The discovery of clinically relevant cancer biomarkers using mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has proven difficult, primarily because of the enormous dynamic range of blood-derived protein concentrations and the fact that the 22 most abundant blood-derived proteins constitute approximately 99% of the total plasma protein mass. Immunodepletion of clinical body fluid specimens (e.g., serum/plasma) for the removal of highly abundant proteins is a reasonable and reproducible solution. Often overlooked, clinical tissue specimens also contain a formidable amount of highly abundant blood-derived proteins present in tissue-embedded networks of blood/lymph capillaries and interstitial fluid. Hence, the dynamic range impediment to biomarker discovery remains a formidable obstacle, regardless of clinical sample type (solid tissue and/or body fluid). Thus, we optimized and applied simultaneous immunodepletion of blood-derived proteins from solid tissue and peripheral blood, using clear cell renal cell carcinoma as a model disease. Integrative analysis of data from this approach and genomic data obtained from the same type of tumor revealed concordant key pathways and protein targets germane to clear cell renal cell carcinoma. This includes the activation of the lipogenic pathway characterized by increased expression of adipophilin (PLIN2) along with 'cadherin switching', a phenomenon indicative of transcriptional reprogramming linked to renal epithelial dedifferentiation. We also applied immunodepletion of abundant blood-derived proteins to various tissue types (e.g., adipose tissue and breast tissue) showing unambiguously that the removal of abundant blood-derived proteins represents a powerful tool for the reproducible profiling of tissue proteomes. Herein, we show that the removal of abundant blood-derived proteins from solid tissue specimens is of equal importance to depletion of body fluids and recommend its routine use in the context of biological discovery and/or cancer biomarker research. Finally, this perspective presents the background, rationale and strategy for using tissue-directed high-resolution/accuracy MS-based shotgun proteomics to detect genuine tumor proteins in the peripheral blood of a patient diagnosed with nonmetastatic cancer, employing concurrent liquid chromatography–MS analysis of immunodepleted clinical tissue and blood specimens.
blood; cancer biomarker discovery; clinical proteomics; clinical specimens; high-resolution/accurate LC-MS; immunoaffinity depletion; tissue
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells have great potential for regenerative medicine. The efficiency in generation of iPS cells has been significantly improved in recent years. However, the generation of high-quality iPS cells remains of high interest. Consistently, we demonstrate that knockout serum replacement (KSR)-based medium accelerates iPS cell induction and improves the quality of iPS cells, as confirmed by generation of chimeras and all iPS cell-derived offspring with germline transmission competency. Both alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity assay and expression of Nanog have been used to evaluate the efficiency of iPS cell induction and formation of ES/iPS cell colonies; however, appropriate expression of Nanog frequently indicates the quality of ES/iPS cells. Interestingly, whereas foetal bovine serum (FBS)-based media increase iPS cell colony formation, as revealed by AP activity, KSR-based media increase the frequency of iPS cell colony formation with Nanog expression. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPK/ERK by a specific inhibitor, PD0325901, in KSR- but not in FBS-based media significantly increases Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. In contrast, addition of bFGF in KSR-based media decreases proportion of Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. Remarkably, PD can rescue Nanog-GFP+ deficiency caused by bFGF. These data suggest that MAPK/ERK pathway influences high quality mouse iPS cells and that KSR- and PD-based media could enrich homogeneous authentic pluripotent stem cells.
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generated using Yamanaka factors have great potential for use in autologous cell therapy. However, genomic abnormalities exist in human iPS cells, and most mouse iPS cells are not fully pluripotent, as evaluated by the tetraploid complementation assay (TCA); this is most likely associated with the DNA damage response (DDR) occurred in early reprogramming induced by Yamanaka factors. In contrast, nuclear transfer can faithfully reprogram somatic cells into embryonic stem (ES) cells that satisfy the TCA. We thus hypothesized that factors involved in oocyte-induced reprogramming may stabilize the somatic genome during reprogramming, and improve the quality of the resultant iPS cells. To test this hypothesis, we screened for factors that could decrease DDR signals during iPS cell induction. We determined that Zscan4, in combination with the Yamanaka factors, not only remarkably reduced the DDR but also markedly promoted the efficiency of iPS cell generation. The inclusion of Zscan4 stabilized the genomic DNA, resulting in p53 downregulation. Furthermore, Zscan4 also enhanced telomere lengthening as early as 3 days post-infection through a telomere recombination-based mechanism. As a result, iPS cells generated with addition of Zscan4 exhibited longer telomeres than classical iPS cells. Strikingly, more than 50% of iPS cell lines (11/19) produced via this “Zscan4 protocol” gave rise to live-borne all-iPS cell mice as determined by TCA, compared to 1/12 for lines produced using the classical Yamanaka factors. Our findings provide the first demonstration that maintaining genomic stability during reprogramming promotes the generation of high quality iPS cells.
