PLA2G2D ameliorates skin inflammation through mobilizing pro-resolving lipid mediators.
Resolution of inflammation is an active process that is mediated in part by antiinflammatory lipid mediators. Although phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes have been implicated in the promotion of inflammation through mobilizing lipid mediators, the molecular entity of PLA2 subtypes acting upstream of antiinflammatory lipid mediators remains unknown. Herein, we show that secreted PLA2 group IID (PLA2G2D) is preferentially expressed in CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and displays a pro-resolving function. In hapten-induced contact dermatitis, resolution, not propagation, of inflammation was compromised in skin and LNs of PLA2G2D-deficient mice (Pla2g2d−/−), in which the immune balance was shifted toward a proinflammatory state over an antiinflammatory state. Bone marrow-derived DCs from Pla2g2d−/− mice were hyperactivated and elicited skin inflammation after intravenous transfer into mice. Lipidomics analysis revealed that PLA2G2D in the LNs contributed to mobilization of a pool of polyunsaturated fatty acids that could serve as precursors for antiinflammatory/pro-resolving lipid mediators such as resolvin D1 and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2, which reduced Th1 cytokine production and surface MHC class II expression in LN cells or DCs. Altogether, our results highlight PLA2G2D as a “resolving sPLA2” that ameliorates inflammation through mobilizing pro-resolving lipid mediators and points to a potential use of this enzyme for treatment of inflammatory disorders.
Dexamethasone suppresses ER stress in inflammatory bowel disease by promoting correct protein folding and ER-associated degradation.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in intestinal secretory cells has been linked with colitis in mice and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endogenous intestinal glucocorticoids are important for homeostasis and glucocorticoid drugs are efficacious in IBD. In Winnie mice with intestinal ER stress caused by misfolding of the Muc2 mucin, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) suppressed ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), substantially restoring goblet cell Muc2 production. In mice lacking inflammation, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist increased ER stress, and DEX suppressed ER stress induced by the N-glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin (Tm). In cultured human intestinal secretory cells, in a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent manner, DEX suppressed ER stress and UPR activation induced by blocking N-glycosylation, reducing ER Ca2+ or depleting glucose. DEX up-regulated genes encoding chaperones and elements of ER-associated degradation (ERAD), including EDEM1. Silencing EDEM1 partially inhibited DEX’s suppression of misfolding-induced ER stress, showing that DEX enhances ERAD. DEX inhibited Tm-induced MUC2 precursor accumulation, promoted production of mature mucin, and restored ER exit and secretion of Winnie mutant recombinant Muc2 domains, consistent with enhanced protein folding. In IBD, glucocorticoids are likely to ameliorate ER stress by promoting correct folding of secreted proteins and enhancing removal of misfolded proteins from the ER.
IL-2–dependent adaptive-innate lymphocyte cross talk tunes NK cell reactivity and is limited by T reg cells.
The emergence of the adaptive immune system took a toll in the form of pathologies mediated by self-reactive cells. Regulatory T cells (T reg cells) exert a critical brake on responses of T and B lymphocytes to self- and foreign antigens. Here, we asked whether T reg cells are required to restrain NK cells, the third lymphocyte lineage, whose features combine innate and adaptive immune cell properties. Although depletion of T reg cells led to systemic fatal autoimmunity, NK cell tolerance and reactivity to strong activating self- and non-self–ligands remained largely intact. In contrast, missing-self responses were increased in the absence of T reg cells as the result of heightened IL-2 availability. We found that IL-2 rapidly boosted the capacity of NK cells to productively engage target cells and enabled NK cell responses to weak stimulation. Our results suggest that IL-2–dependent adaptive-innate lymphocyte cross talk tunes NK cell reactivity and that T reg cells restrain NK cell cytotoxicity by limiting the availability of IL-2.
Mutating anti–HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies increases their breadth and reduces pathways for viral escape through mutation.
