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1.  Association of growth differentiation factor 11/8, putative anti-ageing factor, with cardiovascular outcomes and overall mortality in humans: analysis of the Heart and Soul and HUNT3 cohorts 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(48):3426-3434.
Aims
Growth differentiation factor 11 and/or its homologue growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF11/8) reverses age-related cardiac hypertrophy and vascular ageing in mice. We investigated whether GDF11/8 associates with cardiovascular outcomes, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), or age in humans.
Methods and results
We measured plasma GDF11/8 levels in 928 participants with stable ischaemic heart disease in the Heart and Soul study. We adjudicated heart failure hospitalization, stroke, myocardial infarction, death, and their composite endpoint. Left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated by echocardiography. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to compare rates of cardiovascular events and death across GDF11/8 quartiles and logistic regression models to evaluate the association between GDF11/8 and LVH. Four hundred and fifty participants (48.5%) experienced a cardiovascular event or death during 8.9 years of follow-up. The adjusted risk of the composite endpoint was lower in the highest compared with the lowest GDF11/8 quartile [hazard ratio (HR), 0.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33–0.60; P < 0.001]. We replicated this relationship of GDF11/8 to adverse events in 971 participants in the HUNT3 cohort (adjusted HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.23–0.51; P < 0.001). Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 368 participants (39.7%) at baseline. Participants in the highest quartile of GDF11/8 were less likely to have LVH than those in the lowest quartile (adjusted OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35–0.86; P = 0.009). GDF11/8 levels were lower in older individuals (P < 0.001).
Conclusion
In patients with stable ischaemic heart disease, higher GDF11/8 levels are associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events and death. Our findings suggest that GDF11/8 has similar cardioprotective properties in humans to those demonstrated in mice.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv385
PMCID: PMC4685178  PMID: 26294790
Growth differentiation factor 11 and 8; Ageing; Cardiovascular outcomes; Epidemiology; Hypertrophy
2.  The NADPH oxidase Nox4 has anti-atherosclerotic functions 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(48):3447-3456.
Oxidative stress is considered a risk factor of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, antioxidant therapy had failed to limit vascular disease development in human. Here we demonstrate that the NADPH oxidase Nox4, an important source of reactive oxygen species in the vascular system, limits arteriosclerosis development in two different mouse models. Deletion or inhibition of Nox4 induced a vascular inflammatory phenotype, which probably promoted atherosclerosis development. As Nox inhibitors are currently in clinical testing for the treatment of fibrosis, these drugs should be carefully evaluated for cardiovascular side-effects.
Aims
Oxidative stress is thought to be a risk for cardiovascular disease and NADPH oxidases of the Nox family are important producers of reactive oxygen species. Within the Nox family, the NADPH oxidase Nox4 has a unique position as it is constitutively active and produces H2O2 rather than O2− . Nox4 is therefore incapable of scavenging NO and its low constitutive H2O2 production might even be beneficial. We hypothesized that Nox4 acts as an endogenous anti-atherosclerotic enzyme.
Methods and results
Tamoxifen-induced Nox4-knockout mice were crossed with ApoE−/− mice and spontaneous atherosclerosis under regular chow as well as accelerated atherosclerosis in response to partial carotid artery ligation under high-fat diet were determined. Deletion of Nox4 resulted in increased atherosclerosis formation in both models. Mechanistically, pro-atherosclerotic and pro-inflammatory changes in gene expression were observed prior to plaque development. Moreover, inhibition of Nox4 or deletion of the enzyme in the endothelium but not in macrophages resulted in increased adhesion of macrophages to the endothelial surface.
Conclusions
The H2O2-producing NADPH oxidase Nox4 is an endogenous anti-atherosclerotic enzyme. Nox4 inhibitors, currently under clinical evaluation, should be carefully monitored for cardiovascular side-effects.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv460
PMCID: PMC4751217  PMID: 26385958
NADPH oxidase; Lipids; Inflammation; Remodelling; Reactive oxygen species; ApoE; Arteriosclerosis
4.  The Coronary Microcirculation in STEMI: The Next Frontier? 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(45):3178-3181.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv495
PMCID: PMC4664837  PMID: 26409009
5.  Potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist treatment increases cholesterol efflux capacity in humans with the metabolic syndrome 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(43):3020-3022.
Aims
Fibrate medications weakly stimulate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and are currently employed clinically in patients with dyslipidaemia. The potent and selective agonist of PPAR-α LY518674 is known to substantially increase apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) turnover without major impact on steady-state levels of apoA-I or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). We sought to determine whether therapy with a PPAR-α agonist impacts cholesterol efflux capacity, a marker of HDL function.
