The purposes of this study were to assess the efficiency of different nifedipine amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) in achieving and maintaining supersaturation and to investigate the solubility–permeability interplay when increasing the apparent solubility via ASD formulations. Spray-dried ASDs of nifedipine in three different hydrophilic polymers, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS), copovidone, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), were prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The ability of these formulations to achieve and maintain supersaturation over 24 h was assessed. Then, nifedipine’s apparent intestinal permeability was investigated as a function of increasing supersaturation in the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay model and in the single-pass rat intestinal perfusion model. The efficiency of the different ASDs to achieve and maintain supersaturation of nifedipine was found to be highly polymer dependent; while a dispersion in HPMC-AS enabled supersaturation 20× that of the crystalline aqueous solubility, a dispersion in copovidone enabled 10×, and PVP allowed supersaturation of only 5× that of the crystalline solubility. Nifedipine flux across the intestine from supersaturated solutions was increased, and the apparent intestinal permeability was constant, irrespective of the degree of supersaturation or the polymer being used. In conclusion, while with other solubility-enabling approaches (e.g., surfactants, cyclodextrins, cosolvents), it is not enough to increase the apparent solubility, but to strike the optimal solubility–permeability balance, which limits the chances for successful drug delivery, the amorphous form emerges as a more advantageous strategy, in which higher apparent solubility (i.e., supersaturation) will be readily translated into higher drug flux and overall absorption.
amorphous solid dispersions; intestinal permeability; lipophilic drugs; oral absorption; solubility–permeability interplay
We have recently developed a general liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method using a stable isotope-labeled (SIL) monoclonal antibody (mAb) as an internal standard (IS) for single-analyte quantification of mAb (Li et al. Anal Chem 84(3):1267–1273, 2012). The method offers an advantage over ligand binding assay in reducing the time and resources needed for bioanalytical support in preclinical stages of drug development. In this paper, we report another marked increase in assay efficiency for multi-analyte bioanalysis using unique surrogate peptides for each analyte and the strategic choice of the SIL-IS peptide. The method was qualified for the simultaneous determinations of four mAbs in rat plasma and applied to samples from discrete- and cassette-dosed rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the four mAbs of cassette dosing were comparable to those of discrete dosing and of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results. Although there may be limitations and special considerations for cassette-dosing of biologics, these results demonstrate the robust performance of the multi-analyte LC-MS/MS method allowing cassette-dosing that would ultimately reduce animal use and improve efficiency.
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cassette dosing of biologics; immunoaffinity-mass spectrometry; ligand binding assay; monoclonal antibody biotherapeutics; multi-analyte LC-MS/MS
The therapeutic effects of curcumin in treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD) depend on the ability to penetrate the blood–brain barrier. The latest nanoparticle technology can help to improve the bioavailability of curcumin, which is affected by the final particle size and stability. We developed a stable curcumin nanoparticle formulation to test in vitro and in AD model Tg2576 mice. Flash nanoprecipitation of curcumin, polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid co-block polymer, and polyvinylpyrrolidone in a multi-inlet vortex mixer, followed by freeze drying with β-cyclodextrin, produced dry nanocurcumin with mean particle size <80 nm. Nanocurcumin powder, unformulated curcumin, or placebo was orally administered to Tg2576 mice for 3 months. Before and after treatment, memory was measured by radial arm maze and contextual fear conditioning tests. Nanocurcumin produced significantly (p = 0.04) better cue memory in the contextual fear conditioning test than placebo and tendencies toward better working memory in the radial arm maze test than ordinary curcumin (p = 0.14) or placebo (p = 0.12). Amyloid plaque density, pharmacokinetics, and Madin–Darby canine kidney cell monolayer penetration were measured to further understand in vivo and in vitro mechanisms. Nanocurcumin produced significantly higher curcumin concentration in plasma and six times higher area under the curve and mean residence time in brain than ordinary curcumin. The Papp of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin were 1.8 × 10−6 and 1.6 × 10−5 cm/s, respectively, for nanocurcumin. Our novel nanocurcumin formulation produced highly stabilized nanoparticles with positive treatment effects in Tg2576 mice.
