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1.  Phytoestrogens and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies 
Background
Epidemiologic studies have reported various results relating phytoestrogens to prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive meta-analysis on the extent of the possible association between phytoestrogens (including consumption and serum concentration) and the risk of PCa.
Methods
Eligible studies were retrieved via both computer searches and review of references. The summary relative risk ratio (RR) or odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated with random effects models.
Results
A total of 11 studies (2 cohort and 9 case–control studies) on phytoestrogen intake and 8 studies on serum concentration were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) showed a significant influence of the highest phytoestrogens consumption (OR 0.80, 95 % CI 0.70–0.91) and serum concentration (OR 0.83, 95 % CI 0.70–0.99) on the risk of PCa. In stratified analysis, high genistein and daidzein intake and increased serum concentration of enterolactone were associated with a significant reduced risk of PCa. However, no significant associations were observed for isoflavone intake, lignans intake, or serum concentrations of genistein, daidzein, or equol.
Conclusions
The overall current literature suggests that phytoestrogen intake is associated with a decreased risk of PCa, especially genistein and daidzein intake. Increased serum concentration of enterolactone was also associated with a significant reduced risk of PCa. Further efforts should be made to clarify the underlying biological mechanisms.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0648-9
PMCID: PMC4521376  PMID: 26228387
Phytoestrogens; Prostate cancer; Meta-analysis; Observational studies; Serum concentration
2.  Pituitary adenoma apoplexy caused by rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm: case report and literature review 
Background
Pituitary adenoma combined with intracranial aneurysm is not rare. Some aneurysms are located inside pituitary adenomas, and most do not rupture. Pituitary apoplexy caused by aneurysm rupture is rare and is easily misdiagnosed as simple pituitary adenoma apoplexy.
Case presentation
In this study, we report one case of rare pituitary adenoma apoplexy caused by the rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The patient was a 49-year-old male who had an untreated pituitary adenoma for 3 years. The patient experienced a sudden headache; computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed pituitary adenoma apoplexy and significant subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cranial CT angiography (CTA) showed a communicating artery aneurysm. Supratentorial intracranial aneurysm clipping and pituitary adenoma resection were performed. The aneurysm was a ruptured aneurysm located inside the pituitary adenoma. During the surgery, the aneurysm was clipped, and the majority of the tumor was resected. The patient recovered well after the surgery and received radiotherapy.
Conclusions
This rare case demonstrates that when pituitary adenoma apoplexy is combined with subarachnoid hemorrhage, the possibility of a combined intrasellar aneurysm should be considered. During transsphenoidal tumor resection, aneurysm rupture should be avoided to prevent disastrous consequences.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0653-z
PMCID: PMC4518590  PMID: 26220796
3.  Predictors and patterns of recurrence after curative liver resection in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, for application of postoperative radiotherapy: a retrospective study 
Background
The majority of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) who undergo complete tumor resection subsequently develop tumor recurrence. The objectives of this study were to determine the risk factors for IHCC recurrence after curative (R0) liver resection and to identify the feasibility about postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy (RT).
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent liver resection for IHCC between April 1995 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine risk factors of recurrence. Patients with a recurrence in remnant liver within 2 cm from the resection margin, with or without locoregional lymph node (LN) metastases, were considered as potential RT candidates. Center-of-mass (COM) distances between the recurrent cancers and the cut surface were measured with MATLAB.
Results
We included 153 out of 198 patients who underwent partial liver resection for IHCC. About two thirds (n = 93, 60.8 %) of patients developed recurrent disease. The median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 14 months (range, 0–204). Tumor size ≥4.0 cm, LN metastasis and multiple tumors were significant predictors of IHCC recurrence on multivariate analysis. Tumor size ≥5.0 cm was the only factor associated with recurrence beyond the RT field in patients with recurrence. Among 93 patients with recurrence, 16 (17.2 %) patients were recurred in the RT field.