Methods and results
Cholesterol efflux capacity was measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of therapy in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial involving participants with metabolic syndrome treated with either LY518674 100 μg daily (n = 13) or placebo (n = 15). Efflux capacity assessment was quantified using a previously validated ex vivo assay that measures the ability of apolipoprotein-B depleted plasma to mobilize cholesterol from macrophages. LY518674 led to a 15.7% increase from baseline (95% CI 3.3–28.1%; P = 0.02, P vs. placebo = 0.01) in efflux capacity. The change in apoA-I production rate in the active treatment arm was strongly linked to change in cholesterol efflux capacity (r = 0.67, P = 0.01).
Conclusions
Potent stimulation of PPAR-α leads to accelerated turnover of apoA-I and an increase in cholesterol efflux capacity in metabolic syndrome patients despite no change in HDL-C or apoA-I levels. This finding reinforces the notion that changes in HDL-C levels may poorly predict impact on functionality and thus has implications for ongoing pharmacologic efforts to enhance apoA-I metabolism.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv291
PMCID: PMC4644252  PMID: 26112886
Cholesterol efflux capacity; HDL-cholesterol; Lipid metabolism; PPAR-α
6.  Reduced appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy after cardiac resynchronization therapy-induced left ventricular function recovery: a meta-analysis and systematic review 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(41):2780-2789.
Aims
For patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD; CRT-D), the effect of an improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on appropriate ICD therapy may have significant implications regarding management at the time of ICD generator replacement.
Methods and results
We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effect of LVEF recovery following CRT on the incidence of appropriate ICD therapy. A search of multiple electronic databases identified 709 reports, of which 6 retrospective cohort studies were included (n = 1740). In patients with post-CRT LVEF ≥35% (study n = 4), the pooled estimated rate of ICD therapy (5.5/100 person-years) was significantly lower than patients with post-CRT LVEF <35% [incidence rate difference (IRD): −6.5/100 person-years, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): −8.8 to −4.2, P < 0.001]. Similarly, patients with post-CRT LVEF ≥45% (study n = 4) demonstrated lower estimated rates of ICD therapy (2.3/100 person-years) compared with patients without such recovery (IRD: −5.8/100 person-years, 95% CI: −7.6 to −4.0, P < 0.001). Restricting analysis to studies discounting ICD therapies during LVEF recovery (study n = 3), patients with LVEF recovery (≥35 or ≥45%) had significantly lower rates of ICD therapy compared with patients without such recovery (P for both <0.001). Patients with primary prevention indication for ICD, regardless of LVEF recovery definition, had very low rates of ICD therapy (0.4 to 0.8/100-person years).
Conclusion
Recovery of LVEF post-CRT is associated with significantly reduced appropriate ICD therapy. Patients with improvement of LVEF ≥45% and those with primary prevention indication for ICD appear to be at lowest risk.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv373
PMCID: PMC4628643  PMID: 26264552
Resynchronization; Ventricular tachyarrhythmia; Meta-analysis
7.  Cholesterol efflux capacity in humans with psoriasis is inversely related to non-calcified burden of coronary atherosclerosis 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(39):2662-2665.
Aims
Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) was recently shown to predict future cardiovascular (CV) events. Psoriasis both increases CV risk and impairs CEC. However, whether having poor CEC is associated with coronary plaque burden is currently unknown. We aimed to assess the cross-sectional relationship between coronary plaque burden assessed by quantitative coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) with CEC in a well-phenotyped psoriasis cohort.
Methods and results
Total burden and non-calcified burden (NCB) plaque indices were assessed in 101 consecutive psoriasis patients using quantitative software. Cholesterol efflux capacity was quantified using a cell-based ex vivo assay measuring the ability of apoB-depleted plasma to mobilize cholesterol from lipid-loaded macrophages. Cholesterol efflux capacity was inversely correlated with NCB (unadjusted β-coefficient −0.33; P < 0.001), and this relationship persisted after adjustment for CV risk factors (β −0.24; P < 0.001), HDL-C levels (β −0.22; P < 0.001), and apoA1 levels (β −0.19; P < 0.001). Finally, we observed a significant gender interaction (P < 0.001) whereby women with low CEC had higher NCB compared to men with low CEC.
Conclusions
We show that CEC is inversely associated with prevalent coronary plaque burden measured by quantitative CCTA. Low CEC may therefore be an important biomarker for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in psoriasis.
Clinicaltrials.gov
NCT01778569.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv339
PMCID: PMC4604260  PMID: 26188212
Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC); HDL efflux; Non-calcified plaque burden; Coronary plaque burden; Quantitative coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA); Psoriasis; Inflammatory atherogenesis; Lipids
8.  Canopy 2 attenuates the transition from compensatory hypertrophy to dilated heart failure in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(37):2530-2540.
