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1.  Pancreatic trauma 
Introduction
Pancreatic trauma occurs in approximately 4% of all patients sustaining abdominal injuries. The pancreas has an intimate relationship with the major upper abdominal vessels, and there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with severe pancreatic injury. Immediate resuscitation and investigations are essential to delineate the nature of the injury, and to plan further management. If main pancreatic duct injuries are identified, specialised input from a tertiary hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) team is advised.
Methods
A comprehensive online literature search was performed using PubMed. Relevant articles from international journals were selected. The search terms used were: ‘pancreatic trauma’, ‘pancreatic duct injury’, ‘radiology AND pancreas injury’, ‘diagnosis of pancreatic trauma’, and ‘management AND surgery’. Articles that were not published in English were excluded. All articles used were selected on relevance to this review and read by both authors.
Results
Pancreatic trauma is rare and associated with injury to other upper abdominal viscera. Patients present with non-specific abdominal findings and serum amylase is of little use in diagnosis. Computed tomography is effective in diagnosing pancreatic injury but not duct disruption, which is most easily seen on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography or operative pancreatography. If pancreatic injury is suspected, inspection of the entire pancreas and duodenum is required to ensure full evaluation at laparotomy. The operative management of pancreatic injury depends on the grade of injury found at laparotomy. The most important prognostic factor is main duct disruption and, if found, reconstructive options should be determined by an experienced HPB surgeon.
Conclusions
The diagnosis of pancreatic trauma requires a high index of suspicion and detailed imaging studies. Grading pancreatic injury is important to guide operative management. The most important prognostic factor is pancreatic duct disruption and in these cases, experienced HPB surgeons should be involved. Complications following pancreatic trauma are common and the majority can be managed without further surgery.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13629960045913
PMCID: PMC4132496  PMID: 23676806
Pancreatic trauma; Pancreatic duct injury; Grades of pancreatic injury; Operative approaches in pancreatic trauma
2.  Transanal haemorrhoidal dearterialisation with mucopexy versus stapler haemorrhoidopexy: a randomised trial with long-term follow-up 
Introduction
The present study aimed to compare the long-term results of transanal haemorrhoidal dearterialisation (THD) with mucopexy and stapler haemorrhoidopexy (SH) in treatment of grade III and IV haemorrhoids.
Methods
One hundred and twenty-four patients with grade III and IV haemorrhoids were randomised to receive THD with mucopexy (n=63) or SH (n=61). A telephone interview with a structured questionnaire was performed at a median follow-up of 42 months. The primary outcome was the occurrence of recurrent prolapse. Patients, investigators and those assessing the outcomes were blinded to group assignment.
Results
Recurrence was present in 21 patients (16.9%). It occurred in 16 (25.4%) in the THD group and 5 (8.2%) in the SH group (p=0.021). A second surgical procedure was performed in eight patients (6.4%). Reoperation was open haemorrhoidectomy in seven cases and SH in one case. Five patients out of six in the THD group and both patients in the SH group requiring repeat surgery presented with grade IV haemorrhoids. No significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to symptom control. Patient satisfaction for the procedure was 73.0% after THD and 85.2% after SH (p=0.705). Postoperative pain, return to normal activities and complications were similar.
Conclusions
The recurrence rate after THD with mucopexy is significantly higher than after SH at long-term follow-up although results are similar with respect to symptom control and patient satisfaction. A definite risk of repeat surgery is present when both procedures are performed, especially for grade IV haemorrhoids.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609958136
PMCID: PMC4132497  PMID: 23676807
Haemorrhoids; Surgery; Randomised controlled trial
3.  Factors affecting the healing of the perineum following surgery 
Introduction
The aim of this study was to establish patient and procedural factors associated with the development of an unhealed perineum in patients undergoing a proctectomy or excision of an ileoanal pouch.
Methods
A review of 194 case notes for procedures performed between 1997 and 2009 was carried out. All patients had at least 12 months’ follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in 16 parameters. For those patients who developed an unhealed perineum, Cox regression analysis was performed to establish healing over a 12-month period.
Results
Two hundred patients were included in the study, of which six had unknown wound status and were subsequently excluded. This left 194 study patients. Of these, 86 (44%) achieved primary wound healing with a fully healed perineum and 108 (56%) experienced primary wound failure. With reference to the latter, 63 (58%) healed by 12 months. Comparing patients with an initially intact perineum with those with initial wound failure showed pre-existing sepsis was highly relevant (odds ratio: 4.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.16–8.62, p<0.001). In patients who had an unhealed perineum initially, perineal sepsis and surgical treatment were both significantly associated with time to healing (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31–0.93, p=0.03; and HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21–0.84, p=0.01).
