Rationale: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for circulating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) biomarkers could identify genetic determinants of biomarker levels and COPD susceptibility.
Objectives: To identify genetic variants of circulating protein biomarkers and novel genetic determinants of COPD.
Methods: GWAS was performed for two pneumoproteins, Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) and surfactant protein D (SP-D), and five systemic inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α) in 1,951 subjects with COPD. For genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (P < 1 × 10−8), association with COPD susceptibility was tested in 2,939 cases with COPD and 1,380 smoking control subjects. The association of candidate SNPs with mRNA expression in induced sputum was also elucidated.
Measurements and Main Results: Genome-wide significant susceptibility loci affecting biomarker levels were found only for the two pneumoproteins. Two discrete loci affecting CC16, one region near the CC16 coding gene (SCGB1A1) on chromosome 11 and another locus approximately 25 Mb away from SCGB1A1, were identified, whereas multiple SNPs on chromosomes 6 and 16, in addition to SNPs near SFTPD, had genome-wide significant associations with SP-D levels. Several SNPs affecting circulating CC16 levels were significantly associated with sputum mRNA expression of SCGB1A1 (P = 0.009–0.03). Several SNPs highly associated with CC16 or SP-D levels were nominally associated with COPD in a collaborative GWAS (P = 0.001–0.049), although these COPD associations were not replicated in two additional cohorts.
Conclusions: Distant genetic loci and biomarker-coding genes affect circulating levels of COPD-related pneumoproteins. A subset of these protein quantitative trait loci may influence their gene expression in the lung and/or COPD susceptibility.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00292552).
biomarker; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; genome-wide association study
Rationale: Systemic glucocorticoids are used therapeutically to treat a variety of medical conditions. Epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation may reflect exposure to glucocorticoids and may be involved in mediating the responses and side effects associated with these medications.
Objectives: To test the hypothesis that differences in DNA methylation are associated with current systemic steroid use.
Methods: We obtained DNA methylation data at 27,578 CpG sites in 14,475 genes throughout the genome in two large, independent cohorts: the International COPD Genetics Network (ndiscovery = 1,085) and the Boston Early Onset COPD study (nreplication = 369). Sites were tested for association with current systemic steroid use using generalized linear mixed models.
Measurements and Main Results: A total of 511 sites demonstrated significant differential methylation by systemic corticosteroid use in all three of our primary models. Pyrosequencing validation confirmed robust differential methylation at CpG sites annotated to genes such as SLC22A18, LRP3, HIPK3, SCNN1A, FXYD1, IRF7, AZU1, SIT1, GPR97, ABHD16B, and RABGEF1. Functional annotation clustering demonstrated significant enrichment in intrinsic membrane components, hemostasis and coagulation, cellular ion homeostasis, leukocyte and lymphocyte activation and chemotaxis, protein transport, and responses to nutrients.
Conclusions: Our analyses suggest that systemic steroid use is associated with site-specific differential methylation throughout the genome. Differentially methylated CpG sites were found in biologically plausible and previously unsuspected pathways; these genes and pathways may be relevant in the development of novel targeted therapies.
DNA methylation; glucocorticoids; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Rationale: Severe sepsis is common and highly morbid, yet the epidemiology of severe sepsis at the frontier of the health care system—pre-hospital emergency care—is unknown.
Objectives: We examined the epidemiology of pre-hospital severe sepsis among emergency medical services (EMS) encounters, relative to acute myocardial infarction and stroke.
Methods: Retrospective study using a community-based cohort of all nonarrest, nontrauma King County EMS encounters from 2000 to 2009 who were transported to a hospital.
Measurements and Main Results: Overall incidence rate of hospitalization with severe sepsis among EMS encounters, as well as pre-hospital characteristics, admission diagnosis, and outcomes. Among 407,176 EMS encounters, we identified 13,249 hospitalizations for severe sepsis, of whom 2,596 died in the hospital (19.6%). The crude incidence rate of severe sepsis was 3.3 per 100 EMS encounters, greater than for acute myocardial infarction or stroke (2.3 per 100 and 2.2 per 100 EMS encounters, respectively). More than 40% of all severe sepsis hospitalizations arrived at the emergency department after EMS transport, and 80% of cases were diagnosed on admission. Pre-hospital care intervals, on average, exceeded 45 minutes for those hospitalized with severe sepsis. One-half or fewer of patients with severe sepsis were transported by paramedics (n = 7,114; 54%) or received pre-hospital intravenous access (n = 4,842; 37%).