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Alzheimer’s disease; behavior tests; nanocurcumin; oral route; pharmacokinetic
Motor complications of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are a consequence of pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation from standard oral levodopa therapy. Levodopa–carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is infused continuously via an intrajejunal percutaneous gastrostomy tube. This was the first study designed to characterize the full pharmacokinetic profiles of levodopa, carbidopa, and levodopa metabolite, 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) with 16-h LCIG infusion. Nineteen advanced PD patients (mean age, 65 years) who were on LCIG therapy for ≥30 days were enrolled. Patients received their individualized LCIG infusion doses, and serial pharmacokinetic samples were collected. Eighteen patients completed the study; 19 were assessed for safety. Mean (SD) total levodopa and carbidopa doses were 1,580 (403) and 395 (101) mg, respectively. Mean (SD) Cavg (μg/mL) were 2.9 (0.84) for levodopa, 17.1 (4.99) for 3-OMD, and 0.22 (0.08) for carbidopa. The degree of fluctuation [defined as (Cmax − Cmin)/Cavg] in levodopa, 3-OMD, and carbidopa plasma concentrations was very low (0.52, 0.21, and 0.96, respectively) during hours 2–16 of infusion. Accordingly, the within-subject coefficients of variation in levodopa, 3-OMD, and carbidopa concentrations were low (13%, 6%, and 19%, respectively). Three patients (16%) reported ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event; none were considered severe. Continuous intrajejunal LCIG infusion maintained stable plasma levodopa levels over 16 h. Consistent exposure has been shown to reduce motor and nonmotor complications associated with oral medications. LCIG was well tolerated, consistent with previous reports.
Duodopa; LCIG; Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel; Parkinson’s disease; Pharmacokinetics
Nicotine, the main tobacco alkaloid leading to smoking dependence, rapidly crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB) to become concentrated in the brain. Recently, it has been shown that nicotine interacts with some organic cation transporters (OCT), but their influence at the BBB has not yet been assessed in vivo. In this study, we characterized the transport of nicotine at the mouse luminal BBB by in situ brain perfusion. Its influx was saturable and followed the Michaelis–Menten kinetics (Km = 2.60 mM, Vmax = 37.60 nmol/s/g at pH 7.40). At its usual micromolar concentrations in the plasma, most (79%) of the net transport of nicotine at the BBB was carrier-mediated, while passive diffusion accounted for 21%. Studies on knockout mice showed that the OCT Oct1–3, P-gp, and Bcrp did not alter [3H]-nicotine transport at the BBB. Neither did inhibiting the transporters Mate1, Octn, or Pmat. The in vivo manipulation of intracellular and/or extracellular pH, the chemical inhibition profile, and the trans-stimulation experiments demonstrated that the nicotine transporter at the BBB shared the properties of the clonidine/proton antiporter. The molecular features of this proton-coupled antiporter have not yet been identified, but it also transports diphenhydramine and tramadol and helps nicotine cross the BBB at a faster rate and to a greater extent. The pharmacological inhibition of this nicotine/proton antiporter could represent a new strategy to reduce nicotine uptake by the brain and thus help curb addiction to smoking.
blood–brain barrier; nicotine; organic cation; proton antiporter; transporter
Peptide and protein drugs have become the new generation of therapeutics, yet most of them are only available as injections, and reports on oral local intestinal delivery of peptides and proteins are quite limited. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion system in vitro and in vivo for local intestinal delivery of water-soluble peptides after oral administration. A fluorescent labeled peptide, 5-(and-6)-carboxytetramethylrhodamine labeled HIV transactivator protein TAT (TAMRA-TAT), was used as a model peptide. Water-in-oil microemulsions consisting of Miglyol 812, Capmul MCM, Tween 80, and water were developed and characterized in terms of appearance, viscosity, conductivity, morphology, and particle size analysis. TAMRA-TAT was loaded and its enzymatic stability was assessed in modified simulated intestinal fluid (MSIF) in vitro. In in vivo studies, TAMRA-TAT intestinal distribution was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy after TAMRA-TAT microemulsion, TAMRA-TAT solution, and placebo microemulsion were orally gavaged to mice. The half-life of TAMRA-TAT in microemulsion was enhanced nearly three-fold compared to that in the water solution when challenged by MSIF. The treatment with TAMRA-TAT microemulsion after oral administration resulted in greater fluorescence intensity in all intestine sections (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon) compared to TAMRA-TAT solution or placebo microemulsion. The in vitro and in vivo studies together suggested TAMRA-TAT was better protected in the w/o microemulsion in an enzyme-containing environment, suggesting that the w/o microemulsions developed in this study may serve as a potential delivery vehicle for local intestinal delivery of peptides or proteins after oral administration.