Conclusion
After curative resection in IHCC, more than 60 % of patients recurred, and among recurred patients, 17.2 % were recurred within the RT field. Consequently, for control of locoregional recurrence, adjuvant RT could be carefully considered in patients with recurrence factors. Especially, patients with a tumor size larger than 5 cm should be judiciously selected for adjuvant RT.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0637-z
PMCID: PMC4517555  PMID: 26216347
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrence; Hepatectomy; Adjuvant radiotherapy
4.  The role of lymph nodes in predicting the prognosis of ampullary carcinoma after curative resection 
Background
Lymph node involvement is one of the well-demonstrated prognostic factors in ampullary carcinoma. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of lymph nodes in predicting the survival outcome of ampullary carcinoma.
Methods
A cohort of consecutive curative pancreaticoduodenectomies for ampullary carcinoma from 1999 to 2014 was retrospectively analyzed. The effect of node-associated variables, including lymph node status, positive lymph node number, total harvested lymph node (THLN) number, and lymph node ratio (LNR) was examined using univariate and multivariate analyses for survival outcome prediction.
Results
In 194 evaluable patients, univariate analysis demonstrated that stage, cell differentiation, perineural invasion, and nodal status were significant conventional prognostic factors. Concerning the node-associated variables, positive nodal status, positive lymph node number ≥2, THLN number <14, and LNR ≥0.15 were significantly associated with poorer survival outcomes, with a 5-year survival rate of 20.3, 38.9, 25.4, and 18 %, respectively. By multivariate analysis, nodal status and THLN number were two independent predictors of survival. The most favorable 5-year survival rate was 84.4 % in patients with negative nodal involvement and THLN number ≥14, compared with the poorest 5-year survival rate of 16.1 % in those with positive nodal status and THLN number <14.
Conclusions
Tumor biology reflected by lymph node status is the most important independent prognostic factor; nevertheless, surgical radicality based on THLN number also plays a significant role in the survival outcome for patients with ampullary carcinoma after curative pancreaticoduodenectomy.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0643-1
PMCID: PMC4513626  PMID: 26205252
Ampullary carcinoma; Lymph node; Prognosis; Total harvested lymph node number
5.  A case of mantle cell lymphoma presenting as IgG4-related dacryoadenitis and sialoadenitis, so-called Mikulicz’s disease 
Background
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a relatively uncommon type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It develops in the outer edge of a lymph node called the mantle zone. In contrast, IgG4-related dacryoadenitis and sialoadenitis (IgG4-DS) is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and persistent bilateral enlargement of lacrimal glands (LGs) and salivary glands (SGs), with infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells. Recent studies indicated the importance of differentiation between IgG4-DS and malignant lymphoma.
Case presentation
An 82-year-old man was suspected of IgG4-DS because of a high serum IgG level (2174 mg/dL) and bilateral swelling of LGs and SGs. Lip biopsy and fine needle biopsy of submandibular gland were performed, and subsequently, MCL was diagnosed through the histopathological findings.
Conclusions
MCL most commonly occurs in the Waldeyer ring, but rarely in the stomach, spleen, skin, LG, and SG. We report an unusual case of MCL involving LGs and SGs mimicking IgG4-DS, which suggests that IgG4 testing may be useful in the differentiation of IgG4-DS in the presence of bilateral swelling of LGs or SGs.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0644-0
PMCID: PMC4513633  PMID: 26205396
Mantle cell lymphoma; IgG4-related dacryoadenitis and sialoadenitis; Lacrimal glands; Salivary glands
6.  Two cases of pineal-region meningiomas derived from arachnoid membrane over the vein of Galen without dural attachment 
Background
We present two rare cases of pineal-region meningiomas. These tumors are the first reported cases of dura-unrelated meningiomas originating from the arachnoid membrane over the vein of Galen (AMG).
Case description
In Case 1, a 37-year-old woman presented with a progressing headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large tumor in the pineal region, displacing the vein of Galen upward. Angiography disclosed occlusion of the vein of Galen, with deep venous flow draining through the veins on the right medial surface of the occipital lobe to the superior sagittal sinus. In Case 2, a 67-year-old man presented with dizziness. MRI demonstrated a large mass in the pineal region, displacing the vein of Galen inferiorly. Angiography disclosed occlusion of the vein of Galen, with deep venous flow draining through the collateral venous channel into the transverse sinus. Both tumors were totally excised (Simpson Grade III for Case 1, Grade I for Case 2) via a left occipital transtentorial approach. No dural attachment was recognized in either case, but the tumor in Case 1 was firmly adherent to the inferior portion of the AMG, while that in Case 2 was attached to the superior portion of the AMG, but remained dissectible.