Conclusions
The presence of pre-existing perineal sepsis is associated with an unhealed perineum following proctectomy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD surgery. Further studies are indicated to establish perineal sepsis as a causative factor.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609958451
PMCID: PMC4132498  PMID: 23676808
Perineum; Wound; Healing; Proctectomy; Sepsis; Ileoanal Pouch; Inflammatory Bowel Disease
4.  The diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration in parotid lumps 
Introduction
Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a safe and quick method of diagnosing superficial lumps, which aids preoperative planning. However, FNA of the parotid gland has not gained the widespread acceptance noted in other head and neck lumps. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of FNA of the parotid gland to differentiate benign and malignant disease, and to determine the impact on surgical outcome.
Methods
A retrospective analysis of 201 consecutive parotid operations with preoperative FNA in a large district hospital in the UK was performed. The diagnostic characteristics were calculated for benign and malignant disease, and the impact on surgical procedure was determined.
Results
In identifying benign disease, FNA has a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 76%. In detecting malignant disease, FNA has a sensitivity and specificity of 52% and 92% respectively. A false positive on FNA was associated with a higher incidence of neck dissection.
Conclusions
FNA is a useful diagnostic test. However, owing to low sensitivity, it is necessary to interpret it in the context of all other clinical information.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609958370
PMCID: PMC4132499  PMID: 23676809
Parotid neoplasm; Fine needle aspiration; Otolaryngology
5.  A decade of experience of thyroglossal cyst excision 
Introduction
We report our ten-year experience of thyroglossal cyst excision at Queen’s Medical Centre, Nottingham, comparing outcomes, practice and technique.
Methods
Retrospective case note analysis was conducted alongside surgical histopathology review for all thyroglossal cyst excisions performed between 2000 and 2010. This yielded 108 patients with histopathology results confirming a thyroglossal cyst.
Results
The mean patient age was 21 years (range: 1 week – 76 years). Over half the patients (n=59, 55%) were less than 18 years of age. Fifty-five patients (51%) were male and fifty-three (49%) were female. Seventy cases (63%) were operated on by ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeons. The rest were performed by paediatric surgeons (n=35, 32%), maxillofacial surgeons (n=2, 2%) and general surgeons (n=1, 1%). Paediatric surgeons undertook 35 (69%) of the 59 paediatric cases, with ENT surgeons operating on the rest (n=24, 41%). The primary surgeon was a consultant in 59 operations (55%) while in 49 cases (45%) it was a registrar. Thyroglossal cysts were ruptured in 21 operations (19%) during removal. The central portion of the hyoid bone was not excised in seven cases (6%). Twelve patients (11%) suffered postoperative complications, six of which were recurrences.
Conclusions
There was a combined recurrence rate of 6% across all specialties for the Sistrunk procedure. This is in keeping with commonly reported recurrence rates. However, we found that central compartment neck dissection, as a modification of the original Sistrunk procedure, provides a highly effective method for permanently excising a thyroglossal cyst and, in our experience, it eliminates recurrence.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609958613
PMCID: PMC4132500  PMID: 23676810
Thyroglossal; Cyst; Neck dissection; Surgery
6.  Bearing exchange in the management of pseudotumours 
Introduction
Soft tissue reactions following metal-on-metal (MoM) arthroplasty of the hip have been under considerable discussion. These reactions are seen following both hip resurfacing and MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA). The phenomenon may arise owing to shedding of metal particles in high wear states, hypersensitivity with normal metal wear rates or a combination of the two.
Methods
Three patients were identified who had developed a soft tissue reaction (pseudotumour) following MoM hip resurfacing procedures. The prostheses were revised to ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) THA with only minimal debridement of the pseudotumour. Pre and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging was performed to assess the size of the lesions.
Results
Progressive and satisfactory resolution of the associated pseudotumours was identified following revision of the prostheses to CoC THA.