somatic reprogramming; genomic stability; telomere; Zscan4; tetraploid complementation; iPS cells
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell cultures exhibit heterogeneity and recently are discovered to sporadically enter the 2-cell (2C)-embryo state, critical for ES potency. Zscan4 could mark the sporadic 2C-state of ES cells. However, factors that regulate the Zscan4+/2C state remain to be elucidated. We show that Tbx3 plays a novel role in regulation of Zscan4+/2C state. Tbx3 activates 2-cell genes including Zscan4 and Tcstv1/3, but not vise versa. Ectopic expression of Tbx3 results in telomere elongation, consistent with a role for Zscan4 in telomere lengthening. Mechanistically, Tbx3 decreases Dnmt3b and increases Tet2 protein levels, and reduces binding of Dnmt3b to subtelomeres, resulting in reduced DNA methylation and derepression of genes at subtelomeres, e.g. Zscan4. These data suggest that Tbx3 can activate Zscan4+/2C state by negative regulation of DNA methylation at repeated sequences, linking to telomere maintenance and self-renewal of ES cells.
Affinity purification of protein complexes followed by identification using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a robust method to study the fundamental process of protein interaction. While affinity isolation reduces the complexity of the sample, fractionation prior to LC-MS/MS analysis is still necessary to maximize protein coverage. In this study, we compared the protein coverage obtained via LC-MS/MS analysis of protein complexes pre-fractionated using two commonly employed methods, SDS-PAGE and strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX). The two complexes analyzed focused on the nuclear proteins Bmi-1 and GATA3 that were expressed within the cells at low and high levels, respectively. Pre-fractionation of the complexes at the peptide level using SCX consistently resulted in the identification of approximately 3-fold more proteins compared to separation at the protein level using SDS-PAGE. The increase in the number of identified proteins was especially pronounced for the Bmi-1 complex, where the target protein was expressed at a low level. The data shows that pre-fractionation of affinity isolated protein complexes using SCX prior to LC-MS/MS analysis significantly increases the number of identified proteins and individual protein coverage, particularly for target proteins expressed at low levels.
strong cation exchange; immuno-precipitation; protein complex isolation; mass spectrometry; FLAG
Rejuvenation of telomeres with various lengths has been found in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Mechanisms of telomere length regulation during induction and proliferation of iPSCs remain elusive. We show that telomere dynamics are variable in mouse iPSCs during reprogramming and passage, and suggest that these differences likely result from multiple potential factors, including the telomerase machinery, telomerase-independent mechanisms and clonal influences including reexpression of exogenous reprogramming factors. Using a genetic model of telomerase-deficient (Terc−/− and Terc+/−) cells for derivation and passages of iPSCs, we found that telomerase plays a critical role in reprogramming and self-renewal of iPSCs. Further, telomerase maintenance of telomeres is necessary for induction of true pluripotency while the alternative pathway of elongation and maintenance by recombination is also required, but not sufficient. Together, several aspects of telomere biology may account for the variable telomere dynamics in iPSCs. Notably, the mechanisms employed to maintain telomeres during iPSC reprogramming are very similar to those of embryonic stem cells. These findings may also relate to the cloning field where these mechanisms could be responsible for telomere heterogeneity after nuclear reprogramming by somatic cell nuclear transfer.
telomere; telomerase; recombination; iPSCs; reprogramming
Daily rhythms of mammalian physiology, metabolism, and behavior parallel the day-night cycle. They are orchestrated by a central circadian clock in the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Transcription of clock genes is sensitive to metabolic changes in reduction and oxidation (redox); however, circadian cycles in protein oxidation have been reported in anucleate cells, where no transcription occurs. We tested whether the SCN also expresses redox cycles and how such metabolic oscillations might affect neuronal physiology. We detected self-sustained circadian rhythms of SCN redox state that required the molecular clockwork. The redox oscillation could determine the excitability of SCN neurons through non-transcriptional modulation of multiple K+ channels. Thus, dynamic regulation of SCN excitability appears to be closely tied to metabolism that engages the clockwork machinery.
