response of cancer cells to chemotherapeutics.
p63; squamous cell carcinomas; autophagy; microRNA; transcription; cisplatin
The first differentiation event in mammalian development gives rise to the blastocyst, consisting of two cell lineages that have also segregated in how the cell cycle is structured. Pluripotent cells of the inner cell mass divide mitotically to retain a diploid DNA content, but the outer trophoblast cells can amplify their genomes more than 500-fold by undergoing multiple rounds of DNA replication, completely bypassing mitosis. Central to this striking divergence in cell cycle control is the E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C). Extended suppression of APC/C activity during interphase of mouse pluripotent cells promotes rapid cell cycle progression by allowing stabilization of cyclins, whereas unopposed APC/C activity during S phase of mouse trophoblast cells triggers proteasomal-mediated degradation of geminin and giant cell formation. While differential APC/C activity might govern the atypical cell cycles observed in pre-implantation mouse embryos, geminin is a critical APC/C substrate that: (1) escapes degradation in pluripotent cells to maintain expression of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog and (2) mediates specification and endoreduplication when targeted for ectopic destruction in trophoblast. Thus, in contrast to trophoblast giant cells that lack geminin, geminin is preserved in both mouse pluripotent cells and non-endoreduplicating human cytotrophoblast cells.
APC/C; geminin; Emi1; cell cycle; pluripotency; trophoblast; endoreduplication; DNA damage
Heart failure is a leading cause of death worldwide. Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are a nuclear receptor subfamily that facilitates the transcription of contractile and nucleus-encoded mitochondrial genes in the heart. Impaired expression of these ERR target genes is frequently observed in human heart failure patients. However, the responsible molecular mechanism is not well-understood. Recently, we have shown that PPARα forms a protein complex with Sirt1, which is involved in the downregulation of ERR targets through direct interaction with the ERR response element (ERRE) in the failing heart. Here, we provide additional lines of evidence supporting the pathological involvement of the PPARα/Sirt1 complex in heart failure. Pressure overload-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was attenuated in mice with heterozygous knockout of either PPARα (PPARα+/−) or Sirt1 (Sirt1+/−), whereas cardiac-specific PPARα and Sirt1 bigenic mice showed LV hypertrophy accompanied by a high mortality rate even without pressure overload. Microarray analyses indicated that nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes were largely downregulated and mitochondrial morphological abnormalities were observed in PPARα/Sirt1 bigenic mice. Those downregulated mitochondrial genes frequently harbor the ERRE in the promoter regions. Artificial and physiological PPARα ligands suppressed reporter genes driven by the ERREs. PPARα bound to and recruited Sirt1 to the genomic flanking region of the ERREs in the heart. Pressure overload downregulated many ERR targets, which were partly normalized by PPARα+/− and Sirt1+/− mice. These results suggest that PPARα and Sirt1 downregulate ERR target gene expression through direct interaction with the ERRE in the failing heart.
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα); silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1); estrogen-related receptor (ERR); transcriptional control; nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene; heart failure
Despite the massive toll in human suffering imparted by degenerative lung disease, including COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and ARDS, the scientific community has been surprisingly agnostic regarding the potential of lung tissue and, in particular, the alveoli, to regenerate. However, there is circumstantial evidence in humans and direct evidence in mice that ARDS triggers robust regeneration of lung tissue rather than irreversible fibrosis. The stem cells responsible for this remarkable regenerative process has garnered tremendous attention, most recently yielding a defined set of cloned human airway stem cells marked by p63 expression but with distinct commitment to differentiated cell types typical of the upper or lower airways, the latter of which include alveoli-like structures in vitro and in vivo. These recent advances in lung regeneration and distal airway stem cells and the potential of associated soluble factors in regeneration must be harnessed for therapeutic options in chronic lung disease.