Conclusions
In the early stages of pseudotumour formation following MoM hip resurfacing, this potentially devastating condition can be managed adequately with revision to a CoC bearing THA with minimal soft tissue excision.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609958497
PMCID: PMC4132501  PMID: 23676811
Pseudotumour; Metal-on-metal; Revision; Hip arthroplasty; Ceramic-on-ceramic
7.  Diabetes is predictive of longer hospital stay and increased rate of Clavien complications in spinal surgery in the UK 
Introduction
Diabetes is a common co-morbidity of patients undergoing spinal surgery in the UK but there are no published studies from the UK, particularly with respect to length of hospital stay and complications. The aims of this study were to identify complications and length of hospital stay in patients with diabetes undergoing spinal surgery.
Methods
Data were collected retrospectively for 111 consecutive patients with diabetes (and 97 age and sex matched control patients, identified using computer records) who underwent spinal surgery between 2004 and 2010 in a single centre. The data collected included operative time, blood loss, details of surgery, Clavien complications and length of hospital stay.
Results
No significant differences were found by group in operative time, blood loss, instrumentation, use of graft or revision surgery. Overall complication rates were higher in the patients with diabetes than in the controls (28.8% vs 15.5%). The mean hospital stay was significantly longer for patients with diabetes than for control patients (4.6 vs 3.2 days, p<0.001).
Conclusions
This study identified a significantly higher Clavien grade I complication rate and length of hospital stay in patients with diabetes undergoing spinal surgery than control patients (p=0.02). This has resulted in a predictive model being generated. Of note, no infections were seen in patients with diabetes, suggesting that infection rates in this particular group of patients undergoing spinal surgery might not be as high as considered previously.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609958299
PMCID: PMC4132503  PMID: 23676813
Diabetes; Spinal surgery; Clavien complications; Length of stay
8.  The cost effectiveness of early management of acute appendicitis underlies the importance of curative surgical services to a primary healthcare programme 
Introduction
Appendicitis in the developing world is a cause of significant preventable morbidity. This prospective study from a regional hospital in South Africa constructs a robust cost model that demonstrates the cost effectiveness of an efficient curative surgical service in a primary healthcare-orientated system.
Methods
A prospective audit of all patients with acute appendicitis admitted to Edendale Hospital was undertaken from September 2010 to September 2011. A microcosting approach was used to construct a cost model based on the estimated cost of operative and perioperative interventions together with the associated hospital stay. For cost analysis, patients were divided into the following cohorts: uncomplicated appendicitis, complicated appendicitis with localised intra-abdominal sepsis, complicated appendicitis with generalised intra-abdominal sepsis, with and without intensive care unit admission.
Results
Two hundred patients were operated on for acute appendicitis. Of these, 36% (71/200) had uncomplicated appendicitis and 57% (114/200) had perforation. Pathologies other than appendicitis were present in 8% (15/200) and these patients were excluded. Of the perforated appendices, 45% (51/114) had intra-abdominal contamination that was localised while 55% (63/114) generalised sepsis. The mean cost for each patient was: 6,578 ZAR (£566) for uncomplicated appendicitis; 14,791 ZAR (£1,272) for perforation with localised intra-abdominal sepsis and 34,773 ZAR (£2,990) for perforation with generalised intra-abdominal sepsis without intensive care admission. With intensive care admission it was 77,816 ZAR (£6,692). The total cost of managing acute appendicitis was 4,272,871 ZAR (£367,467). Almost 90% of this total cost was owing to advanced disease with abdominal sepsis and therefore potentially preventable.
Conclusions
Early uncomplicated appendicitis treated appropriately carries little morbidity and is relatively inexpensive to treat. As the pathology progresses, the cost rises exponentially. An efficient curative surgical service must be regarded as a cost effective component of a primary healthcare orientated system.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609958415
PMCID: PMC4132504  PMID: 23676814
Appendicitis; Complications; Cost; Model
9.  Operative and non-operative management of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-associated duodenal injuries 
Introduction
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is indispensable in everyday surgical practice. Despite this, as an invasive procedure, it has its own mortality and morbidity, the most feared of which is periduodenal perforations. Our experience with ERCP related periduodenal perforations and its treatment strategies are presented. Additionally, a rarely encountered subtype is highlighted.
Methods
Patients who underwent ERCP and sustained a periduodenal perforation between August 2008 and October 2011 were reviewed.
Results
During the period from August 2008 to October 2011, 597 ERCP procedures were performed in our hospital. Ten of these patients (3 male, 7 female) had a perforation. The mean patient age was 56.6 years. During the procedure, injury was suspected in four patients; it passed unnoticed in the remaining six. The decision to operate or follow a conservative policy was based on a combination of clinical and radiological findings. Operative intervention was required in three patients, with one mortality, while conservative treatment was followed in the remaining seven. A laparotomy was performed early in two patients whereas it was performed after an initial period of conservative treatment in one. The presence of periduodenal fluid collection, contrast extravasation or free intraperitoneal air were decisive factors for performing laparotomy.