Recently identified broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that potently neutralize most HIV-1 strains are key to potential antibody-based therapeutic approaches to combat HIV/AIDS in the absence of an effective vaccine. Increasing bNAb potencies and resistance to common routes of HIV-1 escape through mutation would facilitate their use as therapeutics. We previously used structure-based design to create the bNAb NIH45-46G54W, which exhibits superior potency and/or breadth compared with other bNAbs. We report new, more effective NIH45-46G54W variants designed using analyses of the NIH45-46–gp120 complex structure and sequences of NIH45-46G54W–resistant HIV-1 strains. One variant, 45-46m2, neutralizes 96% of HIV-1 strains in a cross-clade panel and viruses isolated from an HIV-infected individual that are resistant to all other known bNAbs, making it the single most broad and potent anti–HIV-1 antibody to date. A description of its mechanism is presented based on a 45-46m2–gp120 crystal structure. A second variant, 45-46m7, designed to thwart HIV-1 resistance to NIH45-46G54W arising from mutations in a gp120 consensus sequence, targets a common route of HIV-1 escape. In combination, 45-46m2 and 45-46m7 reduce the possible routes for the evolution of fit viral escape mutants in HIV-1YU-2–infected humanized mice, with viremic control exhibited when a third antibody, 10–1074, was added to the combination.
Loss of TRAF3 results in reduced TCR signaling and defective up-regulation of T-bet and CD122 in iNKT cells that impairs their proliferation and survival.
TCR signaling is a prerequisite for early stage development of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, whereas IL-15 signaling is required for expansion and maturation at later stages. In this study, we show that TNF receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3) plays a critical role in the transition between these two distinct signaling pathways and developmental stages. TRAF3-deficient iNKT cells in CD4CreTRAF3flox/flox (T-TRAF3−/−) mice exhibit defective up-regulation of T-bet and CD122, two critical molecules for IL-15 signaling, and as a consequence, IL-15–mediated iNKT cell proliferation and survival are impaired. Consistently, development of iNKT cells in T-TRAF3−/− mice shows a major defect at developmental stages 2 and 3, but not stages 0 and 1. We further demonstrated that defective T-bet up-regulation occurring during the stage 1 to stage 2 transition results from reduced TCR signaling in TRAF3−/− iNKT cells. In addition, mature TRAF3−/− iNKT cells displayed defective cytokine responses upon TCR stimulation. Collectively, our results reveal that by modulating the relative strength of TCR signaling, TRAF3 is an important regulator of iNKT cell development and functions.
Ubiquitination of MHCII molecules on dendritic cells is essential for the development of natural regulatory T cells
Membrane-associated RING-CH1 (MARCH1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates ubiquitination of MHCII in dendritic cells (DCs). MARCH1-mediated MHCII ubiquitination in DCs is known to regulate MHCII surface expression, thereby controlling DC-mediated T cell activation in vitro. However, its role at steady state or in vivo is not clearly understood. Here, we show that MARCH1 deficiency resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of thymus-derived regulatory T cells (T reg cells) in mice. A specific ablation of MHCII ubiquitination also significantly reduced the number of thymic T reg cells. Indeed, DCs deficient in MARCH1 or MHCII ubiquitination both failed to generate antigen-specific T reg cells in vivo and in vitro, although both exhibited an increased capacity for antigen presentation in parallel with the increased surface MHCII. Thus, MARCH1-mediated MHCII ubiquitination in DCs is required for proper production of naturally occurring T reg cells, suggesting a role in balancing immunogenic and regulatory T cell development.
Eric Vivier and colleagues discuss recent publications demonstrating that T reg cell restriction of IL-2 availability regulates NK cell function.
In light of their role in the immune response against tumors and viruses, natural killer (NK) cells represent a promising target for immunotherapy. Before this target is reached, the various mechanisms that control NK cell activity must first be identified and understood. In the past decades, studies have identified two critical processes that prevent spontaneous NK cell–mediated autoimmune activation while maximizing the efficiency of these cells during an immune response. First is the education process, whereby NK cells adapt to their environment by sensing ligands for inhibitory and activating receptors. Second is the priming phase of NK cell activation, which arms NK cells with appropriate cytotoxic molecules during inflammation. New studies now indicate that NK cell proliferation, accumulation, and activation are also under the control of regulatory T cells that restrict availability of IL-2 released by activated CD4+ T cells. Together with other recent studies, these data highlight the importance of the adaptive immune system in the regulation of NK cell activity.
