The main objective of the present study is the physicochemical characterization of naturally available Terminalia catappa gum (Badam gum [BG]) as a novel pharmaceutical excipient and its suitability in the development of gastroretentive floating drug delivery systems (GRFDDS) to retard the drug for 12 h when the dosage form is exposed to gastrointestinal fluids in the gastric environment. As BG was being explored for the first time for its pharmaceutical application, physicochemical, microbiological, rheological, and stability studies were carried out on this gum. In the present investigation, the physicochemical properties, such as micromeritic, rheological, melting point, moisture content, pH, swelling index, water absorption, and volatile acidity, were evaluated. The gum was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction studies (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Gastroretentive floating tablets of BG were prepared with the model drug propranolol HCl by direct compression methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for all their physicochemical properties, in vitro buoyancy, in vitro drug release, and rate order kinetics. PBG 04 was selected as an optimized formulation based on its 12-h drug release and good buoyancy characteristics. The optimized formulation was characterized with FTIR, DSC, and PXRD studies, and no interaction between the drug and BG was found. Thus, the study confirmed that BG might be used in the gastroretentive drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer.
badam gum; floating; gastroretentive; propranolol HCl; Terminalia catappa
Recent interest in the development of drug particle-laden strip-films suggests the need for establishing standard regulatory tests for their dissolution. In this work, we consider the dissolution testing of griseofulvin (GF) particles, a poorly water-soluble compound, incorporated into a strip-film dosage form. The basket apparatus (USP I) and the flow-through cell dissolution apparatus (USP IV) were employed using 0.54% sodium dodecyl sulfate as the dissolution medium as per USP standard. Different rotational speeds and dissolution volumes were tested for the basket method while different cell patterns/strip-film position and dissolution media flow rate were tested using the flow-through cell dissolution method. The USP I was not able to discriminate dissolution of GF particles with respect to particle size. On the other hand, in the USP IV, GF nanoparticles incorporated in strip-films exhibited enhancement in dissolution rates and dissolution extent compared with GF microparticles incorporated in strip-films. Within the range of patterns and flow rates used, the optimal discrimination behavior was obtained when the strip-film was layered between glass beads and a flow rate of 16 ml/min was used. These results demonstrate the superior discriminatory power of the USP IV and suggest that it could be employed as a testing device in the development of strip-films containing drug nanoparticles.
BCS class II; dissolution; drug nanoparticles; flow-through cell; pharmaceutical strip-films
The widespread use of indwelling medical devices has enormously increased the interest in materials incorporating antibiotics and antimicrobial agents as a means to prevent dangerous device-related infections. Recently, chlorhexidine-loaded polyurethane has been proposed as a material suitable for the production of devices which are able to resist microbial contamination. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro release of chlorhexidine from new polymeric orthodontic chains realized with polyurethane loaded with two different chlorhexidine salts: chlorhexidine diacetate or chlorhexidine digluconate. The orthodontic chains constituted of three layers: a middle polyurethane layer loaded with chlorhexidine salt inserted between two layers of unloaded polymer. In vitro release of chlorhexidine diacetate and digluconate from orthodontic chains loaded with 10% or 20% (w/w) chlorhexidine salt was sustained for 42 days and followed Fickian diffusion. The drug diffusion through the polyurethane was found to be dependent not only on chlorhexidine loading, but also on the type of chlorhexidine salt. The antibacterial activity of 0.2% (w/w) chlorhexidine diacetate-loaded orthodontic chain was successfully tested towards clinically isolated biofilm forming ica-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis via agar diffusion test. In conclusion, the chlorhexidine salt-loaded chains could provide an innovative approach in the prevention of oral infections related to the use of orthodontic devices.