ARDs; lung regeneration; lung stem cells; influenza; COPD; pulmonary fibrosis
The chimeric PAX3-FKHR transcription factor is present in a majority of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), an aggressive skeletal muscle cancer of childhood. PAX3-FKHR-mediated aberrant myogenic gene expression resulting in escape from terminal differentiation program is believed to contribute in ARMS development. In skeletal muscle differentiation, activation of AKT pathway leads to myogenic gene activation and terminal differentiation. Here, we report that AKT acts, in part, by modulating PAX3-FKHR transcriptional activity via phosphorylation in the maintenance of the myogenic differentiation blockade in established mouse models of ARMS cells. We observed that low levels of AKT activity are associated with elevated levels of PAX3-FKHR transcriptional activity, and AKT hyperactivation results in PAX3-FKHR phosphorylation coupled with decreased activity once cells are under differentiation-permissible conditions. Subsequent data shows that attenuated AKT activity-associated PAX3-FKHR activity is required to suppress the function of MyoD, a key myogenic regulator of muscle differentiation. Conversely, decreased PAX3-FKHR activity results in the eradication of MyoD expression and subsequent suppression of the myogenic differentiation. Thus, AKT regulation of the PAX3-FKHR suppresses myogenic gene expression in ARMS cells, causing a failure in differentiation. Evidence is presented that provides a novel molecular link between AKT and PAX3-FKHR in maintaining myogenic differentiation blockade in ARMS.
AKT; alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma; myogenic regulator MyoD; muscle differentiation; PAX3-FKHR
Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated at the cellular level and is essential for cellular growth. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs, have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, acting predominantly at the posttranscriptional level. Recent work from our group and others has shown that hsa-miR-33a and hsa-miR-33b, miRNAs located within intronic sequences of the Srebp genes, regulate cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in concert with their host genes. Here, we show that hsa-miR-33 family members modulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation. MiR-33 inhibits the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) and cyclin D1 (CCND1), thereby reducing cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Overexpression of miR-33 induces a significant G1 cell cycle arrest in Huh7 and A549 cell lines. Most importantly, inhibition of miR-33 expression using 2′fluoro/methoxyethyl-modified (2′F/MOE-modified) phosphorothioate backbone antisense oligonucleotides improves liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in mice, suggesting an important role for miR-33 in regulating hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. Altogether, these results suggest that Srebp/miR-33 locus may cooperate to regulate cell proliferation and cell cycle progression and may also be relevant to human liver regeneration.
CDK6; cyclin D1; miR-33; cell cycle; microRNA
Mdm2 can mediate p53 ubiquitylation and degradation either in the form of the Mdm2 homodimer or Mdm2/MdmX heterodimer. The ubiquitin ligase activity of these complexes resides mainly in their respective RING finger domains and also requires adjacent C-terminal tails. So far, structural studies have failed to show significant differences between Mdm2 RING homodimers and Mdm2/MdmX RING heterodimers. Here, we report that not only the primary amino acid sequence, but also the length of the C-terminal tail of Mdm2 is highly conserved through evolution and plays an important role in Mdm2 activity toward p53. Mdm2 mutants with extended C termini do not ubiquitylate p53 despite being capable of forming Mdm2 homodimers through both RING-acidic domain and RING-RING interactions. All extended mutants also retained the ability to interact with MdmX, and this interaction led to reactivation of their E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. In contrast, only a subset of extended Mdm2 mutants was activated by the interaction with Mdm2 RING domain, suggesting that Mdm2 homodimers and Mdm2/MdmX heterodimers may not be structurally and functionally fully equivalent.