intestinal delivery; oral; peptide; water-in-oil microemulsion
The objective of the present study was to evaluate mechanistic pharmacokinetic models describing active renal secretion and reabsorption over a range of Michaelis–Menten parameter estimates and doses. Plasma concentration and urinary excretion profiles were simulated and renal clearance (CLr) was calculated for two pharmacokinetic models describing active renal reabsorption (R1/R2), two models describing active secretion (S1/S2), and a model containing both processes. A range of doses (1–1,000 mg/kg) was evaluated, and Vmax and Km parameter estimates were varied over a 100-fold range. Similar CLr values were predicted for reabsorption models (R1/R2) with variations in Vmax and Km. Tubular secretion models (S1/S2) yielded similar relationships between Michaelis–Menten parameter perturbations and CLr, but the predicted CLr values were threefold higher for model S1. For both reabsorption and secretion models, the greatest changes in CLr were observed with perturbations in Vmax, suggesting the need for an accurate estimate of this parameter. When intrinsic clearance was substituted for Michaelis–Menten parameters, it failed to predict similar CLr values even within the linear range. For models S1 and S2, renal secretion was predominant at low doses, whereas renal clearance was driven by fraction unbound in plasma at high doses. Simulations demonstrated the importance of Michaelis–Menten parameter estimates (especially Vmax) for determining CLr. Km estimates can easily be obtained directly from in vitro studies. However, additional scaling of in vitro Vmax estimates using in vitro/in vivo extrapolation methods are required to incorporate these parameters into pharmacokinetic models.
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kidney transport parameters; models; reabsorption; renal clearance; secretion
The aim of this work was to establish alternative in vitro dissolution method with good discrimination and in vivo predictability for the evaluation of HPMC extended release matrix tablets. For this purpose, two different HPMC matrix tablet formulations were first evaluated by a range of conventional dissolution testing methods using apparatus 1, apparatus 2, and apparatus 3 according to US Pharmacopoeia. Obtained results showed low discrimination between the tested samples. Afterward, a novel dissolution testing method which combines plastic beads and apparatus 3 was developed with the aim to better mimic the mechanical forces that occur in vivo. Results showed that sufficiently large mechanical stress with high dips per minute program setting (apparatus 3) was needed to obtain in vitro discriminative results, which are in accordance with the in vivo data. The in vivo relevance of the method was confirmed with the establishment of the level A in vitro–in vivo correlation.
dissolution method; extended release; HPMC; IVIVC; matrix tablets; quality by design
The effect of activation of liver X receptor by N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-N-[4-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl] benzenesulfonamide (T0901317) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance was examined in C57BL/6 mice. When on HFD continuously for 10 weeks, C57BL/6 mice became obese with an average body weight of 42 g, insulin resistant, and glucose intolerant. Twice weekly intraperitoneal injections of T0901317 at 50 mg/kg in animals on the same diet completely blocked obesity development, obesity-associated insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that T0901317-treated animals had significantly higher mRNA levels of genes involved in energy metabolism, including Ucp-1, Pgc1a, Pgc1b, Cpt1a, Cpt1b, Acadm, Acadl, Aox, and Ehhadh. Transcription activation of Cyp7a1, Srebp-1c, Fas, Scd-1, and Acc-1 genes was also seen in T0901317-treated animals. T0901317 treatment induced reversible aggregation of lipids in the liver. These results suggest that liver X receptor could be a potential target for prevention of obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance.