The transcription factor Foxo1 is required for the differentiation of memory CD8+ T cells, and its absence hinders clearance of secondary infections.
The forkhead O transcription factors (FOXO) integrate a range of extracellular signals, including growth factor signaling, inflammation, oxidative stress, and nutrient availability, to substantially alter the program of gene expression and modulate cell survival, cell cycle progression, and many yet to be unraveled cell type–specific responses. Naive antigen-specific CD8+ T cells undergo a rapid expansion and arming of effector function within days of pathogen exposure. In addition, by the peak of expansion, they form precursors to memory T cells capable of self-renewal and indefinite survival. Using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Armstrong to probe the response to infection, we found that Foxo1−/− CD8+ T cells expand normally with no defects in effector differentiation, but continue to exhibit characteristics of effector T cells long after antigen clearance. The KLRG1lo CD8+ T cells that are normally enriched for memory-precursor cells retain Granzyme B and CD69 expression, and fail to up-regulate TCF7, EOMES, and other memory signature genes. As a correlate, Foxo1−/− CD8+ T cells were virtually unable to expand upon secondary infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate an intrinsic role for FOXO1 in establishing the post-effector memory program that is essential to forming long-lived memory cells capable of immune reactivation.
T reg cells restrain IL-2–mediated expansion of immature CD127+ NK cells.
Activation and expansion of T and B lymphocytes and myeloid cells are controlled by Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (T reg cells), and their deficiency results in a fatal lympho- and myeloproliferative syndrome. A role for T reg cells in the homeostasis of innate lymphocyte lineages remained unknown. Here, we report that T reg cells restrained the expansion of immature CD127+ NK cells, which had the unique ability to up-regulate the IL2Rα (CD25) in response to the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12. In addition, we observed the preferential accumulation of CD127+ NK cells in mice bearing progressing tumors or suffering from chronic viral infection. CD127+ NK cells expanded in an IL-2–dependent manner upon T reg cell depletion and were able to give rise to mature NK cells, indicating that the latter can develop through a CD25+ intermediate stage. Thus, T reg cells restrain the IL-2–dependent CD4+ T cell help for CD127+ immature NK cells. These findings highlight the adaptive control of innate lymphocyte homeostasis.
Chemokine receptor CXCR4 promotes B cell localization to CXCL12+ perilymphatic zones and egress from Peyer’s patches.
Peyer’s patches (PPs) play a central role in supporting B cell responses against intestinal antigens, yet the factors controlling B cell passage through these mucosal lymphoid tissues are incompletely understood. We report that, in mixed chimeras, CXCR4-deficient B cells accumulate in PPs compared with their representation in other lymphoid tissues. CXCR4-deficient B cells egress from PPs more slowly than wild-type cells, whereas CXCR5-deficient cells egress more rapidly. The CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12, is expressed by cells adjacent to lymphatic endothelial cells in a zone that abuts but minimally overlaps with the CXCL13+ follicle. CXCR4-deficient B cells show reduced localization to these CXCL12+ perilymphatic zones, whereas CXCR5-deficient B cells preferentially localize in these regions. By photoconverting KikGR-expressing cells within surgically exposed PPs, we provide evidence that naive B cells transit PPs with an approximate residency half-life of 10 h. When CXCR4 is lacking, KikGR+ B cells show a delay in PP egress. In summary, we identify a CXCL12hi perilymphatic zone in PPs that plays a role in overcoming CXCL13-mediated retention to promote B cell egress from these gut-associated lymphoid tissues.
Pancreatic T reg cells control the availability of CD4+ T cell–secreted IL-2 to limit NK cell function.