Differential 18O/16O stable isotope labeling of peptides that relies on enzyme-catalyzed oxygen exchange at their carboxyl termini in the presence of H218O has been widely used for relative quantitation of peptides/proteins. The role of tryptic proteolysis in bottom-up shotgun proteomics and low reagent costs, has made trypsin-catalyzed 18O post-digestion exchange a convenient and affordable stable isotope labeling approach. However, it is known that trypsin-catalyzed 18O exchange at the carboxyl terminus is in many instances inhomogeneous/incomplete. The extent of the 18O exchange/incorporation fluctuates from peptide to peptide mostly due to variable enzyme-substrate affinity. Thus, accurate calculation and interpretation of peptide ratios are analytically complicated and in some regard deficient. Therefore, a computational approach capable of improved measurement of actual 18O incorporation for each differentially labeled peptide pair is needed. In this regard, we have developed an algorithmic method that relies on the trapezoidal rule to integrate peak intensities of all detected isotopic species across a particular peptide ion over the retention time, which fits the isotopic manifold to Poisson distributions. Optimal values for manifold fitting were calculated and then 18O/16O ratios derived via evolutionary programming. The algorithm is tested using trypsin–catalyzed 18O post-digestion exchange to differentially label bovine serum albumin (BSA) at a priori determined ratios. Both, accuracy and precision are improved utilizing this rigorous mathematical approach. Utilizing this algorithmic technique, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method to accurately calculate 18O/16O ratios for differentially labeled BSA peptides, by accounting for artifacts caused by a variable degree of post-digestion 18O exchange. We further demonstrate the effectiveness of this method to accurately calculate 18O/16O ratios in a large scale proteomic quantitation of detergent resistant membrane microdomains (DRMMs) isolated from cells expressing wild-type HIV-1 Gag and its non myristylated mutant.
quantitation; 18O/16O stable isotope labeling; variable/incomplete 18O exchange
Telomerase and telomeres are important for indefinite replication of stem cells. Recently, telomeres of somatic cells were found to be reprogrammed to elongate in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The role of telomeres in developmental pluripotency in vivo of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or iPSCs, however, has not been directly addressed. We show that ESCs with long telomeres exhibit authentic developmental pluripotency, as evidenced by generation of complete ESC pups as well as germline-competent chimeras, the most stringent tests available in rodents. ESCs with short telomeres show reduced teratoma formation and chimera production, and fail to generate complete ESC pups. Telomere lengths are highly correlated (r > 0.8) with the developmental pluripotency of ESCs. Short telomeres decrease the proliferative rate or capacity of ESCs, alter the expression of genes related to telomere epigenetics, down-regulate genes important for embryogenesis and disrupt germ cell differentiation. Moreover, iPSCs with longer telomeres generate chimeras with higher efficiency than those with short telomeres. Our data show that functional telomeres are essential for the developmental pluripotency of ESCs/iPSCs and suggest that telomere length may provide a valuable marker to evaluate stem cell pluripotency, particularly when the stringent tests are not feasible.
telomere; telomerase; ESCs; iPSCs; pluripotency
It is well-established that 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) causes acute liver damage in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize oxidative modification and inactivation of cytosolic proteins in MDMA-exposed rats. Markedly increased levels of oxidized and nitrated cytosolic proteins were detected 12 h after the second administration of two consecutive MDMA doses (10 mg/kg each). Comparative two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis showed markedly increased levels of biotin-N-methylimide (biotin-NM)-labeled oxidized cytosolic proteins in MDMA-exposed rats compared to vehicle-treated rats. Proteins in the 22 gel spots of strong intensities were identified using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The oxidatively-modified proteins identified include antioxidant defensive enzymes, a calcium-binding protein, and proteins involved in metabolism of lipids, nitrogen, and carbohydrates (glycolysis). Cytosolic superoxide dismutase was oxidized and its activity significantly inhibited following MDMA exposure. Consistent with the oxidative inactivation of peroxiredoxin, MDMA activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase and p38 kinase. Since these protein kinases phosphorylate anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, their activation may promote apoptosis in MDMA-exposed tissues. Our results show for the first time that MDMA induces oxidative-modification of many cytosolic proteins accompanied with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, contributing to hepatic damage.