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diabetes; high fat diet-induced obesity; liver X receptor; nuclear receptor; T0901317
Decitabine (DAC) is used for treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Following cellular uptake, DAC is activated to DAC-triphosphate (TP) and incorporated into DNA. Once incorporated into the DNA, DAC-TP binds and inactivates DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), thereby leading to hypomethylation and re-expression of epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes and ultimately antileukemia activity. However, direct evidence of in vivo DAC-TP occurrence in DAC-treated patients has been difficult to demonstrate due to a lack of suitable validated analytical methodology. Thus, we developed and validated a nonradioactive sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS assay for quantification of DAC-TP. The assay is linear from 50 to 1,000 nM and from 1 to 10 μM and has a lower limit of quantitation of 50 nM and a coefficient of variation for both within- and between-day precision <20%. Following DAC treatment, we detected DAC-TP in parental and DAC-resistant AML cells (in vitro) and bone marrow (BM) and spleen of normal and leukemic mice (in vivo). Downregulation of DNMTs and correlation of DAC-TP concentration with proteins involved in mechanisms of DAC resistance were also demonstrated. The clinical applicability of this method was proven by measuring DAC-TP level in BM and blood mononuclear cells from DAC-treated AML patients. Higher levels are seemingly associated with clinical response. Monitoring the DAC-TP intracellular level may serve as a novel pharmacological endpoint for designing more effective DAC-based regimens.
acute myeloid leukemia; decitabine; metabolite; quantification method; triphosphate
The goal of the study was to develop an effective screening strategy to select new agents for brain tumor chemotherapy from a series of low molecular weight anticancer agents [ON123x] by the combined use of in silico, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vitro ADME profiling studies. The results of these studies were cast into a pipeline of tier 1 and tier 2 procedures that resulted in the identification of ON123300 as the lead compound. Of the 154 ON123xx compounds, 13 met tier 1 screening criteria based on physicochemical properties [i.e., MW < 450 Da, predicted log P between 2 and 3.5] and in vitro glioma cell cytotoxicity [i.e., IC50 < 10 μM] and were further tested in tier 2 assays. The tier 2 profiling studies consisted of metabolic stability, MDCK-MDR1 cell permeability and plasma and brain protein binding that were combined to globally assess whether favorable pharmacokinetic properties and brain penetration could be achieved in vivo. In vivo cassette dosing studies were conducted in mice for 12 compounds that permitted examination of in vitro/in vivo relationships that confirmed the suitability of the in vitro assays. A parameter derived from the in vitro assays accurately predicted the extent of drug accumulation in the brain based on the area under the drug concentration–time curve in brain measured in the cassette dosing study (r2 = 0.920). Overall, the current studies demonstrated the value of an integrated pharmacokinetic-driven approach to identify potentially efficacious agents for brain tumor chemotherapy.
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brain tumor; CNS; drug development; pharmacokinetics; preclinical
The identification and application of druggable pockets of targets play a key role in in silico drug design, which is a fundamental step in structure-based drug design. Herein, some recent progresses and developments of the computational analysis of pockets have been covered. Also, the pockets at the protein–protein interfaces (PPI) have been considered to further explore the pocket space for drug discovery. We have presented two case studies targeting the kinetic pockets generated by normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics method, respectively, in which we focus upon incorporating the pocket flexibility into the two-dimensional virtual screening with both affinity and specificity. We applied the specificity and affinity (SPA) score to quantitatively estimate affinity and evaluate specificity using the intrinsic specificity ratio (ISR) as a quantitative criterion. In one of two cases, we also included some applications of pockets located at the dimer interfaces to emphasize the role of PPI in drug discovery. This review will attempt to summarize the current status of this pocket issue and will present some prospective avenues of further inquiry.
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computer-aided drug design; ISR; pocket; SPA
This study investigates the potential of supersaturated self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (super-SNEDDS) to improve the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs compared to conventional SNEDDS. Conventional SNEDDS contained simvastatin (SIM) at 75% of the equilibrium solubility (Seq). Super-SNEDDS containing SIM at 150 and 200% of Seq were produced by subjecting the SNEDDS preconcentrates to a heating and cooling cycle. The super-SNEDDS were physically stable over 10 months. During in vitro lipolysis of SNEDDS and super-SNEDDS the SIM concentration in the aqueous phase increased for the first 30 min almost proportional to the drug loads and amounts of preconcentrate employed. The 200% drug-loaded super-SNEDDS generated an amorphous SIM precipitate at the end of in vitro lipolysis. In vivo, the relative bioavailability of SIM from super-SEDDDS increased significantly to 180 ± 53.3% (p = 0.014) compared to the dosing of two capsules of (dose equivalent) 75% drug-loaded SNEDDS. A significant increase in the terminal half-life of elimination was observed for super-SNEDDS (2.3 ± 0.6 h) compared to conventional SNEDDS (1.4 ± 0.3 h) as well as a decreased area under the curve ratio of the SIM metabolite simvastatin acid to the parent compound (0.57 ± 0.20 and 0.90 ± 0.3), possibly due to a combination of saturation effects on presystemic metabolising enzymes and prolonged absorption along the small intestine. In summary, this study demonstrated that super-SNEDDS are a viable formulation option to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs such as simvastatin while reducing the pill burden by an increased drug load of SNEDDS.