antibacterial activity; cariogenic treatment; chlorhexidine; in vitro release; orthodontic chains
The oral administration of amphotericin B (AmB) has the major drawback of poor bioavailability. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of AmB-loaded cubosomes as an oral formulation with improved bioavailability. This manuscript firstly developed AmB-loaded cubosomes by using the SolEmuls technology. The encapsulation efficiency, the in vitro release, and stability studies in simulated gastrointestinal fluid were used to evaluate AmB-loaded cubosomes. The acute nephrotoxicity, bioavailability, and tissue distribution study of AmB-loaded cubosomes were assayed upon oral administration to rats. SAXS and cryo-TEM exhibited AmB-loaded cubosomes as a bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline phase with Pn3m geometry. The encapsulation efficiency and the results of in vitro release and stability studies in simulated gastrointestinal fluid further demonstrated that AmB was successfully encapsulated in cubosomes. AmB-loaded cubosomal formulation orally administrated in rats did not show nephrotoxicity and its relative bioavailability was approximately 285% as compared to Fungizone®. The AmB-loaded cubosomal formulation presented an effective potential approach for enhancing the oral bioavailability of AmB.
amphotericin B; cubosomes; oral bioavailability; SolEmuls technology
The influence of a tertiary amine, namely risperidone (pKa = 7.9) on the degradation of poly(d, l lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres was elucidated. Risperidone and blank microspheres were fabricated at two lactide/glycolide ratios, 65:35 and 85:15. The microspheres were characterized for drug loading by high-performance liquid chromatography, particle size by laser diffractometry, and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy. Polymer degradation studies were carried out with drug-loaded microspheres and blank microspheres in presence of free risperidone in 0.02 M PBS containing 0.02% Tween®80 at 37°C. Molecular weight was monitored by gel permeation chromatography. Risperidone and blank microspheres had similar size distribution and were spherical with a relatively nonporous smooth surface. The presence of risperidone within the microspheres enhanced the hydrolytic degradation in both polymeric matrices with faster degradation occurring in 65:35 PLGA. The molecular weight decreased according to pseudo-first-order kinetics for all the formulations. During the degradation study, the surface morphology of drug-loaded microspheres was affected by the presence of risperidone and resulted in shriveled microspheres in which there appeared to be an intrabatch variation with the larger microspheres being less shriveled than the smaller ones. When blank microspheres were incubated in free risperidone solutions, a concentration-dependent effect on the development of surface porosity could be observed. Risperidone accelerates the hydrolytic degradation of PLGA, presumably within the microenvironment of the drug-loaded particles, and this phenomenon must be taken into consideration in designing PLGA dosage forms of tertiary amine drugs.
mass loss; microencapsulation; PLGA microspheres; polymer degradation; risperidone; tertiary amine drug
The present studies entail formulation development of novel solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (S-SNEDDS) of valsartan with improved oral bioavailability, and evaluation of their in vitro and in vivo performance. Preliminary solubility studies were carried out and pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using blends of oil (Capmul MCM), surfactant (Labrasol), and cosurfactant (Tween 20). The SNEDDS were systematically optimized by response surface methodology employing 33-Box–Behnken design. The prepared SNEDDS were characterized for viscocity, refractive index, globule size, zeta potential, and TEM. Optimized liquid SNEDDS were formulated into free flowing granules by adsorption on the porous carriers like Aerosil 200, Sylysia (350, 550, and 730) and Neusilin US2, and compressed into tablets. In vitro dissolution studies of S-SNEDDS revealed 3–3.5-fold increased in dissolution rate of the drug due to enhanced solubility. In vivo pharmacodynamic studies in Wistar rats showed significant reduction in mean systolic BP by S-SNEDDS vis-à-vis oral suspension (p < 0.05) owing to the drug absorption through lymphatic pathways. Solid-state characterization of S-SNEDDS using FT-IR and powder XRD studies confirmed lack of any significant interaction of drug with lipidic excipients and porous carriers. Further, the accelerated stability studies for 6 months revealed that S-SNEDDS are found to be stable without any change in physiochemical properties. Thus, the present studies demonstrated the bioavailability enhancement potential of porous carriers based S-SNEDDS for a BCS class II drug, valsartan.