Conclusions: EMS personnel care for a substantial and increasing number of patients with severe sepsis, and spend considerable time on scene and during transport. Given the emphasis on rapid diagnosis and intervention for sepsis, the pre-hospital interval may represent an important opportunity for recognition and care of sepsis.
sepsis; emergency medical services; epidemiology
Common genetic risk variants identified by genome-wide association studies have explained a small portion of disease heritability in complex diseases. It is becoming apparent that each gene/locus is heterogeneous and that multiple rare independent risk alleles across the population contribute to disease risk. Next-generation sequencing technologies have reached the maturity and low cost necessary to perform whole genome, whole exome, and targeted region sequencing to identify all rare risk alleles across a population, a task that is not possible to achieve by genotyping. Design of whole genome, whole exome, and targeted sequencing projects to identify disease variants for complex lung diseases requires four main steps: library preparation, sequencing, sequence data analysis, and statistical analysis. Although data analysis approaches are still evolving, a number of published studies have successfully identified rare variants associated with complex disease. Despite many challenges that lie ahead in applying these technologies to lung disease, rare variants are likely to be a critical piece of the puzzle that needs to be solved to understand the genetic basis of complex lung disease and to use this information to develop better therapies.
genetic variants; rare variants; next-generation sequencing; complex lung disease; disease risk alleles
Rationale: Unprecedented pollution control actions during the Beijing Olympics provided a quasi-experimental opportunity to examine biologic responses to drastic changes in air pollution levels.
Objectives: To determine whether changes in levels of biomarkers reflecting pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary and systemic oxidative stress were associated with changes in air pollution levels in healthy young adults.
Methods: We measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide, a number of exhaled breath condensate markers (H+, nitrite, nitrate, and 8-isoprostane), and urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in 125 participants twice in each of the pre- (high pollution), during- (low pollution), and post-Olympic (high pollution) periods. We measured concentrations of air pollutants near where the participants lived and worked. We used mixed-effects models to estimate changes in biomarker levels across the three periods and to examine whether changes in biomarker levels were associated with changes in pollutant concentrations, adjusting for meteorologic parameters.
Measurements and Main Results: From the pre- to the during-Olympic period, we observed significant and often large decreases (ranging from −4.5% to −72.5%) in levels of all the biomarkers. From the during-Olympic to the post-Olympic period, we observed significant and larger increases (48–360%) in levels of these same biomarkers. Moreover, increased pollutant concentrations were consistently associated with statistically significant increases in biomarker levels.
Conclusions: These findings support the important role of oxidative stress and that of pulmonary inflammation in mediating air pollution health effects. The findings demonstrate the utility of novel and noninvasive biomarkers in the general population consisting largely of healthy individuals.
air pollution; inflammation; oxidative stress; respiratory health; the Beijing Olympics
Rationale: Activation of the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) promotes antiinflammatory effects in diverse biological settings, but the role of this receptor in antimicrobial host defense in the lung has not been established. Gram-negative bacillary pneumonia is a common and serious illness associated with high morbidity and mortality, the treatment of which is complicated by increasing rates of antibiotic resistance.
Objectives: To test the hypothesis that absence of adenosine A2B receptor signaling promotes host defense against bacterial pneumonia.
Methods: We used a model of Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in wild-type mice and mice with targeted deletion of the A2BR. Host responses were compared in vivo and leukocyte responses to the bacteria were examined in vitro.
Measurements and Main Results: A2BR–/– mice demonstrated enhanced bacterial clearance from the lung and improved survival after infection with K. pneumoniae compared with wild-type controls, an effect that was mediated by bone marrow–derived cells. Leukocyte recruitment to the lungs and expression of inflammatory cytokines did not differ between A2BR–/– and wild-type mice, but A2BR–/– neutrophils exhibited sixfold greater bactericidal activity and enhanced production of neutrophil extracellular traps compared with wild-type neutrophils when incubated with K. pneumoniae. Consistent with this finding, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from A2BR–/– mice with Klebsiella pneumonia contained more extracellular DNA compared with wild-type mice with pneumonia.