bioavailability; in vitro digestion; in vitro lipolysis; simvastatin; supersaturated self-nanoemusifying drug delivery systems (super-SNEDDS) poorly soluble drugs
The pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior of inhaled drugs is more complicated than that of other forms of administration. In particular, the effects of certain physiological (mucociliary clearance and differences in membrane properties in central and peripheral (C/P) areas of the lung), formulation (as it relates to drug deposition and particle dissolution rate), and patient-related factors (lung function; effects on C/P deposition ratio) affect the systemic PKs of inhaled drugs. The objectives of this project were (1) to describe a compartmental model that adequately describes the fate of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) after administration while incorporating variability between and within subjects and (2) based upon the model, to provide a freely available tool for simulation of PK trials after ICS administration. This compartment model allows for mucociliary removal of undissolved particles from the lung, distinguishes between central and peripheral regions of the lung, and models drug entering the systemic circulation via the lung and the gastrointestinal tract. The PK simulation tool is provided as an extension package to the statistical software R (‘ICSpkTS’). It allows simulation of PK trials for hypothetical ICS and of four commercially available ICS (budesonide, flunisolide, fluticasone propionate, and triamcinolone acetonide) in a parallel study design. Simulated PK data and parameters agreed well with literature data for all four ICS. The ICSpkTS package is especially suitable to explore the effect of changes in model parameters on PK behavior and can be easily adjusted for other inhaled drugs.
compartment model; inhaled corticosteroids; pharmacokinetics; trial simulation
Extensive research over the past half century has shown that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the golden spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), can modulate multiple cell signaling pathways. Extensive clinical trials over the past quarter century have addressed the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of this nutraceutical against numerous diseases in humans. Some promising effects have been observed in patients with various pro-inflammatory diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, uveitis, ulcerative proctitis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel disease, tropical pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, gastric ulcer, idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor, oral lichen planus, gastric inflammation, vitiligo, psoriasis, acute coronary syndrome, atherosclerosis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic microangiopathy, lupus nephritis, renal conditions, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, β-thalassemia, biliary dyskinesia, Dejerine-Sottas disease, cholecystitis, and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Curcumin has also shown protection against hepatic conditions, chronic arsenic exposure, and alcohol intoxication. Dose-escalating studies have indicated the safety of curcumin at doses as high as 12 g/day over 3 months. Curcumin’s pleiotropic activities emanate from its ability to modulate numerous signaling molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic proteins, NF–κB, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-LOX, STAT3, C-reactive protein, prostaglandin E2, prostate-specific antigen, adhesion molecules, phosphorylase kinase, transforming growth factor-β, triglyceride, ET-1, creatinine, HO-1, AST, and ALT in human participants. In clinical trials, curcumin has been used either alone or in combination with other agents. Various formulations of curcumin, including nanoparticles, liposomal encapsulation, emulsions, capsules, tablets, and powder, have been examined. In this review, we discuss in detail the various human diseases in which the effect of curcumin has been investigated.
clinical trial; curcumin; human diseases; inflammation; safety
Cytochrome P450 (P450)-derived arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites serve pivotal physiological roles. Therefore, it is important to determine the dominant P450 AA monooxygenases in different organs. We investigated the P450 AA monooxygenases protein expression as well as regioselectivity, immunoinhibition, and kinetic profile of AA epoxygenation and hydroxylation in rat heart, lung, kidney, and liver. Thereafter, the predominant P450 epoxygenases and P450 hydroxylases in these organs were characterized. Microsomes from heart, lung, kidney, and liver were incubated with AA. The protein expression of CYP2B1/2, CYP2C11, CYP2C23, CYP2J3, CYP4A1/2/3, and CYP4Fs in the heart, lung, kidney, and liver were determined by Western blot analysis. The levels of AA metabolites were determined by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. This was followed by determination of regioselectivity, immunoinhibition effect, and the kinetic profile of AA metabolism. AA was metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in the heart, lung, kidney, and liver but with varying metabolic activities and regioselectivity. Anti-P450 antibodies were found to differentially inhibit AA epoxygenation and hydroxylation in these organs. Our data suggest that the predominant epoxygenases are CYP2C11, CYP2B1, CYP2C23, and CYP2C11/CYP2C23 for the heart, lung, kidney, and liver, respectively. On the other hand, CYP4A1 is the major ω-hydroxylase in the heart and kidney; whereas CYP4A2 and/or CYP4F1/4 are probably the major hydroxlases in the lung and liver. These results provide important insights into the activities of P450 epoxygenases and P450 hydroxylases-mediated AA metabolism in different organs and their associated P450 protein levels.