Cytosolic proteins; liver damage; MDMA; oxidative-modification; redox-based proteomics
Parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) have been generated in several mammalian species from parthenogenetic embryos that would otherwise die around mid-gestation. However, previous reports suggest that pESCs derived from in vivo ovulated (IVO) mature oocytes show limited pluripotency, as evidenced by low chimera production, high tissue preference and especially deficiency in germline competence, a critical test for genetic integrity and pluripotency of ESCs. Here, we report efficient generation of germline-competent pESC lines (named as IVM pESCs) from parthenogenetic embryos developed from immature oocytes of adult mouse ovaries following in vitro maturation (IVM) and artificial activation. In contrast, pESCs derived from IVO oocytes show defective germline competence, consistent with previous reports. Further, IVM pESCs resemble more ESCs from fertilized embryos (fESCs) than do IVO pESCs on genome-wide DNA methylation and global protein profiles. In addition, IVM pESCs express higher levels of Blimp1, Lin28 and Stella, relative to fESCs, and in their embryoid bodies following differentiation. This may indicate differences in differentiation potentially to the germline. The mechanisms for acquisition of pluripotency and germline competency of IVM pESCs from immature oocytes remain to be determined.
Described is a method that relies on subtractive tissue-directed shot-gun proteomics to identify tumor proteins in the blood of a patient newly diagnosed with cancer. To avoid analytical and statistical biases caused by physiologic variability of protein expression in the human population, this method was applied on clinical specimens obtained from a single patient diagnosed with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The proteomes extracted from tumor, normal adjacent tissue and pre-operative plasma were analyzed using 2D-LC-MS. The lists of identified proteins were filtered to discover proteins that i) were found in tumor but not normal tissue, ii) were identified in matching plasma, and iii) whose spectral count was higher in tumor tissue than plasma. These filtering criteria resulted in identification of eight tumor proteins in the blood. Subsequent Western-blot analysis confirmed the presence of cadherin-5, cadherin-11, DEAD-box protein-23, and pyruvate kinase) in the blood of the patient under the study, as well as in the blood of four other patients diagnosed with RCC. These results demonstrate the utility of a combined blood/tissue analysis strategy that permits the detection of tumor proteins in the blood of a patient diagnosed with RCC.
Proteomic profiling of membrane proteins is of vital importance in the search for disease biomarkers and drug development. However, the slow pace in this field has resulted mainly from the difficulty to analyze membrane proteins by mass spectrometry (MS). The objective of this investigation was to explore and optimize solubilization of membrane proteins for shotgun membrane proteomics of the CD14 human monocytes by examining different systems that rely on: i) an organic solvent (methanol) ii) an acid-labile detergent 3-[3-(1,1-bisalkyloxyethyl)pyridin-1-yl]propane-1-sulfonate) (PPS), iii) a combination of both agents (methanol + PPS). Solubilization efficiency of different buffers was first compared using bacteriorhodopsin as a model membrane protein. Selected approaches were then applied on a membrane subproteome isolated from a highly enriched human monocyte population that was ~98% positive for CD14 expression by FACS analysis. A methanol-based buffer yielded 194 proteins of which 93 (48%) were mapped as integral membrane proteins. The combination of methanol and acid-cleavable detergent gave similar results; 203 identified proteins of which 93 (46 %) were mapped integral membrane proteins. However, employing PPS a total of 216 proteins of which 75 (35 %) were mapped integral membrane proteins. These results indicate that methanol unaided or in combination with PPS yielded significantly higher membrane protein identification/enrichment than the PPS alone.