During ischaemic injury, cardiac tissue undergoes compensatory hypertrophy to preserve function, but this hypertrophy can progress to adverse ventricular dilatation and eventually to heart failure. Increased angiogenesis, requiring secreted angiogenic growth factors, may be critical to maintaining beneficial compensatory hypertrophy and preventing adverse cardiac remodelling. We generated mice that overexpress the newly discovered angiogenic factor CNPY2 in heart tissue and showed that they had reduced ventricular dilatation and adverse remodelling after ischaemic injury, with better preserved systolic and diastolic heart function and cardiac vasculature than normal controls. Moreover, we showed that transgenic mice that overexpress CNPY2 had decreased p53 activation in hearts after injury and better maintained expression of the p53 target Hif-1α, thereby potentially retaining a beneficial pro-angiogenic programme. These results suggest that CNPY2 may be a useful component of angiogenic therapy delivered to injured hearts and may help to better preserve their cardiac function and prevent the switch from beneficial compensatory hypertrophy to ventricular dilatation and eventual heart failure.
Aims
A mismatch between adequate angiogenesis and overgrowth of myocytes may be a critical mechanism controlling the transition from adaptive hypertrophy to heart failure. Canopy 2 (CNPY2) was recently identified as a secreted, HIF-1α-regulated angiogenic growth factor. As angiogenic factors play important roles in the development of myocardial hypertrophy, we investigated the role of CNPY2 in molecular and functional changes during development of chronic heart failure using cardiac-specific transgenic (TG) mice that overexpress human CNPY2.
Methods and results
We generated TG mice that constitutively express CNPY2 in the myocardium. Cardiomyopathy was induced in TG and wild-type (WT) mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). WT mice developed significant ventricular hypertrophy at 4 weeks and severe dilatation and heart failure at 12 weeks after TAC. However, TG mice preserved much better cardiac structure and function, with less severe ventricular dilatation and markedly reduced cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis following TAC. Excess CNPY2 in TG mice prevented significant loss of vasculature up to 12 weeks after TAC injury, resulting in a better local myocardial environment that facilitated myocyte survival and prevented excessive matrix remodelling compared with WT mice. TG mice had less accumulation of endogenous tumor suppressor p53 after TAC, indicating intrinsic activation of the p53-mediated repression of HIF-1α, and Cnpy2 was diminished in TG mice compared with WT controls.
Conclusion
Our study showed a correlation between downregulation of endogenous mouse Cnpy2 and p53-mediated HIF-1α inhibition during late-stage hypertrophic development. Additional CNPY2 attenuated the transition from compensatory hypertrophic response to maladaptive ventricular dilatation and heart failure.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv294
PMCID: PMC4589657  PMID: 26160001
Angiogenesis; CNPY2; HIF-1α; p53; Hypertrophy; Heart failure
9.  Genomic prediction of coronary heart disease 
European Heart Journal  2016;37(43):3267-3278.
Aims
Genetics plays an important role in coronary heart disease (CHD) but the clinical utility of genomic risk scores (GRSs) relative to clinical risk scores, such as the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), is unclear. Our aim was to construct and externally validate a CHD GRS, in terms of lifetime CHD risk and relative to traditional clinical risk scores.
Methods and results
We generated a GRS of 49 310 SNPs based on a CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium meta-analysis of CHD, then independently tested it using five prospective population cohorts (three FINRISK cohorts, combined n = 12 676, 757 incident CHD events; two Framingham Heart Study cohorts (FHS), combined n = 3406, 587 incident CHD events). The GRS was associated with incident CHD (FINRISK HR = 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61–1.86 per S.D. of GRS; Framingham HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18–1.38), and was largely unchanged by adjustment for known risk factors, including family history. Integration of the GRS with the FRS or ACC/AHA13 scores improved the 10 years risk prediction (meta-analysis C-index: +1.5–1.6%, P < 0.001), particularly for individuals ≥60 years old (meta-analysis C-index: +4.6–5.1%, P < 0.001). Importantly, the GRS captured substantially different trajectories of absolute risk, with men in the top 20% of attaining 10% cumulative CHD risk 12–18 y earlier than those in the bottom 20%. High genomic risk was partially compensated for by low systolic blood pressure, low cholesterol level, and non-smoking.
Conclusions
A GRS based on a large number of SNPs improves CHD risk prediction and encodes different trajectories of lifetime risk not captured by traditional clinical risk scores.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehw450
PMCID: PMC5146693  PMID: 27655226
Genomic risk score; Coronary heart disease; Myocardial infarction; Framingham risk score; Primary prevention
10.  Atrial fibrillation driven by micro-anatomic intramural re-entry revealed by simultaneous sub-epicardial and sub-endocardial optical mapping in explanted human hearts 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(35):2390-2401.