BCS; bioavailability; in vitro dissolution; porous carriers; XRD
A method is described using rapid and sensitive Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy combined with high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection for the simultaneous identification and determination of four bioactive compounds in crude Radix Scrophulariae samples. Partial least squares regression is selected as the analysis type and multiplicative scatter correction, second derivative, and Savitzky–Golay filter were adopted for the spectral pretreatment. The correlation coefficients (R) of the calibration models were above 0.96 and the root mean square error of predictions were under 0.028. The developed models were applied to unknown samples with satisfactory results. The established method was validated and can be applied to the intrinsic quality control of crude Radix Scrophulariae.
crude Radix Scrophulariae; FT-NIRS; HPLC-DAD; quality control; quantification
Solid dispersions (SDs) are an approach to increasing the water solubility and bioavailability of lipophilic drugs such as ursolic acid (UA), a triterpenoid with trypanocidal activity. In this work, Gelucire 50/13, a surfactant compound with permeability-enhancing properties, and silicon dioxide, a drying adjuvant, were employed to produce SDs with UA. SDs and physical mixtures (PMs) in different drug/carrier ratios were characterized and compared using differential scanning calorimetry, hot stage microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size, water solubility values, and dissolution profiles. Moreover, LLC-MK2 fibroblast cytotoxicity and trypanocidal activity evaluation were performed to determine the potential of SD as a strategy to improve UA efficacy against Chagas disease. The results demonstrated the conversion of UA from the crystalline to the amorphous state through XRD. FTIR experiments provided evidence of intermolecular interactions among the drug and carriers through carbonyl peak broadening in the SDs. These findings helped explain the enhancement of water solubility from 75.98 μg/mL in PMs to 293.43 μg/mL in SDs and the faster drug release into aqueous media compared with pure UA or PMs, which was maintained after 6 months at room temperature. Importantly, improved SD dissolution was accompanied by higher UA activity against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, but not against mammalian fibroblasts, enhancing the potential of UA for Chagas disease treatment.
Chagas disease; Gelucire 50/13; solid dispersions; solvent evaporation method; ursolic acid
The controlled release of benzoic acid (3.31 Å) and sulphanilamide (3.47 Å) from poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, hydrogels fabricated by solution casting at various cross-linking ratios, were investigated. The PVA hydrogels were characterized in terms of the degree of swelling, the molecular weight between cross-links, and the mesh size. The drug release experiment was carried out using a modified Franz diffusion cell, at a pH value of 5.5 and at temperature of 37°C. The amount of drug release and the diffusion coefficients of the drugs from the PVA hydrogels increased with decreasing cross-linking ratio, as a larger mesh size was obtained with lower cross-linking ratios. With the application of an electric field, the amount of drug release and the diffusion coefficient increased monotonically with increasing electric field strength, since the resultant electrostatic force drove the ionic drugs from the PVA matrix. The drug size, matrix pore size, electrode polarity, and applied electric field were shown to be influential controlling factors for the drug release rate.
electrophoresis force; ionic drug delivery; iontophoresis; poly(vinyl alcohol)
Cocrystals of itraconazole, an antifungal drug with poor bioavailability, and succinic acid, a water-soluble dicarboxylic acid, were formed by gas antisolvent (GAS) cocrystallization using pressurized CO2 to improve itraconazole dissolution. In this study, itraconazole and succinic acid were simultaneously dissolved in a liquid solvent, tetrahydrofuran, at ambient conditions. The solution was then pressurized with CO2, which decreased the solvating power of tetrahydrofuran and caused crystallization of itraconazole–succinic acid cocrystals. The cocrystals prepared by GAS cocrystallization were compared to those produced using a traditional liquid antisolvent, n-heptane, for crystallinity, chemical structure, thermal behavior, size and surface morphology, potential clinical relevance, and stability. Powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed that itraconazole–succinic acid cocrystals with physical and chemical properties similar to cocrystals produced using a traditional liquid antisolvent technique can be prepared by CO2 antisolvent cocrystallization. The dissolution profile of itraconazole was significantly enhanced through GAS cocrystallization with succinic acid, achieving over 90% dissolution in less than 2 h. The cocrystals appeared stable against thermal stress for up to 4 weeks under accelerated stability conditions, showing only moderate decreases in their degree of crystallinity but no change in their crystalline structure. This study shows the utility of an itraconazole–succinic acid cocrystal for improving itraconazole bioavailability while also demonstrating the potential for CO2 to replace traditional liquid antisolvents in cocrystal preparation, thus making cocrystal production more environmentally benign and scale-up more feasible.