p53; Mdm2; RING domain; ubiquitylation; ubiquitin ligase; E3
Human telomeres consist of multiple tandem hexameric repeats, each containing a guanine triplet. Guanosine-rich clusters are highly susceptible to oxidative base damage, necessitating base excision repair (BER). Previous demonstration of enhanced strand displacement synthesis by the BER component DNA polymerase β in the presence of telomere protein TRF2 suggests that telomeres employ long-patch (LP) BER. Earlier analyses in vitro showed that efficiency of BER reactions is reduced in the DNA-histone environment of chromatin. Evidence presented here indicates that BER is promoted at telomeres. We found that the three proteins that contact telomere DNA, POT1, TRF1 and TRF2, enhance the rate of individual steps of LP-BER and stimulate the complete reconstituted LP-BER pathway. Thought to protect telomere DNA from degradation, these proteins still apparently evolved to allow selective access of repair proteins.
telomeres; base excision repair; shelterin complex; oxidative damage; LP-BER
RB family proteins pRb, p107 and p130 have similar structures and overlapping functions, enabling cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence. pRb, but not p107 or p130, is frequently mutated in human malignancies. In human fibroblasts acutely exposed to oncogenic ras, pRb has a specific role in suppressing DNA replication, and p107 or p130 cannot compensate for the loss of this function; however, a second p53/p21-dependent checkpoint prevents escape from growth arrest. This model of oncogene-induced senescence requires the additional loss of p53/p21 to explain selection for preferential loss of pRb function in human malignancies. We asked whether similar rules apply to the role of pRb in growth arrest of human epithelial cells, the source of most cancers. In two malignant human breast cancer cell lines, we found that individual RB family proteins were sufficient for the establishment of p16-initiated senescence, and that growth arrest in G1 was not dependent on the presence of functional pRb or p53. However, senescence induction by endogenous p16 was delayed in primary normal human mammary epithelial cells with reduced pRb but not with reduced p107 or p130. Thus, under these circumstances, despite the presence of functional p53, p107 and p130 were unable to completely compensate for pRb in mediating senescence induction. We propose that early inactivation of pRb in pre-malignant breast cells can, by itself, extend proliferative lifespan, allowing acquisition of additional changes necessary for malignant transformation.
breast cancer; senescence; retinoblastoma; p130; p107
The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform zeta (PKCζ) has been implicated in the intracellular transduction of mitogenic and apoptotic signals by acting on different signaling pathways. The key role of these processes in tumorigenesis suggests a possible involvement of PKCζ in this event. PKCζ is activated by cytotoxic treatments, inhibits apoptotic cell death and reduces the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Here, using pharmacological and DNA recombinant approaches, we show that oxidative stress triggers nuclear translocation of PKCζ and induces resistance to apoptotic agents. Accordingly, chemoresistant cells show accumulation of PKCζ within the nucleus, and a nuclear-targeted PKCζ transfected in tumor cells decreases sensitivity to apoptosis. We thus developed a novel recombinant protein capable of selectively inhibiting the nuclear fraction of PKCζ that restored the susceptibility to apoptosis in cells in which PKCζ was enriched in the nuclear fraction, including chemoresistant cells. These findings establish the importance of PKCζ as a possible target to increase the effectiveness of anticancer therapies and highlight potential sites of intervention.
protein kinase C; chemoresistance; oxidative stress; nuclear translocation; apoptosis
Telomere maintenance in cycling cells relies on both DNA replication and capping by the protein complex shelterin. Two single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins, replication protein A (RPA) and protection of telomere 1 (POT1) play critical roles in DNA replication and telomere capping, respectively. While RPA binds to ssDNA in a non-sequence-specific manner, POT1 specifically recognizes singlestranded TTAGGG telomeric repeats. Loss of POT1 leads to aberrant accumulation of RPA at telomeres and activation of the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR)-mediated checkpoint response, suggesting that POT1 antagonizes RPA binding to telomeric ssDNA. The requirement for both POT1 and RPA in telomere maintenance and the antagonism between the two proteins raises the important question of how they function in concert on telomeric ssDNA. Two interesting models were proposed by recent studies to explain the regulation of POT1 and RPA at telomeres. Here, we discuss how these models help unravel the coordination, and also the antagonism, between POT1 and RPA during the cell cycle.