Our integrated 3D high-resolution structural--functional mapping of the diseased human heart ex vivo revealed significant transmural differences between endocardial and epicardial atrial activation during normal heart rate and especially during sustained atrial fibrillation (AF) were caused by the very complex transmural microstructure of the human atrial wall. Moreover, this study shows that sustained AF may be driven by localized microanatomic reentry anchored to regions of the highly fibrosis-insulated and twisted intramural atrial bundles. Targeting these microanatomic tracks of reentry with endocardial catheter ablation successfully disrupted AF and prevented its re-induction, suggesting the human 3D atrial architecture plays a key role in the maintenance of AF. Future studies to better understand the structural complexity of the human atrial micro-anatomy will offer more efficient and targeted treatment options to prevent and treat sustained AF.
Aims
The complex architecture of the human atria may create physical substrates for sustained re-entry to drive atrial fibrillation (AF). The existence of sustained, anatomically defined AF drivers in humans has been challenged partly due to the lack of simultaneous endocardial–epicardial (Endo–Epi) mapping coupled with high-resolution 3D structural imaging.
Methods and results
Coronary-perfused human right atria from explanted diseased hearts (n = 8, 43–72 years old) were optically mapped simultaneously by three high-resolution CMOS cameras (two aligned Endo–Epi views (330 µm2 resolution) and one panoramic view). 3D gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (GE-MRI, 80 µm3 resolution) revealed the atrial wall structure varied in thickness (1.0 ± 0.7–6.8 ± 2.4 mm), transmural fiber angle differences, and interstitial fibrosis causing transmural activation delay from 23 ± 11 to 43 ± 22 ms at increased pacing rates. Sustained AF (>90 min) was induced by burst pacing during pinacidil (30–100 µM) perfusion. Dual-sided sub-Endo–sub-Epi optical mapping revealed that AF was driven by spatially and temporally stable intramural re-entry with 107 ± 50 ms cycle length and transmural activation delay of 67 ± 31 ms. Intramural re-entrant drivers were captured primarily by sub-Endo mapping, while sub-Epi mapping visualized re-entry or ‘breakthrough’ patterns. Re-entrant drivers were anchored on 3D micro-anatomic tracks (15.4 ± 2.2 × 6.0 ± 2.3 mm2, 2.9 ± 0.9 mm depth) formed by atrial musculature characterized by increased transmural fiber angle differences and interstitial fibrosis. Targeted radiofrequency ablation of the tracks verified these re-entries as drivers of AF.
Conclusions
Integrated 3D structural–functional mapping of diseased human right atria ex vivo revealed that the complex atrial microstructure caused significant differences between Endo vs. Epi activation during pacing and sustained AF driven by intramural re-entry anchored to fibrosis-insulated atrial bundles.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv233
PMCID: PMC4568403  PMID: 26059724
Atrial fibrillation; Intramural re-entry; Rotor; Optical mapping; Gadolinium-enhanced MRI; Fibrosis; Catheter radiofrequency ablation
11.  Anticoagulant vs. antiplatelet therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale: an individual participant data meta-analysis 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(35):2381-2389.
Aims
The preferred antithrombotic strategy for secondary prevention in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) and patent foramen ovale (PFO) is unknown. We pooled multiple observational studies and used propensity score-based methods to estimate the comparative effectiveness of oral anticoagulation (OAC) compared with antiplatelet therapy (APT).
Methods and results
Individual participant data from 12 databases of medically treated patients with CS and PFO were analysed with Cox regression models, to estimate database-specific hazard ratios (HRs) comparing OAC with APT, for both the primary composite outcome [recurrent stroke, transient ischaemic attack (TIA), or death] and stroke alone. Propensity scores were applied via inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding. We synthesized database-specific HRs using random-effects meta-analysis models. This analysis included 2385 (OAC = 804 and APT = 1581) patients with 227 composite endpoints (stroke/TIA/death). The difference between OAC and APT was not statistically significant for the primary composite outcome [adjusted HR = 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52–1.12] or for the secondary outcome of stroke alone (adjusted HR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.44–1.27). Results were consistent in analyses applying alternative weighting schemes, with the exception that OAC had a statistically significant beneficial effect on the composite outcome in analyses standardized to the patient population who actually received APT (adjusted HR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.42–0.99). Subgroup analyses did not detect statistically significant heterogeneity of treatment effects across clinically important patient groups.
Conclusion
We did not find a statistically significant difference comparing OAC with APT; our results justify randomized trials comparing different antithrombotic approaches in these patients.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv252
PMCID: PMC4568404  PMID: 26141397
Cryptogenic stroke; Patent foramen ovale; Secondary stroke prevention; Medical stroke treatment; Cardiogenic stroke
12.  Stroke in the TOTAL trial: a randomized trial of routine thrombectomy vs. percutaneous coronary intervention alone in ST elevation myocardial infarction 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(35):2364-2372.
Aims
TOTAL (N = 10 732), a randomized trial of routine manual thrombectomy vs. percutaneous coronary intervention alone in ST elevation myocardial infarction, showed no difference in the primary efficacy outcome but a significant increase in stroke. We sought to understand these findings.