Conclusions
We reported two cases of pineal-region meningiomas originating from the arachnoid membrane over the vein of Galen, resulting in meningioma without dural attachment. These tumors can be totally resected by careful dissection of the tumor from the arachnoid membrane surrounding the vein of Galen.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0645-z
PMCID: PMC4513678  PMID: 26205525
Pineal-region meningioma; Arachnoid membrane over the vein of Galen; Occipital transtentorial approach; New entity of meningioma
7.  Insights into the clinical value of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in glioma: a retrospective study 
Background
Previous studies suggested that expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) may promote the migration and invasion of human glioma cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical value of CDK5 in different grades of glioma in relation to Ki-67 labeling index (LI).
Methods
We firstly assessed by immunohistochemistry the expression of CDK5 in 152 glioma tissues and 16 normal brain tissues and further explored the relationship between CDK5 expression and other clinical features.
Results
The positive ratio of CDK5 in gliomas (57.2 %) was higher than that in normal brain tissues (12.5 %, P = 0.001). Difference of CDK5 expression among four World Health Organization (WHO) grades was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The significant differences of CDK5 expression were also observed between WHO I glioma (34.8 %) and WHO III glioma (62.5 %), as well as WHO IV glioma (82.8 %; P = 0.026, P < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, Spearman’s rank correlation confirmed that CDK5 was positively correlated with the pathological grade of glioma (r = 0.831, P < 0.001). The CDK5 expression was also positively correlated with Ki-67 LI (r = 0.347, P < 0.001).
Conclusions
The current result suggests that CDK5 may play an essential role in the tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of gliomas.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0629-z
PMCID: PMC4513965  PMID: 26205145
CDK5; Glioma; Immunohistochemistry; Clinical features
8.  Pseudomyxoma peritonei extending to the lower extremity: a case report 
Pseudomyxoma peritonei is characterized by mucinous ascites originating from a mucin-producing neoplasm; however, even the definition is still under debate. Tumor deposits extend and ultimately engulf the entire cavity, causing death from cachexia due to limited intestinal movement. Here, we report a unique case of an 80-year-old woman with pseudomyxoma peritonei, which extended to the lower extremity mimicking infectious condition. The patient survived for a long time without bowel obstruction despite having the histologic subtype that has an unfavorable prognosis. The extremity lesion was treated with limited extensive surgery. The origin of the disease and the mechanism of extension to the extremity could not be clarified. Clinicians should be aware of the original disease entity and this unusual presentation and determine its mechanism and the best management strategy.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0639-x
PMCID: PMC4506576  PMID: 26187269
Pseudomyxoma peritonei; Lower extremity; Diagnosis; Therapeutics; Prognosis
9.  Breast cancer survival experiences at a tertiary hospital in sub-Saharan Africa: a cohort study 
Background
Cancer of the breast is a major health burden and the most common cancer among women worldwide. Though its incidence is fourfold greater in high-income countries, in sharp contrast, mortality rates are greatest among the low-income countries. Early detection linked to appropriate treatment is the most effective strategy to improve survival. The purpose of this study therefore was to establish the survival experiences of women with breast cancer at a Ugandan hospital.
Methods
This study is an observational analytical study. It involved 262 women during the periods 2004 to 2007 and 2010 to 2012. Kaplan Meier method and Cox regression were used to calculate breast cancer mortality and cumulative survival experiences.
Results
Sixty-three out of 262 (23 %) deaths were observed; mean age was 45 years, and 91 observations ended on or before follow-up. Luminal B median survival was months. The 5-year cumulative survival was 51.8 %. There were no stage I and II deaths. There were no differences in survival by phenotype adjusted for age, but there were differences for stage IV (p = 0.05).