CD14 monocyte; Membrane proteins; Solubilization; Methanol; Detergents; LC-MS/MS
Nitric oxide (NO), an intercellular signaling molecule, helps coordinate neuronal network activity. Here we examine NO generation in the Aplysia central nervous system using 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2 DA), a fluorescent reagent that forms 4,5-diaminofluorescein triazole (DAF-2T) upon reaction with NO. Recognizing that other fluorescence products are formed within the biochemically complex intracellular environment, we validate the observed fluorescence as being from DAF-2T; using both capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry we confirm that DAF-2T is formed from tissues and cells exposed to DAF-2 DA. We observe three distinct subcellular distributions of fluorescence in neurons exposed to DAF-2 DA. The first shows uniform fluorescence inside the cell, with these cells being among previously confirmed NOS-positive regions in the Aplysia cerebral ganglion. The second, seen inside buccal neurons, exhibits point sources of fluorescence, 1.5 ± 0.7 µm in diameter. Interestingly, the number of fluorescence puncta increases when the tissue is preincubated with the NOS substrate L-arginine, and they disappear when cells are preexposed to the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, demonstrating that the fluorescence is connected to NOS-dependent NO production. The third distribution type, seen in the R2 neuron, also exhibits fluorescent puncta, but only on the cell surface. Fluorescence is also observed in the terminals of cultured bag cell neurons loaded with DAF-2 DA. Surprisingly, fluorescence at the R2 surface and bag cell neuron terminals is not modulated by L-arginine or L-NAME, suggesting it has a source distinct from the buccal and cerebral ganglion DAF 2T-positive tissues.
nitric oxide; nitric oxide synthase; fluorescence imaging; DAF-2 DA; Aplysia CNS; capillary electrophoresis
Nitric oxide (NO), an intercellular signaling molecule, helps coordinate neuronal network activity. Here we examine NO generation in the Aplysia californica central nervous system using 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2 DA), a fluorescent reagent that forms 4,5-diaminofluorescein triazole (DAF-2T) upon reaction with NO. Recognizing that other fluorescence products are formed within the biochemically complex intracellular environment, we validate the observed fluorescence as being from DAF-2T; using both capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry we confirm that DAF-2T is formed from tissues and cells exposed to DAF-2 DA. We observe three distinct subcellular distributions of fluorescence in neurons exposed to DAF-2 DA. The first shows uniform fluorescence inside the cell, with these cells being among previously confirmed NO synthase (NOS)-positive regions in the Aplysia cerebral ganglion. The second, seen inside buccal neurons, exhibits point sources of fluorescence, 1.5 ± 0.7 μm in diameter. Interestingly, the number of fluorescence puncta increases when the tissue is preincubated with the NOS substrate l-arginine, and they disappear when cells are preexposed to the NOS inhibitor l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), demonstrating that the fluorescence is connected to NOS-dependent NO production. The third distribution type, seen in the R2 neuron, also exhibits fluorescent puncta but only on the cell surface. Fluorescence is also observed in the terminals of cultured bag cell neurons loaded with DAF-2 DA. Surprisingly, fluorescence at the R2 surface and bag cell neuron terminals is not modulated by l-arginine or l-NAME, suggesting that it has a source distinct from the buccal and cerebral ganglion DAF 2T-positive tissues.
Nitric oxide; nitric oxide synthase; fluorescence imaging; DAF-2 DA; Aplysia CNS; capillary electrophoresis
Translocator protein (18-kDa, TSPO1), previously known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is an outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) protein necessary for cholesterol import and steroid production. We reconstituted the mitochondrial targeting and insertion of TSPO into the OMM to analyze the signals and mechanisms required for this process. Initial studies indicated a formation of a mitochondrial 66-kDa complex through Blue Native-PAGE analysis. The formation of this complex was found to be dependent on the presence of ATP and the cytosolic chaperone Hsp90. Through mutational analysis we identified two areas necessary for TSPO targeting, import, and function: amino acids 103−108 (Schellman motif), which provide the necessary structural orientation for import, and the cholesterol-binding C-terminus required for insertion. Although the Translocase of the Outer Mitochondria Membrane (TOM) complex proteins Tom22 and Tom40 were present in the OMM, the TOM complex did not interact with TSPO. In search of proteins involved in TSPO import, complexes known to interact with TSPO were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The 66-kDa complex formation was found to be dependent on an identified protein, Metaxin 1, for formation and TSPO import. TSPO import into steroidogenic cell mitochondria was increased following treatment of the cells with cAMP. These findings suggest that the initial targeting of TSPO to mitochondria is dependent upon the presence of cytosolic chaperones interacting with the import receptor Tom70. The C-terminus plays an important role in targeting TSPO to mitochondria whereas its import into the OMM is dependent upon the presence of the Schellman motif. Final integration of TSPO into the OMM occurs via its interaction with Metaxin 1. TSPO import into steroidogenic cell mitochondria is regulated by cAMP.