Conclusions: These data suggest that the absence of A2BR signaling enhances antimicrobial activity in gram-negative bacterial pneumonia.
neutrophil; extracellular traps; pneumonia; adenosine
Rationale: Although previous studies suggest that access to care for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) does not vary appreciably by socioeconomic status (SES), disparities with respect to access to lung transplantation for patients with CF are largely unknown.
Objectives: To determine whether access to lung transplantation for patients with CF differs according to SES.
Methods: Observational study involving 2,167 adult patients with CF from the CF Foundation Patient registry who underwent their first lung transplant evaluation between 2001 and 2009. The primary outcome was acceptance for lung transplant after initial evaluation. The main SES indicator was Medicaid status. Alternate SES indicators included race, educational attainment, ZIP code–level median household income, and driving time from residence to closest lung transplant center.
Measurements and Main Results: The odds that Medicaid recipients were not accepted for lung transplant were 1.56-fold higher (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–1.92) than patients without Medicaid, after multivariate adjustment for demographic characteristics, disease severity, and potential contraindications to lung transplant, and before or after use of the lung allocation score. This association was independent of other SES indicators, including race, educational attainment, ZIP code–level median household income, and driving time to closest transplant center (odds ratio [OR] = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10–1.72). Patients not completing high school (OR = 2.37; 95% CI, 1.49–3.79) and those residing in the lowest (vs. highest) ZIP code median household income category (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01–1.93) also experienced a higher odds of not being accepted for lung transplant in multivariate analysis.
Conclusions: In this nationally representative study of adult patients with CF, multiple indicators of low SES were associated with higher odds of not being accepted for lung transplant.
cystic fibrosis; lung transplantation; socioeconomic status; health status disparities; health care access
Rationale: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a family of recessive disorders of intracellular trafficking defects that are associated with highly penetrant pulmonary fibrosis. Naturally occurring HPS mice reliably model important features of the human disease, including constitutive alveolar macrophage activation and susceptibility to profibrotic stimuli.
Objectives: To decipher which cell lineage(s) in the alveolar compartment is the predominant driver of fibrotic susceptibility in HPS.
Methods: We used five different HPS and Chediak-Higashi mouse models to evaluate genotype-specific fibrotic susceptibility. To determine whether intrinsic defects in HPS alveolar macrophages cause fibrotic susceptibility, we generated bone marrow chimeras in HPS and wild-type mice. To directly test the contribution of the pulmonary epithelium, we developed a transgenic model with epithelial-specific correction of the HPS2 defect in an HPS mouse model.
Measurements and Main Results: Bone marrow transplantation experiments demonstrated that both constitutive alveolar macrophage activation and increased susceptibility to bleomycin-induced fibrosis were conferred by the genotype of the lung epithelium, rather than that of the bone marrow–derived, cellular compartment. Furthermore, transgenic epithelial-specific correction of the HPS defect significantly attenuated bleomycin-induced alveolar epithelial apoptosis, fibrotic susceptibility, and macrophage activation. Type II cell apoptosis was genotype specific, caspase dependent, and correlated with the degree of fibrotic susceptibility.
Conclusions: We conclude that pulmonary fibrosis in naturally occurring HPS mice is driven by intracellular trafficking defects that lower the threshold for pulmonary epithelial apoptosis. Our findings demonstrate a pivotal role for the alveolar epithelium in the maintenance of alveolar homeostasis and regulation of alveolar macrophage activation.
lung fibrosis; alveolar epithelial cells; alveolar macrophage; Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome; adaptor protein 3
Rationale: Changes in airway epithelial cell differentiation, driven in part by IL-13, are important in asthma. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell differentiation in many systems and could contribute to epithelial abnormalities in asthma.
Objectives: To determine whether airway epithelial miRNA expression is altered in asthma and identify IL-13–regulated miRNAs.