Conclusions
The cumulative 5-year survival was 51.8 %. The burden of advanced disease and associated mortality were high, and a significant number of patients were lost to follow-up after their first contact.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0632-4
PMCID: PMC4506617  PMID: 26187151
Breast cancer; Survival; Low-income country; Uganda
10.  The over-the-scope clipping system for treatment of chronic coloenteric fistula: a case report 
Anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery is not very unusual. The over-the-scope clipping (OTSC) system (Ovesco), which was originally developed to treat intestinal perforation and was tested with animals, might be the choice for the patient. We presented the case of a 63-year-old man with chronic coloenteric fistula. Conservative treatment was unsuccessful. The orifice was then closed with two subsequent clips, and the patient recovered well. To our knowledge, this is the first successful case of coloenteric fistula treatment with Ovesco.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0628-0
PMCID: PMC4514455  PMID: 26183216
Over-the-scope clipping; Colorectal cancer; Colorectal fistula; Ovesco
11.  Postoperative photodynamic therapy as a new adjuvant treatment after robot-assisted salvage surgery of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue 
Background
For patients who remain with involved resection margins after transoral robot-assisted salvage surgery (TORS) for recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at the base of tongue (BOT) following primary (chemo)radiotherapy, further adjuvant treatment options are very limited. We want to report on our preliminary experience with a new adjuvant strategy using postoperative temoporfin-mediated photodynamic therapy for this indication.
Methods
Two patients with recurrent SCC after primary (chemo)radiotherapy of the BOT were treated with TORS, but unfortunately remained with involved resection margins on the postoperative pathology report. If left without additional treatment, these patients are prone to further recurrence. Temoporfin-mediated photodynamic therapy was used as a new adjuvant approach to treat the remaining microscopic disease at the resection margins.
Results
Good oncological and functional results were obtained in these patients, now treated for a recurrence, after a preceding full course of radiotherapy. Both are disease free at 42 and 24 months of follow-up and are able to speak, breathe, and eat normally.
Conclusions
In selected patients that have undergone salvage surgery with positive resection margins, postoperative temoporfin-mediated photodynamic therapy can result in a good oncological and functional outcome.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0630-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0630-6
PMCID: PMC4503294  PMID: 26179387
Oropharyngeal cancer; Photodynamic therapy; Transoral robotic surgery; Salvage surgery; Chemoradiation
12.  Tongue cancer with mental retardation due to microcephaly: a clinical report 
Oral cancer in patients with mental retardation has not been reported in detail, although the literature on clinical management of oral malignancies in the general population is extensive. No clear consensus has been established regarding the management of oral cancer in patients with mental retardation. We present herein the case of a 32-year-old Japanese man with mental retardation due to microcephaly who presented with advanced tongue cancer. He was treated with three courses of chemotherapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion of cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 via the femoral artery (Seldinger method). No major complications were encountered, and complete response was achieved. The patient has shown no clinical or radiological evidence of local recurrence or distant metastases as of 22 months after the end of treatment. This case provides a basis for the future appropriate management of oral cancer in patients with mental retardation.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0634-2
PMCID: PMC4504062  PMID: 26179630
Tongue cancer; Mental retardation
13.  Preoperatively diagnosed ductal cancers in situ of the breast presenting as even small masses are of high risk for the invasive cancer foci in postoperative specimen 
Background
In ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast (DCIS), histologic diagnosis obtained before the definitive treatment is related to the risk of underestimation if the presence of invasive cancer is found postoperatively. These patients need a second operation to assess the nodal status. We evaluated the upstaging rate in patients with mass-forming DCIS.
Methods
Sixty-three women with pure DCIS presenting as sonographic mass lesion underwent vacuum-assisted or core-needle biopsy and subsequent surgery. Rates of postoperative upstaging to invasive cancer were calculated and compared with clinical character and size of DCIS.
Results
Median age of patients (range) was 63 years (27–88) while median diameter of DCIS was 11 mm (6–60). Fifty-six percent of DCIS were upstaged. Patient age did not differ significantly between groups with and without final invasion (median, mean, SD): 63, 61.4, 12.5 vs 62, 61.2, 10.6 years, respectively (P = 0.659). The difference of DCIS size between these groups was statistically important (median, mean, SD): 13, 17.3, 11.4 vs 9.5, 9.8, 3.2 mm, respectively (P = 0.0003). Mass size and palpability were significant risk factors (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). Rate of underestimation for mass with diameter ≤10 mm, 10–20 mm and >20 mm was 37, 64 and 91 %, respectively.