Translocator protein; mitochondria; cholesterol transport; TOM complex; Hsp90 chaperone; cAMP
A variety of stable isotope labeling techniques have been developed and used in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, primarily for relative quantitation of changes in protein abundances between two compared samples, but also for qualitative characterization of differentially labeled proteomes. Differential 16O/18O coding relies on the 18O exchange that takes place at the C-terminal carboxyl group of proteolytic fragments, where two 16O atoms are typically replaced by two 18O atoms by enzyme-catalyzed oxygen-exchange in the presence of H218O. The resulting mass shift between differentially labeled peptide ions permits identification, characterization and quantitation of proteins from which the peptides are proteolytically generated. This review focuses on the utility of 16O/18O labeling within the context of mass spectrometry-based proteome research. Different strategies employing 16O/18O are examined in the context of global comparative proteome profiling, targeted subcellular proteomics, analysis of post-translational modifications and biomarker discovery. Also discussed are analytical issues related to this technique, including variable 18O exchange along with advantages and disadvantages of 16O/18O labeling in comparison with other isotope-coding techniques.
18O labeling; enzyme-mediated isotope incorporation; stable isotope labeling; MS-based proteomics; relative protein quantitation; LC/MS/MS
The rapid rise and application of proteomic technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of proteins that have been discovered and presented as ‘potential’ biomarkers for specific diseases. Unfortunately, the number of biomarkers approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration has not risen in likewise manner. While there are a number of reasons for this discrepancy, this glut of ‘potential’ biomarkers also indicates the need for validation methods to confirm or refute their utility in clinical diagnostics. For this reason, the emphasis on developing methods to target and measure the absolute quantity of specific proteins and peptides in complex proteomic samples has grown.
mass spectrometry; biomarker validation; targeted proteomics; multiple-reaction monitoring; AQUA; SISCAPA
Despite numerous reports citing the acute hepatotoxicity caused by MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy), the underlying mechanism of organ damage is poorly understood. We hypothesized that key mitochondrial proteins are oxidatively-modified and inactivated in MDMA-exposed tissues. The aim of this study was to identify and investigate the mechanism of inactivation of oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins, prior to the extensive mitochondrial dysfunction and liver damage following MDMA exposure. MDMA-treated rats showed abnormal liver histology with significant elevation in plasma transaminases, nitric oxide synthase, and the level of hydrogen peroxide. Oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins in control and MDMA-exposed rats were labeled with biotin-N-maleimide (biotin-NM) as a sensitive probe for oxidized proteins, purified with streptavidin-agarose, and resolved using 2-DE. Comparative 2-DE analysis of biotin-NM-labeled proteins revealed markedly increased levels of oxidatively-modified proteins following MDMA exposure. Mass spectrometric analysis identified oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins involved in energy supply, fat metabolism, antioxidant defense, and chaperone activities. Among these, the activities of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolases, and ATP synthase were significantly inhibited following MDMA exposure. Our data show for the first time that MDMA causes the oxidative inactivation of key mitochondrial enzymes which most likely contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent liver damage in MDMA-exposed animals.
MDMA; oxidative stress; liver damage; protein oxidation; mitochondria
Spatial measurements of nitric oxide (NO) production are important to understand the function and metabolism of this molecule. The reagent, 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2) and several structurally similar probes are widely used for detection and imaging of NO. However, DAF-2 also reacts with dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) in biological samples, with both products having nearly indistinguishable fluorescence spectra. Measurements using fluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy cannot easily differentiate NO-related fluorescent signals from DHA-related signals. While DAFs and the structurally related diaminorhodamines (DARs) both react with NO and DHA, they do so to different extents. We report a multiderivatization method to image NO and DHA simultaneously by using both DAF and DAR. Specifically, DAF-2 and DAR-4M are used to image NO and DHA concentrations; after reaction, the solutions are excited, at 495 nm to measure fluorescence emission from DAF-2, and at 560 nm to measure fluorescence emission from DAR-4M. Using the appropriate calibrations, images are created that depend either on the relative NO or the relative DHA concentration, even though each probe reacts to both compounds. The method has been validated by imaging NO production in both undifferentiated and differentiated pheochromocytoma cells.
nitric oxide; dehydroascorbic acid; fluorescence imaging; DAF-2 DA; DAR-4M AM; PC12 cells