Methods: We used miRNA microarrays to analyze bronchial epithelial brushings from 16 steroid-naive subjects with asthma before and after inhaled corticosteroids, 19 steroid-using subjects with asthma, and 12 healthy control subjects, and the effects of IL-13 and corticosteroids on cultured bronchial epithelial cells. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction to confirm selected microarray results.
Measurements and Main Results: Most (12 of 16) steroid-naive subjects with asthma had a markedly abnormal pattern of bronchial epithelial miRNA expression by microarray analysis. Compared with control subjects, 217 miRNAs were differentially expressed in steroid-naive subjects with asthma and 200 in steroid-using subjects with asthma (false discovery rate < 0.05). Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids had modest effects on miRNA expression in steroid-naive asthma, inducing a statistically significant (false discovery rate < 0.05) change for only nine miRNAs. qPCR analysis confirmed differential expression of 22 miRNAs that were highly differentially expressed by microarrays. IL-13 stimulation recapitulated changes in many differentially expressed miRNAs, including four members of the miR-34/449 family, and these changes in miR-34/449 family members were resistant to corticosteroids.
Conclusions: Dramatic alterations of airway epithelial cell miRNA levels are a common feature of asthma. These alterations are only modestly corrected by inhaled corticosteroids. IL-13 effects may account for some of these alterations, including repression of miR-34/449 family members that have established roles in airway epithelial cell differentiation.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00595153).
miRNA; asthma; airway epithelium
Rationale: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) consist of approximately 160 types that cause a wide range of clinical outcomes, including asymptomatic infections, common colds, and severe lower respiratory illnesses.
Objectives: To identify factors that influence the severity of HRV illnesses.
Methods: HRV species and types were determined in 1,445 nasal lavages that were prospectively collected from 209 infants participating in a birth cohort who had at least one HRV infection. Questionnaires were used during each illness to identify moderate to severe illnesses (MSI).
Measurements and Main Results: Altogether, 670 HRV infections were identified, and 519 of them were solitary infections (only one HRV type). These 519 viruses belonged to 93 different types of three species: 49 A, 9 B, and 35 C types. HRV-A (odds ratio, 8.2) and HRV-C (odds ratio, 7.6) were more likely to cause MSI compared with HRV-B. In addition, HRV infections were 5- to 10-fold more likely to cause MSI in the winter months (P < 0.0001) compared with summer, in contrast to peak seasonal prevalence in spring and fall. When significant differences in host susceptibility to MSI (P = 0.004) were considered, strain-specific rates of HRV MSI ranged from less than 1% to more than 20%.
Conclusions: Factors related to HRV species and type, season, and host susceptibility determine the risk of more severe HRV illness in infancy. These findings suggest that anti-HRV strategies should focus on HRV-A and -C species and identify the need for additional studies to determine mechanisms for seasonal increases of HRV severity, independent of viral prevalence, in cold weather months.
rhinovirus; severe illness; species; type; seasonality
Rationale: Analysis of the age of onset in heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) has led to the hypothesis that genetic anticipation causes younger age of onset and death in subsequent generations. With accrual of pedigree data over multiple decades, we retested this hypothesis using analyses that eliminate the truncation of data that exists with shorter duration of follow-up.
Objectives: To analyze the pedigrees of families with mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2), afflicted in two or more generations with HPAH, eliminating time truncation bias by including families for whom we have at least 57 years of data.
Methods: We analyzed 355 individuals with BMPR2 mutations from 53 families in the Vanderbilt Pulmonary Hypertension Registry. We compared age at diagnosis or death in affected individuals (n = 249) by generation within families with multigenerational disease. We performed linear mixed effects models and we limited time-truncation bias by restricting date of birth to before 1955. This allowed for 57 years of follow-up (1955–2012) for mutation carriers to develop disease. We also conducted Kaplan-Meier analysis to include currently unaffected mutation carriers (n = 106).
Measurements and Main Results: Differences in age at diagnosis by generation were found in a biased analysis that included all birth years to the present, but this finding was eliminated when the 57-year observation limit was imposed. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, inclusion of currently unaffected mutation carriers strengthens the observation that bias of ascertainment exists when recent generations are included.