Conclusions
DCIS diagnosed on minimal-invasive biopsy of even small sonographic mass is of high risk for the upstaging to invasive cancer after final surgical excision. In these patients, subsequent intervention is needed for nodal status assessment. They are good candidates for the sentinel node biopsy during the breast operation to avoid multi-step surgery.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0641-3
PMCID: PMC4504096  PMID: 26179898
Breast cancer; Ductal carcinoma in situ; Core-needle biopsy; Vacuum-assisted biopsy
14.  Comparison of the 6th and 7th editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system for gastric cancer focusing on the “N” parameter-related survival: the monoinstitutional NodUs Italian study 
Background
A large number of Asian population studies examined the difference between the 6th and the 7th tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) while it is still poorly validated among Caucasian populations. This is a retrospective study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the 7th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) staging system for gastric cancer focusing on the “N” parameter-related survival for prognostic assessment in gastric cancer patients of a single Western high-volume institution.
Methods
From January 2002 to December 2009, the data of 274 patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastric surgery at the 8th General and Gastrointestinal Surgical Centre of the Second University of Naples were analyzed retrospectively. We collected data for patient demographics, tumor characteristics, surgical characteristics, and TNM stage. Particularly, the nodal status, with the number of dissected nodes and metastatic nodes, was reviewed from the pathology records. The same patient dataset was used to stage patients according to both the 6th and 7th edition criteria.
Results
Age at surgery, tumor location, histological grade, Lauren’s classification subtypes, and 6th and 7th AJCC/UICC N categories were found to have statistically significant associations with overall survival on univariate analysis. In the 6th edition staging system, the Kaplan–Meier plot did not show significant overlapped survival curves: significant differences were found between N0 and N1, P < .001; N1 and N2, P = .04; and N2 and N3, P < .001. On the contrary, in the 7th edition, among all five substages, there were similar survival curves between N categories 2 and 3a (P = .98) with a statistically significant discriminatory ability only between N1 versus N3b and N2 versus N3b (P = .02 and .04, respectively).
Conclusions
Based on analysis, we found that several clinicopathological variables, especially histological grade and Lauren’s classification, were significant prognostic factors in our database. The 6th and 7th AJCC/UICC N classifications represent significantly independent prognostic factors, and the 6th AJCC/UICC N classification seems to be superior to the 7th AJCC/UICC N classification in terms of uniformity, differentiation, and monotonicity of gradients.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0633-3
PMCID: PMC4504099  PMID: 26179492
Gastric cancer; Staging system; Lymph node status; 7th TNM; 6th TNM
15.  SUVmax of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules according to tumor volume 
Background
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) measured on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) could be used as the primary means of differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules when tumor volume is assessed.
Methods
We studied 192 patients who underwent preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT followed by thyroidectomy. We evaluated the correlation between the volume of thyroid nodules, 18F-FDG uptake on visual analysis, and the mean SUVmax measured on 18F-FDG PET/CT.
Results
When stratified by tumor volume, the mean SUVmax was higher in malignant than in benign nodules in nodules ≥1 cm3 (p < 0.001). However, it did not differ between benign and malignant nodules smaller than 1 cm3. At a cut-off value of SUVmax of 6, the respective sensitivities of 18F-FDG PET/CT, ultrasonography, and fine needle aspiration cytology were 60.8, 96.4, and 99.1 %, and the respective specificities were 95.9, 98.2, and 96.8 %.
Conclusions
18F-FDG PET/CT is limited as a primary modality in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules because of its low sensitivity.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0635-1
PMCID: PMC4504214  PMID: 26179774
18F-FDG PET/CT; Thyroid nodule; Thyroid cancer; Differential diagnosis; SUVmax
16.  Mucinous adenocarcinoma emerging in sigmoid colon neovagina 40 years after its creation: a case report 
Background
We reported our experience of adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon neovagina.