arachidonic acid metabolism; cytochrome P450; kinetics; P450 epoxygenase activity; P450 hydroxylase activity; regioselectivity
While therapeutic proteins (TP), particularly recombinant human proteins and fully human monoclonal antibodies, are designed to have a low immunogenic potential in humans, a clinical immune response does sometimes occur and cannot be predicted from preclinical studies. Changes in TP pharmacokinetics may be perceived as an early indication of antibody formation and serve as a surrogate for later changes in efficacy and safety in individual subjects. Given the substantial increase in number of biological products, including biosimilars, there is an urgent need to quantitatively predict and quantify the immune response and any consequential changes in TP pharmacokinetics. The purpose of this communication is to review the utility of population-based modeling and simulation approaches developed to date for investigating the development of an immune response and assessing its impact on TP pharmacokinetics. Two examples of empirical modeling approaches for pharmacokinetic assessment are presented. The first example presents methods to analyze pharmacokinetic data in the presence of anti-drug antibody (ADA) and confirm the effect of immunogenicity on TP pharmacokinetics in early phases of drug development. The second example provides a framework to analyze pharmacokinetic data in the absence or with very low incidence of ADA and confirm with enough power the lack of an immunogenicity effect on TP pharmacokinetics in late phases of drug development. Finally, a theoretical mechanism-based modeling framework is presented to mathematically relate the complex interaction among TP, their targets, and ADA.
immunogenicity; modeling and simulation; pharmacokinetics; therapeutic proteins
Practical food effect predictions and assessments were described using in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo preclinical data to anticipate food effects and Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)/Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) class across drug development stages depending on available data: (1) limited in silico and in vitro data in early discovery; (2) preclinical in vivo pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism data at candidate selection; and (3) physiologically based absorption modeling using biorelevant solubility and precipitation data to quantitatively predict human food effects, oral absorption, and pharmacokinetic profiles for early clinical studies. Early food effect predictions used calculated or measured physicochemical properties to establish a preliminary BCS/BDDCS class. A rat-based preclinical BCS/BDDCS classification used rat in vivo fraction absorbed and metabolism data. Biorelevant solubility and precipitation kinetic data were generated via animal pharmacokinetic studies using advanced compartmental absorption and transit (ACAT) models or in vitro methods. Predicted human plasma concentration–time profiles and the magnitude of the food effects were compared with observed clinical data for assessment of simulation accuracy. Simulations and analyses successfully identified potential food effects across BCS/BDDCS classes 1–4 compounds with an average fold error less than 1.6 in most cases. ACAT physiological absorption models accurately predicted positive food effects in human for poorly soluble bases after oral dosage forms. Integration of solubility, precipitation time, and metabolism data allowed confident identification of a compound’s BCS/BDDCS class, its likely food effects, along with prediction of human exposure profiles under fast and fed conditions.
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absorption modeling; BCS/BDDCS; food effect prediction; human PBPK model; oral bioavailability
Interleukin-12 (IL12) is a cytokine with potential applications in the treatment of cancer given the potent immune response that it triggers, in part due to its ability to stimulate expression of interferon-γ (IFNγ). To avoid the toxicity associated with systemic exposure to IL12, a high-capacity adenoviral vector carrying a liver-specific, mifepristone-inducible IL12 expression system (HC-Ad/RUmIL12) has been developed. However, the maintenance of IL12 expression at therapeutic levels is compromised by the inhibitory effect of IFNγ on inducible systems. The aim of this work is to develop a semi-mechanistic model to characterize the relationship between IL12 and IFNγ in wild-type and knock-out mice for the IFNγ receptor treated with HC-Ad/RUmIL12 under different dosing regimens in order to better understand the key mechanisms controlling the system. Rapid binding was considered to account for target-mediated disposition exhibited by both cytokines (equilibrium dissociation constant were 18 and 2.28 pM for IL12 and IFNγ, respectively). The final model included: (1) IFNγ receptor turnover, (2) irreversible free cytokine elimination from the serum compartment, (3) internalization of the IL12 receptor complex, (4) IL12 expression upregulated by the co-administration of the adenoviral vector and mifepristone and downregulated by the IFNγ receptor, and (5) synthesis of IFNγ controlled by the relative increments in the bound IL12. In conclusion, a model simultaneously describing the kinetics of IL12 and IFNγ in the context of gene therapy was developed and validated with additional data. The model was applied to design an experimental dosing protocol intended to maintain sustained therapeutic IL12 levels.