Conclusions: Genetic anticipation is likely an artifact of incomplete time of observation of kindreds with HPAH due to BMPR2 mutations.
hereditary; pulmonary hypertension; genetics
Rationale: Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic tissue that contributes to organ integrity and function, and its regulation of cell phenotype is a major aspect of cell biology. However, standard in vitro culture approaches are of unclear physiologic relevance because they do not mimic the compositional, architectural, or distensible nature of a living organ. In the lung, fibroblasts exist in ECM-rich interstitial spaces and are key effectors of lung fibrogenesis.
Objectives: To better address how ECM influences fibroblast phenotype in a disease-specific manner, we developed a culture system using acellular human normal and fibrotic lungs.
Methods: Decellularization was achieved using treatment with detergents, salts, and DNase. The resultant matrices can be sectioned as uniform slices within which cells were cultured.
Measurements and Main Results: We report that the decellularization process effectively removes cellular and nuclear material while retaining native dimensionality and stiffness of lung tissue. We demonstrate that lung fibroblasts reseeded into acellular lung matrices can be subsequently assayed using conventional protocols; in this manner we show that fibrotic matrices clearly promote transforming growth factor-β–independent myofibroblast differentiation compared with normal matrices. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis of acellular matrix ECM details significant compositional differences between normal and fibrotic lungs, paving the way for further study of novel hypotheses.
Conclusions: This methodology is expected to allow investigation of important ECM-based hypotheses in human tissues and permits future scientific exploration in an organ- and disease-specific manner.
extracellular matrix; lung fibrosis; fibroblast
Acute lower respiratory tract infection is responsible for an inordinate disease burden. Pulmonary immunity determines the outcomes of these infections. The innate and adaptive immune responses to microbes in the lung are critical to maintaining a healthy respiratory system and preventing pulmonary disease. In addition to balancing antimicrobial defense against the risk of lung injury during the immediate infection, the shaping of pulmonary immunity by respiratory infection contributes to the pathophysiology of many and even perhaps most chronic pulmonary diseases. This Pulmonary Perspective aims to communicate two interconnected points. First, tremendous morbidity and mortality result from inadequate, misguided, or excessive pulmonary immunity. Second, our understanding of pulmonary immunity is at an exciting stage of rapid developments and discoveries, but many questions remain. Further advances in pulmonary immunity and elucidation of the cellular and molecular responses to microbes in the lung are needed to develop novel approaches to predicting, preventing, and curing respiratory disease.
respiratory tract infections; pneumonia; acute lung injury; innate immunity; adaptive immunity
Rationale: Phthalates are used widely in consumer products. Exposure to several phthalates has been associated with respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function. Associations between children’s phthalate exposures and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a biomarker of airway inflammation, have not been examined.
Objectives: We hypothesized that urinary concentrations of four phthalate metabolites would be positively associated with FeNO and that these associations would be stronger among children with seroatopy or wheeze.
Methods: In an urban ongoing birth cohort, 244 children had phthalate metabolites determined in urine collected on the same day as FeNO measurement. Repeated sampling gathered 313 observations between ages 4.9 and 9.1 years. Seroatopy was assessed by specific IgE. Wheeze in the past year was assessed by validated questionnaire. Regression models used generalized estimating equations.
Measurements and Main Results: Log-unit increases in urinary concentrations of metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) were associated with a 6.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5–13.1%) and 8.7% (95% CI, 1.9–16.0%) increase in FeNO, respectively, adjusting for other phthalate metabolites and potential covariates/confounders. There was no association between concentrations of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate or di-n-butyl phthalate and FeNO. There was no significant interaction by seroatopy. The BBzP metabolite association was significantly stronger among children who wheeze (P = 0.016).
Conclusions: Independent associations between exposures to DEP and BBzP and FeNO in a cohort of inner-city children were observed. These results suggest that these two ubiquitous phthalates, previously shown to have substantial contributions from inhalation, are positively associated with airway inflammation in children.
airway inflammation; asthma; diethyl phthalate; butylbenzyl phthalate; fractional exhaled nitric oxide
Rationale: Progressive lung function decline is a defining feature of cystic fibrosis (CF). Because airway inflammation plays a central role in CF lung disease, inflammatory biomarkers that can be used to monitor disease activity would be valuable.