Conclusions
ERCP-related periduodenal perforations include different categories. Certain types require operative repair while others should be treated conservatively. The choice of the management approach should be individualised, depending on the clinical picture and radiological findings. Although rare, these are potentially serious complications that may end fatally. Early recognition and appropriate intervention is the only way to avert a fatal outcome.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609958578
PMCID: PMC4132505  PMID: 23676815
Cholangiopancreatography; Endoscopic retrograde; Duodenum; Wound; Injury
17.  Coress feedback 
CORESS is a confidential reporting system for surgery. The purpose of CORESS is to promote safety in surgical practice, both within the NHS and in the independent sector.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609958019
PMCID: PMC4132514
18.  Appendicitis in a Spigelian hernia: an unusual cause for a tender right iliac fossa mass 
Spigelian hernias are a rare type of hernia through the Spigelian aponeurosis, whose contents commonly include omentum or small bowel. In the absence of incarceration or strangulation, they can be difficult to diagnose clinically. In the emergency setting, they can present rarely as a painful abdominal mass and computed tomography provides a reliable diagnostic imaging modality. We report an emergency presentation of a Spigelian hernia containing the appendix.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609957731
PMCID: PMC4132515  PMID: 23676802
Spigelian hernia; Appendix; Computed tomography; Sonography; Appendicectomy
19.  A concealed small bowel perforation in an adult secondary to bicycle handlebar trauma 
Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) secondary to bicycle handlebar is a rare injury. The majority of the literature describes abdominal wall herniation in children. We present a rare case of TAWH in an adult with a concealed small bowel perforation. Although clinical examination in conjunction with computed tomography can exclude the majority of solid organ injuries, small bowel injuries can often be missed. Our case initially revealed a serosal tear in the small bowel but, on close inspection, a separate 3mm perforation was identified, hidden in the small bowel mesentery. We strongly support a low threshold for operative intervention if there is any suspicion. Moreover, we stress the importance of meticulous examination during laparotomy as this injury could have been easily missed, resulting in potential morbidity or mortality in a patient sustaining such an injury.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609957894
PMCID: PMC4132516  PMID: 23676803
Traumatic abdominal wall hernia; Bicycle handlebar injury; Small bowel perforation
20.  A case report of an intracaval extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumour 
Solitary fibrous tumours are infrequent neoplasms based in the pleura that are predominantly benign with malignant pathology and behaviour described in 10–36% of cases. Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumours (ESFTs) have been considered separately to their intrathoracic counterparts and comprise a third of all solitary fibrous tumours. The extrathoracic location was identified as an adverse prognostic factor for local recurrence but not for metastatic disease. So far, there have not been any reports of solitary fibrous tumours demonstrating caval infiltration. We present a case of a benign ESFT infiltrating into the perirenal inferior vena cava. Together with extrauterine leiomyomas, ESFTs should also be considered as a differential diagnosis for the rare benign lesions invading the inferior vena cava.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609957858
PMCID: PMC4132517  PMID: 23676804
Inferior vena cava; Solitary fibrous tumour; Retroperitoneal neoplasm
21.  Novel xylan-controlled delivery of therapeutic proteins to inflamed colon by the human anaerobic commensal bacterium 
Introduction
Growth factors such as keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) are important immunoregulatory and epithelial growth factors. They are also potential therapeutic proteins for inflammatory bowel disease. However, owing to protein instability in the upper gastrointestinal tract, it is difficult to achieve therapeutic levels of these proteins in the injured colon when given orally. Furthermore, the short half-life necessitates repeated dosage with large amounts of the growth factor, which may have dangerous side effects, hence the importance of temporal and spatial control of growth factor delivery.
Methods
The human commensal gut bacterium, Bacteroides ovatus, was genetically engineered to produce human KGF-2 or TGF-β 1 (BO-KGF or BO-TGF) in a regulated manner in response to the dietary polysaccharide, xylan. The successful application of BO-KGF or BO-TGF in the prevention of dextran sodium sulphate induced murine colitis is presented here.
Results
This novel drug delivery system had a significant prophylactic effect, limiting the development of intestinal inflammation both clinically and histopathologically. The ability to regulate heterologous protein production by B ovatus using xylan is both unique and an important safety feature of this drug delivery system.