Case presentation
A 67-year-old female with a history of neovagina construction for Rokitansky syndrome complained of vaginal bleeding. She had a mucinous adenocarcinoma at the anterior aspect of the neovagina. Her original surgery, using sigmoid colon to construct the artificial vagina, was 40 years ago
Conclusions
This patient’s case may contribute to our understanding of carcinogenesis in the colon.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0636-0
PMCID: PMC4498509  PMID: 26159897
Colon cancer; Neovagina; Surgery
17.  Gastrectomy in comprehensive treatment of advanced gastric cancer with synchronous liver metastasis: a prospectively comparative study 
Background
Systemic chemotherapy is the key treatment for advanced gastric cancer. The benefit of adjuvant surgery following preoperative chemotherapy in gastric cancer with liver metastasis has not been well established.
Methods
Forty-nine gastric cancer patients diagnosed with synchronous liver metastasis initially treated with chemotherapy were categorized into the following two groups: surgery group: 25 patients who underwent gastrectomy and subsequently received postoperative chemotherapy and control group: 24 patients who received chemotherapy alone.
Results
The median overall survival of patients in the surgery group and control group was 20.5 and 9.1 months, respectively, (P = 0.006). The median progression-free survival in the surgery group was 10.9 months, with statistical significance when compared with 5.0 months in the control group (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that response to chemotherapy was the only independent factor in predicting prognosis. The survival of patients who achieved partial response (PR) was prolonged if they received adjuvant surgery (P = 0.024). No significant difference in the survival of patients underwent combined hepatic resection when compared with patients performed gastrectomy only.
Conclusions
For gastric cancer with synchronous liver metastasis, adjuvant gastrectomy followed by chemotherapy might be beneficial for survival comparing with chemotherapy alone, especially in patients response to initial preoperative chemotherapy.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0627-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0627-1
PMCID: PMC4491213  PMID: 26126412
Advanced gastric cancer; Liver metastasis; Adjuvant gastrectomy; Hepatic resection
18.  Non-attendance in mammography screening and women’s social network: a cohort study on the influence of family composition, social support, attitudes and cancer in close relations 
Background
Mammography screening can reduce breast cancer mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate non-attendance in mammography screening in relation to different aspects of a women’s social network, attitudes and cancer in close relations.
Methods
Data from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study baseline examination in 1991–1996 was used. A re-examination began in 2007, and 1452 women participated. Family composition, social support, sense of belonging, attitudes on screening and breast cancer risk and on previous cancer in close relations were investigated in relation to self-reported participation in mammography screening using logistic regression analysis, yielding odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals.
Results
Both attendees (98.0 %) and non-attendees (95.2 %) considered mammography screening important. Non-attendance in mammography screening was associated with being unmarried vs. married (2.40:1.30–4.45) and with not having vs. having children (1.77:1.08–2.92). Non-attendees planned to abstain from mammography screening in the future more often than attendees (4.78:2.56–8.90), and they had often abstained from cervical cancer screening (1.69:1.04–2.75). No other statistically significant association was found.
Conclusions
This study indicates that family composition, but not necessarily the presence or absence of social support, perceived cancer risk or cancer in close relations, may affect non-attendance in mammography screening. A positive attitude towards mammography screening was found among both attendees and non-attendees, although the latter group planned to a lesser degree to attend mammography screening in the future.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0623-5
PMCID: PMC4493807  PMID: 26130129
Attendance; Breast cancer; Family composition; Health attitudes; Mammography screening; Non-attendance; Social network
19.  Potential risk of residual cancer cells in the surgical treatment of initially unresectable pancreatic carcinoma after chemoradiotherapy 
Background
With development of chemoradiotherapy for pancreatic carcinoma, borderline resectable or initially unresectable cases sometimes become operable after long-term intensive chemoradiotherapy. However, there is no established strategy for adjuvant surgery with respect to whether the surgical resection should be extensive or downsized accordingly with diminished disease areas following response to chemoradiotherapy.
Methods
The clinical and pathological aspects of 18 patients with initially unresectable pancreatic cancer who underwent adjuvant surgery after chemo(radio)therapy in our department from 2007 were evaluated.
Results
Overall survival from initial treatment was much better for patients with R0 resection than for patients with R1/2 resection. In two of three patients who had complete improvement of plexus (PL) invasion after chemo(radio)therapy, there had still remained pathological plexus invasion. It was shown that tumors did not shrink continuously from the tumor front, but parts remained discontinuously at the distal portion in the process of tumor regression by chemo(radio)therapy.