Methods and results
A detailed analysis of stroke timing, stroke severity, and stroke subtype was performed. Strokes were adjudicated by neurologists blinded to treatment assignment. Stroke within 30 days, the primary safety outcome, was increased [33 (0.7%) vs. 16 (0.3%), hazard ratio (HR) 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–3.75]. The difference in stroke was apparent within 48 h [15 (0.3%) vs. 5 (0.1%), HR 3.00; 95% CI 1.09–8.25]. There was an increase in strokes within 180 days with minor or no disability (Rankin 0–2) [18 (0.4%) vs. 13 (0.3%) HR 1.38; 95% CI 0.68–2.82] and in strokes with major disability or fatal (Rankin 3–6) [35 (0.7%) vs. 13 (0.3%), HR 2.69; 95% CI 1.42–5.08]. Most of the absolute difference was due to an increase in ischaemic strokes within 180 days [37 (0.7%) vs. 21 (0.4%), HR 1.71; 95% CI 1.03–3.00], but there was also an increase in haemorrhagic strokes [10 (0.2%) vs. 2 (0.04%), HR 4.98; 95% CI 1.09–22.7]. Patients that had a stroke had a mortality of 30.8% within 180 days vs. 3.4% without a stroke (P < 0.001). A meta-analysis of randomized trials (N = 21 173) showed an increase in risk of stroke (odds ratio 1.59; 95% CI 1.11–2.27) but a trend towards reduction in mortality odds ratio (odds ratio 0.87; 95% CI 0.76–1.00).
Conclusion
Thrombectomy was associated with a significant increase in stroke. Based on these findings, future trials must carefully collect stroke to determine safety in addition to efficacy.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv296
PMCID: PMC4568405  PMID: 26129947
STEMI; Thrombectomy; Stroke; Meta-analysis; Randomized trial
13.  The perils of surrogate endpoints 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(33):2212-2218.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv164
PMCID: PMC4554958  PMID: 25975658
14.  A background Ca2+ entry pathway mediated by TRPC1/TRPC4 is critical for development of pathological cardiac remodelling 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(33):2257-2266.
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a major predictor for the development of cardiac diseases. Neuroendocrine factors such as norepinephrine and angiotensin II trigger Ca2+-dependent processes leading to cell growth and cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we report the identification of a constitutively active background Ca2+ entry (BGCE) pathway that is not affected by inhibition of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels but critically depends on the presence of TRPC1 and TRPC4 proteins, members of the TRP family of cation channels. It fine-tunes Ca2+ cycling in beating cardiomyocytes under basal conditions and during neurohumoral stimulation. Suppression of BGCE protects against development of maladaptive cardiac remodelling without evidence for alterations in cardiac or extra-cardiac functions and may represent a potential new therapeutic strategy to attenuate the pathogenesis of associated diseases.
Aims
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a major predictor for the development of cardiac diseases. It is associated with chronic neurohumoral stimulation and with altered cardiac Ca2+ signalling in cardiomyocytes. TRPC proteins form agonist-induced cation channels, but their functional role for Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiomyocytes during fast cytosolic Ca2+ cycling and neurohumoral stimulation leading to hypertrophy is unknown.
Methods and results
In a systematic analysis of multiple knockout mice using fluorescence imaging of electrically paced adult ventricular cardiomyocytes and Mn2+-quench microfluorimetry, we identified a background Ca2+ entry (BGCE) pathway that critically depends on TRPC1/C4 proteins but not others such as TRPC3/C6. Reduction of BGCE in TRPC1/C4-deficient cardiomyocytes lowers diastolic and systolic Ca2+ concentrations both, under basal conditions and under neurohumoral stimulation without affecting cardiac contractility measured in isolated hearts and in vivo. Neurohumoral-induced cardiac hypertrophy as well as the expression of foetal genes (ANP, BNP) and genes regulated by Ca2+-dependent signalling (RCAN1-4, myomaxin) was reduced in TRPC1/C4 knockout (DKO), but not in TRPC1- or TRPC4-single knockout mice. Pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis were both ameliorated in TRPC1/C4-DKO mice, whereas they did not show alterations in other cardiovascular parameters contributing to systemic neurohumoral-induced hypertrophy such as renin secretion and blood pressure.