Regulatory T (T reg) cells control progression to autoimmune diabetes in the BDC2.5/NOD mouse model by reining in natural killer (NK) cells that infiltrate the pancreatic islets, inhibiting both their proliferation and production of diabetogenic interferon-γ. In this study, we have explored the molecular mechanisms underlying this NK–T reg cell axis, following leads from a kinetic exploration of gene expression changes early after punctual perturbation of T reg cells in BDC2.5/NOD mice. Results from gene signature analyses, quantification of STAT5 phosphorylation levels, cytokine neutralization experiments, cytokine supplementation studies, and evaluations of intracellular cytokine levels collectively argue for a scenario in which T reg cells regulate NK cell functions by controlling the bioavailability of limiting amounts of IL-2 in the islets, generated mainly by infiltrating CD4+ T cells. This scenario represents a previously unappreciated intertwining of the innate and adaptive immune systems: CD4+ T cells priming NK cells to provoke a destructive T effector cell response. Our findings highlight the need to consider potential effects on NK cells when designing therapeutic strategies based on manipulation of IL-2 levels or targets.
CD172a+ cells producing IL-1β and TNF are increased in inflamed tissues in Crohn’s disease and can be targeted by CD47 fusion protein.
In mice, the transfer of CD172a+ (SIRP-α) dendritic cells (DCs) elicits T cell–driven colitis, whereas treatment with CD47-Fc protein, a CD172a-binding agent, confers protection. The aim of this study was to elucidate the nature and functional properties of human CD172a+ DCs in chronic intestinal inflammation. Here, we show that CD172a+CD11c+ cells accumulate in the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) and inflamed intestinal mucosa in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). These cells are distinct from resident DCs and may coexpress markers typically associated with monocyte-derived inflammatory DCs such as CD14 and/or DC-SIGN, E-Cadherin, and/or CX3CR1. Spontaneous IL-1β and TNF production by HLA-DR+ cells in CD tissues is restricted to those expressing CD172a. An avidity-improved CD47 fusion protein (CD47-Var1) suppresses the release of a wide array of inflammatory cytokines by CD172a+ cells, which may include HLA-DR−CD172a+ neutrophils, in inflamed colonic explant cultures and impairs the ability of HLA-DR+CD172a+ cells to activate memory Th17 but not Th1 responses in mLNs. In conclusion, targeting CD172a+ cells may represent novel therapeutic perspectives for patients with CD.
Retinoic acid attenuates colitis and is associated with increased IL-22 production from γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells and enhanced antimicrobial peptide expression.
Retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A metabolite, modulates mucosal T helper cell responses. Here we examined the role of RA in regulating IL-22 production by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells in intestinal inflammation. RA significantly enhanced IL-22 production by γδ T cells stimulated in vitro with IL-1β or IL-18 and IL-23. In vivo RA attenuated colon inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate treatment or Citrobacter rodentium infection. This was associated with a significant increase in IL-22 secretion by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells. In addition, RA treatment enhanced production of the IL-22–responsive antimicrobial peptides Reg3β and Reg3γ in the colon. The attenuating effects of RA on colitis were reversed by treatment with an anti–IL-22 neutralizing antibody, demonstrating that RA mediates protection by enhancing IL-22 production. To define the molecular events involved, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and found that RA promoted binding of RA receptor to the IL-22 promoter in γδ T cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular events controlling IL-22 transcription and suggest that one key outcome of RA signaling may be to shape early intestinal immune responses by promoting IL-22 synthesis by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells.
Group B Streptococcus invades human amniotic epithelial cells using a hemolytic pigment.