Conclusions
In adjuvant surgery for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer, the potential risk of residual cancer in the regression area following chemoradiotherapy should be considered. Achieving R0 resection will lead to an improved prognosis, and it is necessary to consider how well the extent of resection is after a favorable response to chemoradiotherapy.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0617-3
PMCID: PMC4482054  PMID: 26113164
Initially unresectable pancreatic carcinoma; Chemoradiotherapy; Adjuvant surgery
20.  Effects of sex hormones on survival of peritoneal mesothelioma 
Background
Previous studies have suggested the presence of steroid receptors as a favourable prognostic factor in peritoneal mesothelioma (PM). This study aims to investigate possible hormonal effects on survival of PM.
Methods
This is a retrospective study of prospectively collected data of 52 consecutive patients with PM who underwent cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) by the same surgical team at St George Hospital in Sydney, Australia, between April 1996 and April 2013. Females were arbitrarily divided into assumed premenopausal (<51 years old; n = 15) and assumed postmenopausal (≥51 years old, n = 9). In each gender group, patients were furthered divided into three age groups (<40, 40–60, >60). A significant statistical difference was defined as p < 0.05.
Results
Females with epithelial mesothelioma had a significantly higher survival than males (p = 0.023). They also had a better overall median survival (>60 months) than males (43 months), although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.098). Survival of postmenopausal females became similar to males after excluding benign cystic mesothelioma.
Conclusions
The better survival in premenopausal females could probably be explained by higher levels of oestradiol and progesterone. Also, our data suggests that higher rates of benign cystic mesothelioma in females was not the key reason for the better survival in female patients, further supporting the hypothesis of hormonal links with survival of PM. Therapeutic effects of sex steroid hormones on PM may be a valuable area to explore.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0624-4
PMCID: PMC4491202  PMID: 26111523
Peritoneal mesothelioma; Hormone; Female; Survival
21.  Prognostic role of hormone receptors in endometrial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
Background
The aim of this study was to summarize the global predicting role of hormone receptors for survival in endometrial cancer.
Methods
Eligible studies were identified and assessed for quality through multiple search strategies. Data were collected from studies comparing overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), or progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with elevated levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) with those in patients with lower levels. The combined hazard ratios of ER, PR, and HER2 for survival were calculated.
Results
A total of 98 studies were included for meta-analysis (44 for ER, 38 for PR, and 16 for HER2). Higher levels of either ER or PR could significantly indicate better survival. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of ER for OS, CSS, and PFS were 0.75 (95 % CI, 0.68–0.83), 0.45 (95 % CI, 0.33–0.62), and 0.66 (95 % CI, 0.52–0.85), respectively. The combined HRs of PR for OS, CSS, and PFS reached 0.63 (95 % CI, 0.56–0.71), 0.62 (95 % CI, 0.42–0.93), and 0.45 (95 % CI, 0.30–0.68), respectively. In contrast, elevated levels of HER2 could predict worse outcome with a HR of 1.98 (95 % CI, 1.49–2.62) for OS, and a HR of 2.26 (95 % CI, 1.57–3.25) for PFS.
Conclusions
In patients with endometrial cancer, higher level of ER and PR predicted favorable survival, and increased level of HER2 was associated with poorer survival. All of the three hormone receptors had prognostic value for survival.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0619-1
PMCID: PMC4511445  PMID: 26108802
Endometrial cancer; Estrogen receptor; Progesterone receptor; Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; Prognosis
22.  Prognostic and clinical significance of claudin-4 in gastric cancer: a meta-analysis 
Background
The current reports on the association of claudin-4 expression with gastric cancer outcome were inconsistent. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association of claudin-4 expression with the prognosis and clinical parameters more precisely.
Methods
Systematic searches on PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library prior to December 2014 were performed. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) with its 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI) was used to assess the prognostic value of claudin-4 expression with gastric cancer patients, and the pooled odds ratio (OR) with its 95 %CI was used to assess the association with clinical parameters.