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cytokines; knock-out mice and gene therapy; pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling; target-mediated drug disposition
The treatment of septicemia caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a great challenge in the clinic. Because traditional antibiotics inevitably induce bacterial resistance, which is responsible for many treatment failures, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibiotic drugs. Amino-terminated Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM-NH2) are reported to have antibacterial activities. However, previous studies focused on high generations of PAMAM-NH2, which have been found to exhibit high toxicities. The present study aimed to clarify whether low generations of PAMAM-NH2 could be used as novel antibacterial agents. We found that generation 2 (G2.0) PAMAM-NH2 showed significant antibacterial effects against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains but exhibited little toxicity to human gastric epithelial cells and did not induce antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses suggested that G2.0 PAMAM-NH2 might inhibit the growth of bacteria by destroying their cell membranes. The administration of G2.0 PAMAM-NH2 dose-dependently improved the animal survival rate of mice infected with extended-spectrum beta lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) and of animals infected with a combination of ESBL-EC and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A treatment regimen of 10 mg/kg of G2.0 PAMAM-NH2 starting 12 h before inoculation followed by 10 mg/kg at 0.5 h after inoculation rescued 100% of singly infected mice and 60% of multiply infected mice. The protective effects were associated with the reduction of the bacterial titers in the blood and with the morphological amelioration of infected tissues. These findings demonstrate that the G2.0 PAMAM-NH2 is a potential broad-spectrum and nonresistance-inducing antibiotic agent with relatively low toxicity.
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antibacterial activity; antibiotic resistance; extended-spectrum beta lactamase-producing Escherichia coli; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; PAMAM dendrimers
Dried blood spots (DBS) technology has been introduced as a microsampling alternative to traditional plasma or serum sampling for pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics evaluation. The application of DBS has been established for many small molecule drugs at discovery, nonclinical, and clinical stages. However, the application of DBS for large molecule therapeutics development is not yet well-established. This article describes the method validation of a ligand binding assay (LBA) for DBS sampling of a therapeutic monoclonal antibody—AMG 162 (Denosumab). The original serum LBA was modified for the DBS method. A fit-for-purpose method validation was performed to evaluate accuracy and precision, selectivity, dilutional linearity, and stability. In addition, the parameters relevant to DBS, such as spot volume, extraction recovery, whole blood stability, and hematocrit effects, were evaluated. The validation results demonstrated assay robustness with inter-assay precision of ≤19%, inter-assay accuracy of ≤9%, and total error of ≤24%. Selectivity, extraction recovery, dilutional linearity, and stability were demonstrated. The validation results revealed some limitations of the possible effect of blood hematocrit on therapeutic concentration measurements and the caution required using whole blood for standards and quality controls preparation. This is the first article to describe a thorough method validation of an LBA using DBS for a therapeutic monoclonal antibody. The lessons learned can serve as a model process for future method validation of other LBAs for large molecule therapeutics or biomarkers using the DBS sampling method.
dried blood spot (DBS); large molecule therapeutics; ligand binding assay (LBA); method validation; therapeutic monoclonal antibody
Given the increasing notion of target promiscuity of bioactive compounds and polypharmacological drug behavior, a detailed analysis of publicly available compound activity data from medicinal chemistry sources was carried out to determine and quantify the degree of promiscuity of active compounds across all known human target families. The results are surprising. Approximately 62% of currently available compounds with high-confidence activity data are only annotated with a single biological target, whereas 36% are known to act against multiple targets within the same family (i.e., closely related targets). However, only ∼2% of bioactive compounds are promiscuous across different target families. Thus, despite general data sparseness, these findings indicate that highly promiscuous bioactive compounds only rarely occur. Because pharmaceutically relevant active compounds represent the pool from which drug candidates emerge, one might extrapolate from these results and conclude that there is a low statistical probability to obtain drugs that act against multiple targets belonging to distinct families.