Microbial infection of the amniotic fluid is a significant cause of fetal injury, preterm birth, and newborn infections. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important human bacterial pathogen associated with preterm birth, fetal injury, and neonatal mortality. Although GBS has been isolated from amniotic fluid of women in preterm labor, mechanisms of in utero infection remain unknown. Previous studies indicated that GBS are unable to invade human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs), which represent the last barrier to the amniotic cavity and fetus. We show that GBS invades hAECs and strains lacking the hemolysin repressor CovR/S accelerate amniotic barrier failure and penetrate chorioamniotic membranes in a hemolysin-dependent manner. Clinical GBS isolates obtained from women in preterm labor are hyperhemolytic and some are associated with covR/S mutations. We demonstrate for the first time that hemolytic and cytolytic activity of GBS is due to the ornithine rhamnolipid pigment and not due to a pore-forming protein toxin. Our studies emphasize the importance of the hemolytic GBS pigment in ascending infection and fetal injury.
A new polymorphism near the IL28B locus negatively affects induction of IL28B and exhibits strong predictive value for HCV treatment response and spontaneous resolution.
Approximately 3% of the world population is chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), with potential development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the availability of new antiviral agents, treatment remains suboptimal. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified rs12979860, a polymorphism nearby IL28B, as an important predictor of HCV clearance. We report the identification of a novel TT/-G polymorphism in the CpG region upstream of IL28B, which is a better predictor of HCV clearance than rs12979860. By using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals carrying different allelic combinations of the TT/-G and rs12979860 polymorphisms, we show that induction of IL28B and IFN-γ–inducible protein 10 (IP-10) mRNA relies on TT/-G, but not rs12979860, making TT/-G the only functional variant identified so far. This novel step in understanding the genetic regulation of IL28B may have important implications for clinical practice, as the use of TT/G genotyping instead of rs12979860 would improve patient management.
RB family genes control T cell production and promote thymic involution through reducing Foxn1 expression in thymic epithelial cells.
Thymic involution during aging is a major cause of decreased production of T cells and reduced immunity. Here we show that inactivation of Rb family genes in young mice prevents thymic involution and results in an enlarged thymus competent for increased production of naive T cells. This phenotype originates from the expansion of functional thymic epithelial cells (TECs). In RB family mutant TECs, increased activity of E2F transcription factors drives increased expression of Foxn1, a central regulator of the thymic epithelium. Increased Foxn1 expression is required for the thymic expansion observed in Rb family mutant mice. Thus, the RB family promotes thymic involution and controls T cell production via a bone marrow–independent mechanism, identifying a novel pathway to target to increase thymic function in patients.
Transfer of FAP-reactive T cells into mice bearing a variety of subcutaneous tumors mediated limited antitumor effects and induced significant cachexia and lethal bone toxicities
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a candidate universal target antigen because it has been reported to be selectively expressed in nearly all solid tumors by a subset of immunosuppressive tumor stromal fibroblasts. We verified that 18/18 human tumors of various histologies contained pronounced stromal elements staining strongly for FAP, and hypothesized that targeting tumor stroma with FAP-reactive T cells would inhibit tumor growth in cancer-bearing hosts. T cells genetically engineered with FAP-reactive chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) specifically degranulated and produced effector cytokines upon stimulation with FAP or FAP-expressing cell lines. However, adoptive transfer of FAP-reactive T cells into mice bearing a variety of subcutaneous tumors mediated limited antitumor effects and induced significant cachexia and lethal bone toxicities in two mouse strains. We found that FAP was robustly expressed on PDGFR-α+, Sca-1+ multipotent bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in mice, as well as on well-characterized, clinical-grade multipotent human BMSCs. Accordingly, both mouse and human multipotent BMSCs were recognized by FAP-reactive T cells. The lethal bone toxicity and cachexia observed after cell-based immunotherapy targeting FAP cautions against its use as a universal target. Moreover, the expression of FAP by multipotent BMSCs may point toward the cellular origins of tumor stromal fibroblasts.
Ablation of stromal cells expressing fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP) results in cachexia and anemia, and loss of these cells is seen in transplantable tumor models.
Fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP) identifies stromal cells of mesenchymal origin in human cancers and chronic inflammatory lesions. In mouse models of cancer, they have been shown to be immune suppressive, but studies of their occurrence and function in normal tissues have been limited. With a transgenic mouse line permitting the bioluminescent imaging of FAP+ cells, we find that they reside in most tissues of the adult mouse. FAP+ cells from three sites, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and pancreas, have highly similar transcriptomes, suggesting a shared lineage. FAP+ cells of skeletal muscle are the major local source of follistatin, and in bone marrow they express Cxcl12 and KitL. Experimental ablation of these cells causes loss of muscle mass and a reduction of B-lymphopoiesis and erythropoiesis, revealing their essential functions in maintaining normal muscle mass and hematopoiesis, respectively. Remarkably, these cells are altered at these sites in transplantable and spontaneous mouse models of cancer-induced cachexia and anemia. Thus, the FAP+ stromal cell may have roles in two adverse consequences of cancer: their acquisition by tumors may cause failure of immunosurveillance, and their alteration in normal tissues contributes to the paraneoplastic syndromes of cachexia and anemia.
Absence of the transcriptional regulator Zfp521 results in decreased bone formation by osteoblasts and increased osteoclast differentiation, largely via Zfp521’s regulation of the transcription factor Ebf1.
Bone homeostasis is maintained by the coupled actions of hematopoietic bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCs) and mesenchymal bone-forming osteoblasts (OBs). Here we identify early B cell factor 1 (Ebf1) and the transcriptional coregulator Zfp521 as components of the machinery that regulates bone homeostasis through coordinated effects in both lineages. Deletion of Zfp521 in OBs led to impaired bone formation and increased OB-dependent osteoclastogenesis (OC-genesis), and deletion in hematopoietic cells revealed a strong cell-autonomous role for Zfp521 in OC progenitors. In adult mice, the effects of Zfp521 were largely caused by repression of Ebf1, and the bone phenotype of Zfp521+/− mice was rescued in Zfp521+/−:Ebf1+/− mice. Zfp521 interacted with Ebf1 and repressed its transcriptional activity. Accordingly, deletion of Zfp521 led to increased Ebf1 activity in OBs and OCs. In vivo, Ebf1 overexpression in OBs resulted in suppressed bone formation, similar to the phenotype seen after OB-targeted deletion of Zfp521. Conversely, Ebf1 deletion led to cell-autonomous defects in both OB-dependent and cell-intrinsic OC-genesis, a phenotype opposite to that of the Zfp521 knockout. Thus, we have identified the interplay between Zfp521 and Ebf1 as a novel rheostat for bone homeostasis.
The regulatory protein nucleolin controls the expression of a subset of miRNAs involved in breast cancer progression and can be targeted to inhibit breast cancer growth in vivo.
Numerous studies have described the altered expression and the causal role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human cancer. However, to date, efforts to modulate miRNA levels for therapeutic purposes have been challenging to implement. Here we find that nucleolin (NCL), a major nucleolar protein, posttranscriptionally regulates the expression of a specific subset of miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-103, that are causally involved in breast cancer initiation, progression, and drug resistance. We also show that NCL is commonly overexpressed in human breast tumors and that its expression correlates with that of NCL-dependent miRNAs. Finally, inhibition of NCL using guanosine-rich aptamers reduces the levels of NCL-dependent miRNAs and their target genes, thus reducing breast cancer cell aggressiveness both in vitro and in vivo. These findings illuminate a path to novel therapeutic approaches based on NCL-targeting aptamers for the modulation of miRNA expression in the treatment of breast cancer.
Inhibition of the RAD51 homologous recombination factor prevents the repair of AID-initiated DNA breaks and induces apoptosis preferentially in AID-expressing human CLL.
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is critical in normal B cells to initiate somatic hypermutation and immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Accumulating evidence suggests that AID is also prooncogenic, inducing cancer-promoting mutations or chromosome rearrangements. In this context, we find that AID is expressed in >40% of primary human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases, consistent with other reports. Using a combination of human B lymphoid leukemia cells and mouse models, we now show that AID expression can be harnessed for antileukemic effect, after inhibition of the RAD51 homologous recombination (HR) factor with 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2-2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS). As a proof of principle, we show that DIDS treatment inhibits repair of AID-initiated DNA breaks, induces apoptosis, and promotes cytotoxicity preferentially in AID-expressing human CLL. This reveals a novel antineoplastic role of AID that can be triggered by inhibition of HR, suggesting a potential new paradigm to treat AID-expressing tumors. Given the growing list of tumor types with aberrant AID expression, this novel therapeutic approach has potential to impact a significant patient population.