Objectives: Examine longitudinal relationships between sputum biomarkers and lung function.
Methods: In this prospective, longitudinal cohort study, sputum induction was performed annually over 3 years in 35 children with CF. Sputum was assayed for mediators related to proteolysis and a panel of inflammatory cytokines.
Measurements and Main Results: Sputum neutrophil elastase, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and TNF-α increased over time, whereas neutrophil elastase antiprotease complexes (NEAPCs) and secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) significantly decreased over time. Higher detectable baseline neutrophil elastase was associated with more rapid lung function decline. Similar results for neutrophil elastase were observed in a validation cohort. When categorizing subjects as “rapid” or “slow” decliners, logistic regression demonstrated that the initial measurement of neutrophil elastase had the highest individual predictive value for subsequent lung function decline, whereas neutrophil elastase, IL-8, and IL-6 had the highest combined predictive value. Lung function decline was associated with increases in neutrophil counts, neutrophil elastase, and IL-1β and declines in NEAPCs and SLPI.
Conclusions: In children with CF, a single determination of sputum biomarkers, particularly neutrophil elastase, has predictive value for subsequent lung function decline, and longitudinal changes in sputum inflammatory biomarkers are related to lung function changes. Based on our results, sputum neutrophil elastase was the most informative biomarker to monitor disease activity.
cystic fibrosis; pulmonary function; sputum; inflammation; neutrophil elastase
Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex disease for which the pathogenesis is poorly understood. In this study, we identified lactic acid as a metabolite that is elevated in the lung tissue of patients with IPF.
Objectives: This study examines the effect of lactic acid on myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis.
Methods: We used metabolomic analysis to examine cellular metabolism in lung tissue from patients with IPF and determined the effects of lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH5) overexpression on myofibroblast differentiation and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β activation in vitro.
Measurements and Main Results: Lactic acid concentrations from healthy and IPF lung tissue were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and LDH5 expression were assessed by Western blot of cell culture lysates. Lactic acid and LDH5 were significantly elevated in IPF lung tissue compared with controls. Physiologic concentrations of lactic acid induced myofibroblast differentiation via activation of TGF-β. TGF-β induced expression of LDH5 via hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). Importantly, overexpression of both HIF1α and LDH5 in human lung fibroblasts induced myofibroblast differentiation and synergized with low-dose TGF-β to induce differentiation. Furthermore, inhibition of both HIF1α and LDH5 inhibited TGF-β–induced myofibroblast differentiation.
Conclusions: We have identified the metabolite lactic acid as an important mediator of myofibroblast differentiation via a pH-dependent activation of TGF-β. We propose that the metabolic milieu of the lung, and potentially other tissues, is an important driving force behind myofibroblast differentiation and potentially the initiation and progression of fibrotic disorders.
lactate; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; myofibroblast; lactate dehydrogenase; hypoxia-inducible factor 1α
Rationale: Twenty-eight percent of people with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea experience daytime sleepiness, which interferes with daily functioning. It remains unclear whether treatment with continuous positive airway pressure improves daytime function in these patients.
Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure treatment to improve functional status in sleepy patients with mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnea.
Methods: Patients with self-reported daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale score >10) and an apnea-hypopnea index with 3% desaturation and from 5 to 30 events per hour were randomized to 8 weeks of active or sham continuous positive airway pressure treatment. After the 8-week intervention, participants in the sham arm received 8 weeks of active continuous positive airway pressure treatment.
Measurements and Main Results: The Total score on the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire was the primary outcome measure. The adjusted mean change in the Total score after the first 8-week intervention was 0.89 for the active group (n = 113) and −0.06 for the placebo group (n = 110) (P = 0.006). The group difference in mean change corresponded to an effect size of 0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.14–0.67). The mean (SD) improvement in Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire Total score from the beginning to the end of the crossover phase (n = 91) was 1.73 ± 2.50 (t = 6.59; P < 0.00001) with an effect size of 0.69.
Conclusions: Continuous positive airway pressure treatment improves the functional outcome of sleepy patients with mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnea.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00127348).
continuous positive airway pressure; obstructive sleep apnea; daytime sleepiness; randomized clinical trial; functional status