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The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-012-9421-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
activity data; compound promiscuity; database mining; pharmaceutically relevant compounds; polypharmacology; target families; target proteins
Reliable drug concentration measurements at the target site are increasingly demanded and can be achieved by microdialysis. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the proof of principle of long-term subcutaneous microdialysis in humans. For long-term microdialysis, a special setting implementing both concentric and linear catheters has been developed ensuring good clinical practice compliance, tolerability, and convenience for participants and personnel. As a model compound, moderately lipophilic voriconazole was selected as a well-characterized drug in in vitro microdialysis experiments. Multiple in vivo relative recovery (RR) determinations for microdialysis were performed by retrodialysis during the entire study (n = 48 samples). Continuous microdialysis was successfully applied and well tolerated over 87 h in three adults for the first time. RR revealed low intra-individual (coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.4–12.5%) and inter-individual variability (CV = 4.3–12.5%) across all samples and catheters. Lower RR values were consistently determined for linear catheters. One catheter leakage was managed without an impact on the reliability of the RR values. Overall, RR values were calculated to be 73.3% (linear: CV = 18.5%, n = 23) and 84.9% (concentric: CV = 5.6%, n = 23). Long-term microdialysis application over almost 4 days was feasible by reliable multiple RR (proof of principle), well tolerated, and reduced the burden in humans avoiding several catheter insertions, thereby allowing to monitor concentration–time courses continuously. Moreover, a moderately lipophilic drug has been proven suitable for in vivo microdialysis, as previously suggested by in vitro microdialysis.
concentric/linear microdialysis catheter; long-term microdialysis; proof of principle; relative recovery; retrodialysis
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles have strong potential as antigen delivery systems. The size of PLGA particles used to vaccinate mice can affect the magnitude of the antigen-specific immune response stimulated. In this study, we fabricated and characterized 17 μm, 7 μm, 1 μm, and 300 nm PLGA particles coloaded with a model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN). PLGA particles demonstrated a size-dependent burst release followed by a more sustained release of encapsulated molecules. PLGA particles that were 300 nm in size showed the highest internalization by, and maximum activation of, dendritic cells. The systemic antigen-specific immune response to vaccination was measured after administration of two intraperitoneal injections, 7 days apart, of 100 μg OVA and 50 μg CpG ODN in C57BL/6 mice. In vivo studies showed that 300 nm sized PLGA particles generated the highest antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell responses by days 14 and 21. These mice also showed the highest IgG2a:IgG1 ratio of OVA-specific antibodies on day 28. This study suggests that the smaller the PLGA particle used to deliver antigen and adjuvants the stronger the antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell response generated.
CpG ODN; cytotoxic T lymphocytes; dendritic cells; nanoparticles; poly (lactide-co-glycolide); vaccine
Organic solute flux across the basolateral and apical membranes of renal proximal tubule cells is a key process for maintaining systemic homeostasis. It represents an important route for the elimination of metabolic waste products and xenobiotics, as well as for the reclamation of essential compounds. Members of the organic anion transporter (OAT, SLC22) family expressed in proximal tubules comprise one pathway mediating the active renal secretion and reabsorption of organic anions. Many drugs, pesticides, hormones, heavy metal conjugates, components of phytomedicines, and toxins are OAT substrates. Thus, through transporter activity, the kidney can be a target organ for their beneficial or detrimental effects. Detailed knowledge of the OATs expressed in the kidney, their membrane targeting, substrate specificity, and mechanisms of action is essential to understanding organ function and dysfunction. The intracellular processes controlling OAT expression and function, and that can thus modulate kidney transport capacity, are also critical to this understanding. Such knowledge is also providing insight to new areas such as renal transplant research. This review will provide an overview of the OATs for which transport activity has been demonstrated and expression/function in the kidney observed. Examples establishing a role for renal OATs in drug clearance, food/drug–drug interactions, and renal injury and pathology are presented. An update of the current information regarding the regulation of OAT expression is also provided.
kidney; nephrotoxicity; proximal tubule; solute carrier