cocrystals; dissolution rate; gas antisolvent; itraconazole
Nanoemulsions are increasingly being investigated for their fascinating capability of loading both hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules while their stability is still an issue, being affected by various factors. In this study, to evaluate the dominant factors affecting the stability of nanoemulsions, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were implemented. Nanoemulsions of almond oil in water containing oleic acid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared using a mixture of Tween 80 and Span 80 as surfactant system and ethanol as a co-surfactant. The ratio of transparency of the samples at 30 min and 7 days after preparation was taken as an indication of the stability of samples. Four independent variables, namely, concentration of nanoparticle, surfactant, oil, and alcohol were investigated to find their relations with the dependent variable (i.e., transparency ratio). Using ANNs modeling, it was concluded that the stability is affected by all variables, with all variables showing reverse effect on the stability beyond an optimum amount.
artificial neural networks; nanoemulsion; optimization; stability; superparamagnetic iron oxide
The current study aims to develop a stable pH-sensitive drug delivery system. First, cleavable polyethylene glycol-α-tocopherol hemisuccinate (PEG-THS) was synthesized. Conventional pH-sensitive vesicles composed of the Tris salt of α-tocopherol hemisuccinate (THST) were then prepared using the detergent removal technique. The vesicles had a mean particle size of (163.8 ± 5.5) nm and a zeta potential of −74.5 ± 6.4 mV. The THST vesicles were then modified using PEG-THS or uncleavable PEG-cholesterol (PEG-CHOL) (THST/PEG-lipids, 100:6 molar ratio). The mean vesicle particle size and absolute zeta potential decreased with increasing PEG-THS proportion. When the pH was decreased, the vesicle particle size and calcein release rate increased. The THST vesicles were initially Ca2+-unstable but exhibited significantly improved stability after modification with PEG-THS, especially at PEG-lipid ratios above 6%. Incubation in an acid serum increased the calcein release rate of conventional THST vesicles to 45 ± 1.98% at 10 min. However, the release rate of the PEG-CHOL vesicles remained low. The calcein release rate of PEG-THS vesicles was between those of conventional and PEG-CHOL-V. Therefore, PEG-THS can protect vesicles in serum and reconstitute their pH sensitivity in acidic conditions. Cleavable PEG-THS can be used in stable pH-sensitive preparations without loss of pH sensitivity. Free calcein and conventional vesicles eliminated from the plasma soon after injection, as well as the half-life (t1/2) and area under the curve of PEG-THS-V encapsulating calcein, were dramatically increased. This phenomenon indicates that the use of PEG-lipid derivatives has gained a favorably long circulation effect in mice.
cleavage; long circulation; PEG-α-tocopherol hemisuccinate; pH-sensitive; vesicles
To prepare stable polyion complex (PIC) micelles, polyasparthydrazide (PAHy) modified with glycidyltrimethylammonium groups and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) (mPEG-g-PAHy-GTA) was synthesized. The cytotoxicity of the polymer was evaluated by the methyl tetrazolium assay. The polymer entrapped the diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) and formed polyion complexes. The effect of pH value, grafting degree of mPEG, copolymer and drug concentration on the micelle formation was investigated by means of measuring entrapment efficiency and micelle size. In vitro DG release from the PIC micelles was detected by dialysis in various media of different ionic strengths. To examine the pharmacokinetic behavior of micelles in vivo, the time course of the drug in plasma was evaluated. The cytotoxicity of the polymer was very low. The results showed that entrapment efficiency can reach about 93%, and the mean particle size was almost 50 nm. The drug release rate decreased with a decrease in ionic strength of the release medium or an increase in the PEG grafting degree. Compared with DG solution, the AUC of DG micelles had a twofold increase. The smaller clearance and longer mean residence time of the DG micelles group compared with DG solution group showed that the DG loaded in PIC micelles can reduce drug elimination and prolong the drug residence time in the blood circulation. The results indicated that PIC micelles composed of mPEG-g-PAHy-GTA would be prospective as a drug carrier to the drugs which can be ionized in solution.