Results
Nine studies with a total of 1265 gastric cancer patients were included. Overall, the pooled results showed that over-expression of claudin-4 was associated with a poor survival in gastric cancer patients (HR: 2.01, 95 % CI: 1.62–2.50). Over-expression of claudin-4 was also associated with advanced stage (OR: 1.96, 95 % CI: 1.08–3.56) and lymphoid node metastasis (OR: 1.72, 95 % CI: 1.05–2.81) of gastric cancer patients. No significant publication bias was found among the studies (P > 0.05).
Conclusions
This meta-analysis shows that over-expression of claudin-4 is associated with progress of gastric cancer and poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0626-2
PMCID: PMC4481068  PMID: 26109060
Claudin-4; Gastric cancer; Prognosis; Meta-analysis
23.  Surgical resection of massive liposarcomas at the extremities: a 10-year experience in a referral musculoskeletal sarcoma unit 
Background
There is still no consensus regarding the management of patients with massive liposarcomas located in the extremities. Several discrepancies related to the aggressiveness of the surgery and the application of concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatments remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyse the clinicopathological characteristics, prognostic factors and outcomes of a series of patients with massive liposarcomas of the extremities who were treated at a referral hospital specializing in musculoskeletal oncology.
Methods
This was an observational, descriptive and retrospective case series covering 10 years of clinical practice. The records of 26 adults, 14 men and 12 women, with localized massive liposarcomas in the extremities were studied. The average age was 53 years. The patients were treated from January 2003 until January 2012. Wide surgical resections with limb-sparing surgeries were performed for most patients (96.2 %).
Results
The average tumour size was 15.1 ± 6.8 cm in the greatest dimension. Regarding the histological subtypes, there were 11 well-differentiated or atypical lipomatous tumours (42.3 %), 10 myxoid (38.5 %) and 5 (19.2 %) round cell and pleomorphic liposarcomas. Regarding the malignancy grades, 19 cases (73 %) were classified as low grade. Among these low-grade tumours predominated the well-differentiated subtype (57.9 %). Within high-grade tumours, the round cell and pleomorphic subtype was most frequent (57.1 %; p = 0.011). Radiotherapy was additionally applied to 12 patients (46.2 %) and adjuvant chemotherapy to 5 (19.3 %). Tumour recurrence was observed in only 2 cases (7.7 %). Only 1 of these cases developed lung metastatic dissemination.
Conclusions
Across the entire series, these massive tumours did not compromise the survival of the patients. The histologic subtype and the malignancy degree were closely related. Proper and early diagnosis and therapeutic management of these patients via the application of wide-margin surgical excision are essential to ensure long-term survival.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0622-6
PMCID: PMC4487991  PMID: 26108965
Liposarcoma; Massive tumour size; Soft tissue sarcomas; Wide surgical excision
24.  Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm in a transgender patient 
Background
Cystic pancreatic lesions are increasingly more frequent detected clinical entities. Mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) is a hormone-related pancreatic tumor (HRTP) with a strong predominance in young and middle-aged females.
Case presentation
Here, we present the case of a 31-year-old surgically transgendered female-to-male patient with a history of alcoholic pancreatitis, on chronic testosterone therapy. He was found to have a pancreatic MCN and underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy.
Conclusion
To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a transgender patient with a history of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and pancreatic MCN. We consider possible mechanisms for the pathogenesis to explain this patient’s neoplasm.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0620-8
PMCID: PMC4486435  PMID: 26104783
Pancreatic MCN; Transgender medicine; Hormone therapy
25.  Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: an underestimated major health problem 
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health problem among patients with cancer, its incidence in this particular population is widely increasing. Although VTE is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity in cancer patients, its severity is still underestimated by many oncologists. Thromboprophylaxis of VTE now considered as a standard of care is still not prescribed in many institutions; the appropriate treatment of an established VTE is not yet well known by many physicians and nurses in the cancer field. Patients are also not well informed about VTE and its consequences. Many studies and meta-analyses have addressed this question so have many guidelines that dedicated a whole chapter to clarify and expose different treatment strategies adapted to this particular population. There is a general belief that the prevention and treatment of VTE cannot be optimized without a complete awareness by oncologists and patients. The aim of this article is to make VTE a more clear and understood subject.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0592-8
PMCID: PMC4486121  PMID: 26092573
Venous thromboembolism; Cancer; Thromboprophylaxis; Anticoagulation

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