Conclusions
The constitutively active TRPC1/C4-dependent BGCE fine-tunes Ca2+ cycling in beating adult cardiomyocytes. TRPC1/C4-gene inactivation protects against development of maladaptive cardiac remodelling without altering cardiac or extracardiac functions contributing to this pathogenesis.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv250
PMCID: PMC4554959  PMID: 26069213
Calcium; Ion channels; Cardiac remodelling; Background Ca2+ entry; TRPC1/TRPC4
15.  The sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(30):1974-1982.
Cardiovascular autonomic imbalance, a cardinal phenotype of human heart failure, has adverse implications for symptoms during wakefulness and sleep; for cardiac, renal, and immune function; for exercise capacity; and for lifespan and mode of death. The objectives of this Clinical Review are to summarize current knowledge concerning mechanisms for disturbed parasympathetic and sympathetic circulatory control in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and its clinical and prognostic implications; to demonstrate the patient-specific nature of abnormalities underlying this common phenotype; and to illustrate how such variation provides opportunities to improve or restore normal sympathetic/parasympathetic balance through personalized drug or device therapy.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv087
PMCID: PMC4528097  PMID: 25975657
Baroreceptor reflex; Chemoreceptor reflex; Exercise; Heart failure; Human; Parasympathetic nervous system; Sleep apnoea; Sympathetic nervous system
17.  CardioPulse Articles 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(29):1843-1848.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv249
PMCID: PMC4571178  PMID: 26240029
18.  No effect of PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab on the incidence of diabetes in a pooled analysis from 10 ODYSSEY Phase 3 studies 
European Heart Journal  2016;37(39):2981-2989.
Aims
Statins have modest adverse effects on glycaemic control. Alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor, lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This study assessed the effects of alirocumab on new-onset diabetes and pre-diabetes incidence in individuals without diabetes at baseline.
Methods and results
Pooled analysis of 10 ODYSSEY Phase 3 trials (n = 4974) of 24–104 weeks duration. Six trials (n = 4211) were ≥52 weeks in length. Most patients received background maximally tolerated statin. Alirocumab effect on the rate of diabetes-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), and/or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) was measured at baseline and every 12–24 weeks. Transition to diabetes analysis combined TEAE and FPG/HbA1C laboratory data. At baseline, 30.7% of individuals had diabetes and were excluded from the current analysis. The remaining 3448 individuals without diabetes had pre-diabetes (39.6%) or were normoglycaemic (29.7%). The hazard ratio (HR; 95% confidence interval) for diabetes-related TEAEs in alirocumab was 0.64 (0.36–1.14) vs. placebo and 0.55 (0.22–1.41) vs. ezetimibe. The HR associated for transition from pre-diabetes to new-onset diabetes for alirocumab was 0.90 (0.63–1.29) vs. placebo and 1.10 (0.57–2.12) vs. ezetimibe. Mean change in FPG/HbA1C over time showed no difference between treatment groups in patients without diabetes.
Conclusions
There was no evidence of an effect of alirocumab on transition to new-onset diabetes in 3448 individuals without diabetes at baseline with a follow-up period of 6–18 months, compared to either placebo or ezetimibe. Longer follow-up with larger number of individuals is needed to conclusively rule out an effect.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehw292
PMCID: PMC5081037  PMID: 27460890
Glycaemia; Diabetes; PCSK9 inhibitor; Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HbA1C; Fasting plasma glucose
19.  Association of competitive and recreational sport participation with cardiac events in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: results from the North American multidisciplinary study of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(27):1735-1743.
Aims
It has been proposed that competitive sport increases the risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) and death in patients with arrhythmogenic right-ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). However, it is unknown whether this only applies to competitive sport or if recreational sports activity also increases the risk of VTA/death.
Methods and results
Probands diagnosed with ARVC according to the 2010 task force criteria for ARVC (n = 108) were included in the current analysis. At the time of enrolment, study participants were questioned about exercise level prior to and after ARVC diagnosis, within three categories of sports participation: competitive (n = 41), recreational (n = 48), and inactive (n = 19). Competitive sport was associated with a significantly higher risk of VTA/death when compared with both recreational sport [HR = 1.99 (1.21–3.28), P = 0.007] and inactive patients [HR = 2.05 (1.07–3.91), P = 0.030]. No increased risk of VTA/death was associated with recreational sport when compared with patients who were inactive [HR = 1.03 (0.54–1.97), P = 0.930]. Symptoms developed at an earlier age in patients who participated in competitive sport (30 ± 12 years), when compared with patients who participated in recreational sport (38 ± 17 years) (P = 0.015) and inactive patients (41 ± 11 years) (P = 0.002). No difference in age at first symptom was seen between patients who participated in recreational sport and inactive patients (P = 0.651).
Conclusion
Competitive sport was associated with a two-fold increased risk of VTA/death, and earlier presentation of symptoms, when compared with inactive patients, and to patients who participated in recreational sport. When compared with inactive patients, recreational sport was not associated with earlier onset of symptoms or increased risk of VTA/death.
Clinical trials.gov identifier
NCT00024505.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv110
PMCID: PMC4500847  PMID: 25896080
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy; ARVC; Ventricular arrhythmia; Exercise; Sport; Presentation
20.  Implantable cardioverter defibrillators: even better than we thought? 
European Heart Journal  2015;36(26):1646-1648.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv158
PMCID: PMC4493325  PMID: 25943537
21.  Cryoballoon or radiofrequency ablation for symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: reintervention, rehospitalization, and quality-of-life outcomes in the FIRE AND ICE trial 
European Heart Journal  2016;37(38):2858-2865.