diammonium glycyrrhizinate; drug delivery systems; poly(ethylene glycol)–glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride-grafted polyasparthydrazide; polyion complex micelles
LPSF/AC04 (5Z)-[5-acridin-9-ylmethylene-3-(4-methyl-benzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione] is an acridine-based derivative, part of a series of new anticancer agents synthesized for the purpose of developing more effective and less toxic anticancer drugs. However, the use of LPSF/AC04 is limited due to its low solubility in aqueous solutions. To overcome this problem, we investigated the interaction of LPSF/AC04 with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD) and hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HP-γ-CyD) in inclusion complexes and determine which of the complexes formed presents the most significant interactions. In this paper, we report the physical characterization of the LPSF/AC04–HP-CyD inclusion complexes by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy absorption, Raman spectroscopy, 1HNMR, scanning electron microscopy, and by molecular modeling approaches. In addition, we verified that HP-β-CyD complexation enhances the aqueous solubility of LPSF/AC04, and a significant increase in the antiproliferative activity of LPSF/AC04 against cell lines can be achieved by the encapsulation into liposomes. These findings showed that the nanoencapsulation of LPSF/AC04 and LPSF/AC04–HP-CyD inclusion complexes in liposomes leads to improved drug penetration into the cells and, as a result, an enhancement of cytotoxic activity. Further in vivo studies comparing free and encapsulated LPSF/AC04 will be undertaken to support this investigation.
acridine; cyclodextrins; cytotoxicity; liposomes; modeling
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different processing methods on the profiles of 5-aminosalicylic acid dissolution from controlled-release matrix systems based on Eudragit® RL and Eudragit® RS water-insoluble polymers. The pure polymers and their mixtures were studied as matrix formers using different processing methods, i.e., direct compression, wet granulation of the active ingredient with the addition of polymer(s) to the external phase, wet granulation with water, and wet granulation with aqueous dispersions. In comparison with the directly compressed tablets, tablets made by wet granulation with water demonstrated a 6–19% increase in final drug dissolution, whereas when polymers were applied in the external phase during compression, a 0–13% decrease was observed in the amount of drug released. Wet granulation with aqueous polymer dispersions delayed the release of the drug; this was especially marked (a 54–56% decrease in drug release) in compositions, which contained a high amount of Eudragit RL 30D. The release profiles were mostly described by the Korsmeyer–Peppas model or the Hopfenberg model.
controlled release; matrix tablet; polymethacrylates; release kinetics
Self-emulsifying oil/surfactant mixtures can be incorporated into pellets that have the advantages of the oral administration of both microemulsions and a multiple-unit dosage form. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of surfactant hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) and oil/surfactant ratio on the formation and properties of self-emulsifying microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) pellets and microemulsion reconstitution. Triglycerides (C8–C10) was the oil and Cremophor ELP and RH grades and Solutol the surfactants. Pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization using microemulsions with fixed oil/surfactant content but with different water proportions to optimize size and shape parameters. Microemulsion reconstitution from pellets suspended in water was evaluated by turbidimetry and light scattering size analysis, and H-bonding interactions of surfactant with MCC from FT-IR spectra. It was found that water requirements for pelletization increased linearly with increasing HLB. Crushing load decreased and deformability increased with increasing oil/surfactant ratio. Incorporation of higher HLB surfactants enhanced H-bonding and resulted in faster and more extensive disintegration of MCC as fibrils. Reconstitution was greater at high oil/surfactant ratios and the droplet size of the reconstituted microemulsions was similar to that in the wetting microemulsions. The less hydrophilic ELP with a double bond in the fatty acid showed weaker H-bonding and greater microemulsion reconstitution. Purified ELP gave greater reconstitution than the unpurified grade. Thus, the work demonstrates that the choice of type and quantity of the surfactant used in the formulation of microemulsions containing pellets has an important influence on their production and performance.