Malaria sporozoites cross the liver sinusoidal barrier, target Kupffer cells and endothelial cells with cell traversal inhibiting sporozoite clearance.
Malaria infection starts when the sporozoite stage of the Plasmodium parasite is injected into the skin by a mosquito. Sporozoites are known to traverse host cells before finally invading a hepatocyte and multiplying into erythrocyte-infecting forms, but how sporozoites reach hepatocytes in the liver and the role of host cell traversal (CT) remain unclear. We report the first quantitative imaging study of sporozoite liver infection in rodents. We show that sporozoites can cross the liver sinusoidal barrier by multiple mechanisms, targeting Kupffer cells (KC) or endothelial cells and associated or not with the parasite CT activity. We also show that the primary role of CT is to inhibit sporozoite clearance by KC during locomotion inside the sinusoid lumen, before crossing the barrier. By being involved in multiple steps of the sporozoite journey from the skin to the final hepatocyte, the parasite proteins mediating host CT emerge as ideal antibody targets for vaccination against the parasite.
NOS2-derived nitric oxide drives ferroportin-1–mediated iron export in Salmonella-infected macrophages, thus limiting bacterial growth.
Nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible NO synthase 2 (NOS2) affects cellular iron homeostasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and implications for NOS2-dependent pathogen control are incompletely understood. In this study, we found that NO up-regulated the expression of ferroportin-1 (Fpn1), the major cellular iron exporter, in mouse and human cells. Nos2−/− macrophages displayed increased iron content due to reduced Fpn1 expression and allowed for an enhanced iron acquisition by the intracellular bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Nos2 gene disruption or inhibition of NOS2 activity led to an accumulation of iron in the spleen and splenic macrophages. Lack of NO formation resulted in impaired nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, resulting in reduced Fpn1 transcription and diminished cellular iron egress. After infection of Nos2−/− macrophages or mice with S. typhimurium, the increased iron accumulation was paralleled by a reduced cytokine (TNF, IL-12, and IFN-γ) expression and impaired pathogen control, all of which were restored upon administration of the iron chelator deferasirox or hyperexpression of Fpn1 or Nrf2. Thus, the accumulation of iron in Nos2−/− macrophages counteracts a proinflammatory host immune response, and the protective effect of NO appears to partially result from its ability to prevent iron overload in macrophages
Neutralization of IL-22 production from colonic innate lymphoid cells reduces dysplasia in bacterial-induced colon cancer by reducing proliferation of epithelial cells via reduced activation of Stat3.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of colon cancer. However, the immune cells and cytokines that mediate the transition from intestinal inflammation to cancer are poorly understood. We show that bacteria-induced colon cancer is accompanied by differential accumulation of IL-17+IL-22+ colonic innate lymphoid cells (cILCs), which are phenotypically distinct from LTi and NK-22 cells, and that their depletion in mice with dysplastic inflammation blocks the development of invasive colon cancer. Analysis of the functional role of distinct Type 17 cytokines shows that although blockade of IL-17 inhibits some parameters of intestinal inflammation, reduction in dysplasia and colorectal cancer (CRC) requires neutralization of IL-22 indicating a unique role for IL-22 in the maintenance of cancer in this model. Mechanistic analyses showed that IL-22 selectively acts on epithelial cells to induce Stat3 phosphorylation and proliferation. Importantly, we could detect IL-22+CD3+ and IL-22+CD3− cells in human CRC. Our results describe a new activity of IL-22 in the colon as a nonredundant mediator of the inflammatory cascade required for perpetuation of CRC, highlighting the IL-22 axis as a novel therapeutic target in colon cancer.