RPA; POT1; telomere; ATR; checkpoint
Despite intense studies, questions still remain regarding the molecular mechanisms leading to the development of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Research focused on elucidating the role of the breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) in the DNA damage response may be of the most critical importance to understanding these processes. The BRCA1 protein has an N-terminal RING domain possessing E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity and a C-terminal BRCT domain involved in binding specific phosphoproteins. These domains are involved directly or indirectly in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. As the two terminal domains of BRCA1 represent two separate entities, understanding how these domains communicate and are functionally altered in regards to DSB repair is critical for understanding the development of BRCA1-related breast and ovarian cancers and for developing novel therapeutics. Herein, we review recent findings of how altered functions of these domains might lead to cancer through a mechanism of increased aberrant homologous recombination and possible implications for the development of BRCA1 inhibitors.
BRCT; DNA repair; peptide; radiation; RING; ubiquitylation
The molecular mechanism of β-cell regeneration remains poorly understood. Cyclin D2/CDK4 expresses in normal β cells and maintains adult β-cell growth. We hypothesized that gene therapy with cyclin D2/CDK4/GLP-1 plasmids targeted to the pancreas of STZ-treated rats by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) would force cell cycle re-entry of residual G0-phase islet cells into G1/S phase to regenerate β cells. A single UTMD treatment induced β-cell regeneration with reversal of diabetes for 6 mo without evidence of toxicity. We observed that this β-cell regeneration was not mediated by self-replication of pre-existing β cells. Instead, cyclin D2/CDK4/GLP-1 initiated robust proliferation of adult pancreatic progenitor cells that exist within islets and terminally differentiate to mature islets with β cells and α cells.
cell cycle regulation; adult pancreatic progenitor cells; proliferation; differentiation; islets regeneration; diabetes
Insulin resistance is a risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes and is a major cause of atherosclerosis. Reduction in heme oxygenase (HO-1) has been shown to exacerbate vascular dysfunction and insulin resistance in obese mice and involves a decrease in adiponectin levels. Adiponectin is released from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived adipocytes, its levels are decreased in type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the apoA1 mimetic peptide, L-4F, will target the expression of the HO-1-adiponectin axis and reverse adipocyte dysfunction both in vivo and in vitro. The administration of L-4F [2 mg/Kg/daily (i.p.) for 4-week to 8-week-old obese (ob) mice restored adipocyte function, increased adiponectin release (p < 0.05) and decreased the levels of IL-1 and IL-6 (p < 0.05)]. These perturbations were associated with an increase in insulin sensitivity (p < 0.01 vs. untreated ob mice) and decreased glucose levels (309 + 42 vs. 201 + 8 mg/d after L-4F treatment). Treatment of both mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived adipocytes with L-4F (50 µg/ml) increased adiponectin (p < 0.05), decreased IL-1 and IL-6 (p < 0.05) levels and increased MSC-derived adipocyte cell numbers by 50% in S phase (p < 0.05). MSC-derived adipocytes treated with L-4F increased WNT10b and decreased Peg 1/Mest. Inhibition of HO activity reversed the decrease in the adipogenic response gene, Peg 1/Mest. An increase of HO-1 expression by L-4F increased insulin-receptor phosphorylation. These findings support the hypothesis that L-4F increases early adipocyte markers, HO-1-adiponectin, WNT10b and decreases Peg1/Mest, negative regulators of adipocyte differentiation.
diabetes; osteoporosis; osteoblasts; BMP2; heme oxygenase
Aurora family kinases play pivotal roles in several steps during mitosis. Specifically, Aurora A kinase is an important regulator of bipolar mitotic spindle formation and chromosome segregation. Like other members of the Aurora family, Aurora A kinase is also regulated by post-translational modifications. Here, we show that a previously undescribed E3 ligase component belonging to the SCF (Skp-Cullin1-F-box protein) E3 ligase family, SCFFBXL7, impairs cell proliferation by mediating Aurora A polyubiquitination and degradation. Both Aurora A and FBXL7 co-localize within the centrosome during spindle formation. FBXL7 ectopic expression led to G2/M phase arrest in transformed epithelia, resulting in the appearance of tetraploidy and mitotic arrest with circular monopolar spindles and multipolar spindle formation. Interestingly, FBXL7 specifically interacts with Aurora A during mitosis but not in interphase, suggesting a regulatory role for FBXL7 in controlling Aurora A abundance during mitosis.