disintegration and mechanical properties; FT-IR and H-bonding; microemulsion reconstitution; self-emulsifying pellets; surfactant HLB and oil/surfactant ratio
This study was performed to test the feasibility of chitosan and polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) incorporated nanoparticles as sustained-release carriers for the delivery of negatively charged low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry was used to evaluate the interactions between chitosan and LMWH. The shifts, intensity, and broadening of the characteristic peaks for the functional groups in the FTIR spectra indicated that strong interactions occur between the positively charged chitosans and the negatively charged LMWHs. Three types of LMWH nanoparticles (NP-1, NP-2, and NP-3) were prepared using chitosan with or without PLGA: NP-1 nanoparticles were formed by polyelectrolyte complexation after single mixing, NP-2 nanoparticles were prepared by polyelectrolyte complexation after single emulsion–diffusion–evaporation, and NP-3 nanoparticles were optimized by double emulsion–diffusion–evaporation. NP-3 nanoparticles of LMWH prepared by the emulsion–diffusion–evaporation method showed significant differences in particle morphology, size, zeta potential, and drug release profile compared to NP-1 nanoparticles formed by polyelectrolyte complexation. Another ionic complex of LMWH with chitosan-incorporated PLGA nanoparticles (NP-2) showed lower drug entrapment efficiency than that of NP-1 and NP-3. The drug release rate of NP-3 was slower than the release rates of NP-1 and NP-2, although particle morphology of NP-3 was similar to that of NP-2. Cell viability was not adversely affected when cells were treated with all three types of nanoparticles. The data presented in this study demonstrate that nanoparticles formulated with chitosan–PLGA could be a safe sustained-release carrier for the delivery of LMWH.
chitosan; low molecular weight heparin; nanoparticles; PLGA
A novel drug delivery system consisting of benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-d-ribofuranosylhydrazide (BHR)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (BHR-SLNs) was prepared using the emulsification–evaporation technique. The mean particle size of the BHR-SLNs measured by photon correlation spectroscopy was about 75 nm. BHR-SLN morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The drug entrapment efficiency was 70.2%, as determined via Sephadex gel chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Drug release assessment in vitro showed that BHR was gradually released from SLNs in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of 293T and Hela cells with BHR-SLNs demonstrated that BHR-SLNs were less toxic to normal cells while more effective in antitumor potency compared with the BHR drug alone. The results imply that BHR-SLNs could be considered as a promising antitumor drug system for a range of new therapeutic applications.
benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, 2-d-ribofuranosylhydrazide (BHR); controlled release; drug delivery; solid lipid nanoparticles
Telmisartan is an orally active nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist used in the management of hypertension. It is a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug having aqueous solubility of 9.9 μg/ml. Telmisartan (TEL) nanocrystals were prepared by evaporative antisolvent precipitation technique using different stabilizers as PVPK30, TPGS, Poloxamer 188, and PEG 6000 in combination or singly. The nanosuspensions were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, zeta potential, and polydispersity index. The suspension containing PVPK30 and TPGS (1:1) showed least average particle size of 82.63 nm and polydispersity index of 0.472. The zeta potential of nanosuspensions ranged between 6.54 and 10.8 mV. An increase of 116.45% was evident in the specific surface area of the freeze-dried product. Contact angle of nanoparticles was also lowered to 27° as compared to 50.8° for TEL. Saturation solubility studies in various media revealed a significant increase in comparison to plain drug. An increase of 3.74× in saturation solubility in FaSSIF and 5.02× in FeSSIF was seen. In vitro dissolution profile of nanosuspension coated on pellets revealed release of 85% in water, 95% in 0.1 N HCl, and 75% in phosphate buffer in 30 min. Nanosuspensions were found to be stable in the presence of univalent and bivalent electrolytes. A tenfold increase in bioavailability was evident. Nanoparticles of telmisartan prepared by bottom-up technique proved to be effective in improving the oral bioavailability as a result of enhanced solubility and dissolution rate.
biorelevant media; contact angle; specific surface area; telmisartan; TPGS
The aim of this study was to investigate the transfection efficiency of cationic liposomes formulated with phosphatidylcholine (PC) and novel synthesized diethanolamine-based cationic lipids at a molar ratio of 5:1 in comparison with Lipofectamine™ 2000. Factors affecting transfection efficiency and cell viability, including the chemical structure of the cationic lipids, such as different amine head group (diamine and polyamine; and non-spermine and spermine) and acyl chain lengths (C14, C16, and C18) and the weight ratio of liposomes to DNA were evaluated on a human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa cells) using the pDNA encoding green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-C2). Characterizations of these lipoplexes in terms of size and charge measurement and agarose gel electrophoresis were performed. The results from this study revealed that almost no transfection was observed in the liposome formulations composed of cationic lipids with a non-spermine head group. In addition, the transfection efficiency of these cationic liposomes was in the following order: spermine-C14 > spermine-C16 > spermine-C18. The highest transfection efficiency was observed in the formulation of spermine-C14 liposomes at a weight ratio of 25; furthermore, this formulation was safe for use in vitro. In conclusion, cationic liposomes containing spermine head groups demonstrated promising potential as gene carriers.