Aims
The primary safety and efficacy endpoints of the randomized FIRE AND ICE trial have recently demonstrated non-inferiority of cryoballoon vs. radiofrequency current (RFC) catheter ablation in patients with drug-refractory symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of the current study was to assess outcome parameters that are important for the daily clinical management of patients using key secondary analyses. Specifically, reinterventions, rehospitalizations, and quality-of-life were examined in this randomized trial of cryoballoon vs. RFC catheter ablation.
Methods and results
Patients (374 subjects in the cryoballoon group and 376 subjects in the RFC group) were evaluated in the modified intention-to-treat cohort. After the index ablation, log-rank testing over 1000 days of follow-up demonstrated that there were statistically significant differences in favour of cryoballoon ablation with respect to repeat ablations (11.8% cryoballoon vs. 17.6% RFC; P = 0.03), direct-current cardioversions (3.2% cryoballoon vs. 6.4% RFC; P = 0.04), all-cause rehospitalizations (32.6% cryoballoon vs. 41.5% RFC; P = 0.01), and cardiovascular rehospitalizations (23.8% cryoballoon vs. 35.9% RFC; P < 0.01). There were no statistical differences between groups in the quality-of-life surveys (both mental and physical) as measured by the Short Form-12 health survey and the EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire. There was an improvement in both mental and physical quality-of-life in all patients that began at 6 months after the index ablation and was maintained throughout the 30 months of follow-up.
Conclusion
Patients treated with cryoballoon as opposed to RFC ablation had significantly fewer repeat ablations, direct-current cardioversions, all-cause rehospitalizations, and cardiovascular rehospitalizations during follow-up. Both patient groups improved in quality-of-life scores after AF ablation.
Clinical trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01490814.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehw285
PMCID: PMC5070448  PMID: 27381589
Atrial fibrillation; Catheter ablation; Cryoballoon; Rehospitalization; Radiofrequency; Follow-up
22.  An evaluation of the effect of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on the growth rate of small abdominal aortic aneurysms: a randomized placebo-controlled trial (AARDVARK) 
European Heart Journal  2016;37(42):3213-3221.
Aims
The AARDVARK (Aortic Aneurysmal Regression of Dilation: Value of ACE-Inhibition on RisK) trial investigated whether ACE-inhibition reduces small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) growth rate, independent of blood pressure (BP) lowering.
Methods and results
A three-arm, multi-centre, single-blind, and randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN51383267) was conducted in 14 hospitals in England. Subjects aged ≥55 years with AAA diameter 3.0–5.4 cm were randomized 1:1:1 to receive perindopril arginine 10 mg, or amlodipine 5 mg, or placebo and followed 3–6 monthly over 2 years. The primary outcome was aneurysm growth rate (based on external antero-posterior ultrasound measurements in the longitudinal plane), determined by multi-level modelling to provide maximum likelihood estimates. Two hundred and twenty-four subjects were randomized (2011–2013) to placebo (n = 79), perindopril (n = 73), or amlodipine (n = 72). Mean (SD) changes in mid-trial systolic BP (12 months) were 0.5 (14.3) mmHg, P = 0.78 compared with baseline, −9.5 (13.1) mmHg (P < 0.001), and −6.7 (12.0) mmHg (P < 0.001), respectively. No significant differences in the modelled annual growth rates were apparent [1.68 mm (SE 0.2), 1.77 mm (0.2), and 1.81 mm (0.2), respectively]. The estimated difference in annual growth between the perindopril and placebo groups was 0.08 mm (CI −0.50, 0.65). Similar numbers of AAAs in each group reached 5.5 cm diameter and/or underwent elective surgery: 11 receiving placebo, 10 perindopril, and 11 amlodipine.
Conclusion
Small AAA growth rates were lower than anticipated, but there was no significant impact of perindopril compared with placebo or placebo and amlodipine, combined despite more effective BP lowering.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehw257
PMCID: PMC5181384  PMID: 27371719
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; ACE-inhibition; Perindopril; Blood pressure lowering; Calcium channel blocker; Placebo-controlled
23.  Two-year outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: results from GARFIELD-AF 
European Heart Journal  2016;37(38):2882-2889.
Aims
The relationship between outcomes and time after diagnosis for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is poorly defined, especially beyond the first year.