Conclusions
The use of genetically engineered B ovatus for the controlled and localised delivery of epithelial growth promoting and immunomodulatory proteins has potential clinical applications for the treatment of various diseases targeting the colon.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609958217
PMCID: PMC4132495  PMID: 23676805
Bacteroides ovatus; Xylan; Inflammatory bowel disease
22.  Complications following hemiarthroplasty for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in the absence of routine follow-up 
Introduction
Hemiarthroplasty is the most commonly performed surgery for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures. At present, it is not routine practice to follow up these patients despite the risk of all the complications associated with arthroplasty. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and nature of complications occurring following hemiarthroplasty that re-presented to this centre in the absence of routine postoperative follow-up.
Methods
Consecutive patients undergoing uncemented hip hemiarthroplasty for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures at a district general hospital between 2004 and 2009 were identified. Data were collected from the hospital database on all complications relating to the index procedure, further surgery performed and mortality.
Results
There were 490 hemiarthroplasties performed in 477 patients (mean age: 80 years, 75% female). Of these, 110 (22%) were referred postoperatively for specialist orthopaedic review. The prevalence of any complication following hemiarthroplasty was 12% (n=59) and the prevalence of hemiarthroplasty failure was 8% (n=40). The most common indications for failure were periprosthetic fracture (28%), aseptic femoral loosening (25%) and unexplained pain (25%). Persistent hip pain and poor mobility accounted for most complications not requiring further surgery (n=15). The mortality rate within 30 days and 1 year of hemiarthroplasty was 6% (n=31) and 29% (n=146) respectively.
Conclusions
In the absence of routine follow-up, complications were encountered frequently in patients undergoing hip hemiarthroplasty, with most requiring further surgery. Appropriate services should be implemented to allow timely referral for orthopaedic assessment, and enable the early identification and treatment of postoperative complications.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609958334
PMCID: PMC4132502  PMID: 23676812
Complications; Hemiarthroplasty; Failure; Femoral neck fracture; Follow-up; Mortality
23.  Topical steroids for chronic wounds displaying abnormal inflammation 
Introduction
Chronic, non-healing wounds are often characterised by an excessive, and detrimental, inflammatory response. We review our experience of using a combined topical steroid, antibiotic and antifungal preparation in the treatment of chronic wounds displaying abnormal and excessive inflammation.
Methods
A retrospective review was undertaken of all patients being treated with a topical preparation containing a steroid (clobetasone butyrate 0.05%), antibiotic and antifungal at a tertiary wound healing centre over a ten-year period. Patients were selected as the primary treating physician felt the wounds were displaying excessive inflammation. Healing rates were calculated for before and during this treatment period for each patient. Changes in symptom burden (pain, odour and exudate levels) following topical application were also calculated.
Results
Overall, 34 ulcers were identified from 25 individual patients (mean age: 65 years, range: 37–97 years) and 331 clinic visits were analysed, spanning a total time of 14,670 days (7,721 days ‘before treatment’ time, 6,949 days ‘during treatment’ time). Following treatment, 24 ulcers demonstrated faster rates of healing, 3 ulcers showed no significant change in healing rates and 7 were healing more slowly (p=0.0006). Treatment generally reduced the burden of pain and exudate, without affecting odour.
Conclusions
In normal wound healing, inflammation represents a transient but essential phase of tissue repair. In selected cases, direct application of a steroid containing agent has been shown to improve healing rates, presumably by curtailing this phase. Further evaluation is required to establish the role of preparations containing topical steroids without antimicrobials in the management of chronic wounds.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13629960045634
PMCID: PMC4132506  PMID: 23676816
Chronic wounds; Inflammation; Topical steroids; Wound healing
24.  Peri-operative antithrombotic therapy: bridging the gap 
doi:10.1308/003588412X13171221590854
PMCID: PMC3705223  PMID: 22507714
25.  Retrievable inferior vena cava filter use in major trauma 
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a devastating complication among trauma patients. However, conventional VTE prophylaxis is often contraindicated in major trauma patients due to concurrent injuries. This article discusses the use of retrievable inferior vena cava filters as a method for VTE prophylaxis in major trauma patients.
doi:10.1308/003588412X13171221500989
PMCID: PMC3705224  PMID: 22507715
Vena cava filters; Venous thromboembolism; Pulmonary embolism

Results 1-25 (10665)