cationic lipids; cationic liposomes; gene transfection
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used in this study to determine factors that control the polydispersity index (PDI) in an acetaminophen nanosuspension which was prepared using nanoprecipitation in microfluidic devices. The PDI of prepared formulations was measured by dynamic light scattering. Afterwards, the ANNs were applied to model the data. Four independent variables, namely, surfactant concentration, solvent temperature, and flow rate of solvent and antisolvent were considered as input variables, and the PDI of acetaminophen nanosuspension was taken as the output variable. The response surfaces, generated as 3D graphs after modeling, were used to survey the interactions happening between the input variables and the output variable. Comparison of the response surfaces indicated that the antisolvent flow rate and the solvent temperature have reverse effect on the PDI, whereas solvent flow rate has direct relation with PDI. Also, the effect of the concentration of the surfactant on the PDI was found to be indirect and less influential. Overall, it was found that minimum PDI may be obtained at high values of antisolvent flow rate and solvent temperature, while the solvent flow rate should be kept to a minimum.
acetaminophen; artificial neural networks; microfluidic devices; nanoprecipitation; nanosuspension; polydispersity index
absorption; dissolution; permeability
Pellet coating is traditionally carried out using the Wurster coater. This study investigated the feasibility of pellet coating in a newly developed coater built with a unique airflow system, the Supercell™ coater (GEA Pharma Systems, UK). A full factorial design study was carried out to evaluate the influences of the spray rate of the coating dispersion, batch size of the pellet load, pellet size fraction and plenum pressure of the fluidizing air on the color coating of pellets in the Supercell™ coater. Results showed that pellets could be successfully coated using the Supercell™ coater. Higher plenum pressures and lower spray rates were found to minimize pellet agglomeration during coating. Although coating efficiencies were comparable amongst the different pellet size fractions, larger batch sizes of pellets were coated with higher efficiencies. Process optimization was carried out for each pellet size fraction and a large batch size (120 g) in combination with a high plenum pressure (1,500 mm WC) were deemed optimal. Optimal spray rates differed according to pellet size fraction and a lower spray rate was required for smaller pellets. Pellet flow patterns observed during coating were dependent on the pressure drop across the fluidized load. A ‘swirling’ pellet flow pattern was generally observed at coating conditions which led to optimal outcomes.
fluid bed; fluidization; pellet coating; pellet flow patterns; pressure drop; process optimization; Supercell™ coater
As outlined in the ICH Q8(R2) guidance, identifying the critical quality attributes (CQA) is a crucial part of dosage form development; however, the number of possible formulation and processing factors that could influence the manufacturing of a pharmaceutical dosage form is enormous obviating formal study of all possible parameters and their interactions. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine how quality risk management can be used to prioritize the number of experiments needed to identify the CQA, while still maintaining an acceptable product risk profile. To conduct the study, immediate-release ciprofloxacin tablets manufactured via roller compaction were used as a prototype system. Granules were manufactured using an Alexanderwerk WP120 roller compactor and tablets were compressed on a Stokes B2 tablet press. In the early stages of development, prior knowledge was systematically incorporated into the risk assessment using failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA). The factors identified using FMEA were then followed by a quantitative assessed using a Plackett–Burman screening design. Results show that by using prior experience, literature data, and preformulation data the number of experiments could be reduced to an acceptable level, and the use of FMEA and screening designs such as the Plackett Burman can rationally guide the process of reducing the number experiments to a manageable level.
failure mode effect analysis (FMEA); Plackett–Burman; quality by design (QbD); quality risk management; roller compaction; tablet and ciprofloxacin