F-box protein; centrosome; mitosis; Aurora A
High frequencies of chromosomal anomalies are reported in human and non-human primate in vitro-produced preimplantation embryos. It is unclear why certain embryos develop aneuploidies while others remain euploid. A differential susceptibility to aneuploidy is most likely a consequence of events that occur before oocyte collection. One hypothesis is that the relative transcript levels of cohesins, shugoshins and spindle assembly checkpoint genes are correlated with the occurrence of chromosomal anomalies. Transcript levels of these genes were quantified in individual oocytes that were either mature (group 1, low aneuploidy rate) or immature (group 2, high aneuploidy rate) at retrieval, utilizing TaqMan-based real-time PCR. The transcript level in each oocyte was categorized as absent, below the median or above the median in order to conduct comparisons. Statistically significant differences were observed between group 1 and group 2 for SGOL1 and BUB1. There were more oocytes with SGOL1 expression levels above the median in group 1, while oocytes lacking BUB1 were only observed in group 1. These findings suggest that higher SGOL1 levels in group 1 oocytes could better protect against a premature separation of sister chromatids than in embryos derived from group 2 oocytes. The absence of BUB1 transcripts in group 1 was frequently associated with reduced expression of either mitotic cohesins or shugoshins. We hypothesize that ablation of BUB1 could induce mitotic arrest in oocytes that fail to express a complete complement of cohesins and shugoshins, thereby reducing the number of developing aneuploid preimplantation embryos.
aneuploidy; chromosomal abnormalities; cohesin; oocytes; spindle assembly checkpoint; shugoshins
We report that simultaneous expression of Akt and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) transgenes supported mitogenesis in stem cells with a critical role for microRNA-143 (miR-143) downstream of FoxO1 transcription factor. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from young male rats were transduced with Ad-vectors encoding for Akt (AktMSC) and Ang-1 (Ang-1MSC) transgenes for their individual or simultaneous overexpression (AAMSC; > 5-fold gene level and > 4-fold Akt and Ang-1 protein expression in AAMSC vs. Ad-Empty transduced MSC; EmpMSC). AAMSC had higher phosphorylation of FoxO1, which activated Erk5, a distinct mitogen-induced MAPK that drove transcriptional activation of cyclin D1 and Cdk4. Flow cytometry showed > 10% higher S-phase cell population that was confirmed by BrdU assay (15%) and immunohistology for Ki67 (11%) in AAMSC using EmpMSC as controls. miR array supported by real-time PCR showed induction of miR-143 in AAMSC (4.73-fold vs. EmpMSC). Luciferase assay indicated a dependent relationship between miR-143 and Erk5 in AAMSC. FoxO1-specific siRNA upregulated miR-143, whereas inhibition of miR-143 did not change FoxO1 activation. However, miR-143 inhibition repressed phosphorylation of Erk5 and abrogated cyclin D1 with concomitant reduction in cells entering cell cycle. During in vivo studies, male GFP+ AAMSC transplanted into wild-type female infarcted rat hearts showed significantly higher numbers of Ki67-expressing cells (p < 0.05 vs. EmpMSC) 7 d after engraftment (n = 4 animals/group). In conclusion, co-overexpression of Akt and Ang-1 in MSC activated cell cycle progression by upregulation of miR-143 and stimulation of FoxO1 and Erk5 signaling.
Akt; angiopoietin-1; microRNA; proliferation; stem cells