Methods and results
GARFIELD-AF is an ongoing, global observational study of adults with newly diagnosed NVAF. Two-year outcomes of 17 162 patients prospectively enrolled in GARFIELD-AF were analysed in light of baseline characteristics, risk profiles for stroke/systemic embolism (SE), and antithrombotic therapy. The mean (standard deviation) age was 69.8 (11.4) years, 43.8% were women, and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.3 (1.6); 60.8% of patients were prescribed anticoagulant therapy with/without antiplatelet (AP) therapy, 27.4% AP monotherapy, and 11.8% no antithrombotic therapy. At 2-year follow-up, all-cause mortality, stroke/SE, and major bleeding had occurred at a rate (95% confidence interval) of 3.83 (3.62; 4.05), 1.25 (1.13; 1.38), and 0.70 (0.62; 0.81) per 100 person-years, respectively. Rates for all three major events were highest during the first 4 months. Congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, sudden/unwitnessed death, malignancy, respiratory failure, and infection/sepsis accounted for 65% of all known causes of death and strokes for <10%. Anticoagulant treatment was associated with a 35% lower risk of death.
Conclusion
The most frequent of the three major outcome measures was death, whose most common causes are not known to be significantly influenced by anticoagulation. This suggests that a more comprehensive approach to the management of NVAF may be needed to improve outcome. This could include, in addition to anticoagulation, interventions targeting modifiable, cause-specific risk factors for death.
Clinical Trial Registration
http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01090362.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehw233
PMCID: PMC5070447  PMID: 27357359
Atrial fibrillation; Anticoagulation; Stroke prevention; Stroke; Bleeding
24.  Impact of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin on use of coronary angiography, cardiac stress testing, and time to discharge in suspected acute myocardial infarction 
European Heart Journal  2016;37(44):3324-3332.
Aims
High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays provide higher diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) when compared with conventional assays, but may result in increased use of unnecessary coronary angiographies due to their increased detection of cardiomyocyte injury in conditions other than AMI.
Methods and results
We evaluated the impact of the clinical introduction of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) on the use of coronary angiography, stress testing, and time to discharge in 2544 patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of AMI to the emergency department (ED) within a multicentre study either before (1455 patients) or after (1089 patients) hs-cTnT introduction. Acute myocardial infarction was more often the clinical discharge diagnosis after hs-cTnT introduction (10 vs. 14%, P < 0.001), while unstable angina less often the clinical discharge diagnosis (14 vs. 9%, P = 0.007). The rate of coronary angiography was similar before and after the introduction of hs-cTnT (23 vs. 23%, P = 0.092), as was the percentage of coronary angiographies showing no stenosis (11 vs. 7%, P = 0.361). In contrast, the use of stress testing was substantially reduced from 29 to 19% (P < 0.001). In outpatients, median time to discharge from the ED decreased by 79 min (P < 0.001). Mean total costs decreased by 20% in outpatients after the introduction of hs-cTnT (P = 0.002).
Conclusion
The clinical introduction of hs-cTn does not lead to an increased or inappropriate use of coronary angiography. Introduction of hs-cTn is associated with an improved rule-out process and thereby reduces the need for stress testing and time to discharge.
Clinical Trial Registration Information
www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier, NCT00470587.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehw232
PMCID: PMC5177796  PMID: 27357358
Myocardial infarction; Coronary artery disease; Angiography; Stress testing; High-sensitivity cardiac troponin
25.  Geographic variations in the PARADIGM-HF heart failure trial 
European Heart Journal  2016;37(41):3167-3174.
Aims
The globalization of clinical trials has highlighted geographic variations in patient characteristics, event rates, and treatment effects. We investigated these further in PARADIGM-HF, the largest and most globally representative trial in heart failure (HF) to date.
Methods and results
We looked at five regions: North America (NA) 602 (8%), Western Europe (WE) 1680 (20%), Central/Eastern Europe/Russia (CEER) 2762 (33%), Latin America (LA) 1433 (17%), and Asia-Pacific (AP) 1487 (18%). Notable differences included: WE patients (mean age 68 years) and NA (65 years) were older than AP (58 years) and LA (63 years) and had more coronary disease; NA and CEER patients had the worst signs, symptoms, and functional status. North American patients were the most likely to have a defibrillating-device (54 vs. 2% AP) and least likely prescribed a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (36 vs. 65% LA). Other evidence-based therapies were used most frequently in NA and WE. Rates of the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular (CV) death or HF hospitalization (per 100 patient-years) varied among regions: NA 13.6 (95% CI 11.7–15.7) WE 9.6 (8.6–10.6), CEER 12.3 (11.4–13.2), LA 11.2 (10.0–12.5), and AP 12.5 (11.3–13.8). After adjustment for prognostic variables, relative to NA, the risk of CV death was higher in LA and AP and the risk of HF hospitalization lower in WE. The benefit of sacubitril/valsartan was consistent across regions.
Conclusion
There were many regional differences in PARADIGM-HF, including in age, symptoms, comorbidity, background therapy, and event-rates, although these did not modify the benefit of sacubitril/valsartan.
Clinical trial registration URL
http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01035255.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehw226
PMCID: PMC5106574  PMID: 27354044
Heart failure; Treatment outcome; Geographical variation; Clinical trial; Prognosis

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