Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-5 (5)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  The effects of low-dose Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nepsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), two main glycation free adducts considered as potential uremic toxins, on endothelial progenitor cell function 
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Endothelial progenitor cell (EPCs) dysfunction plays a key role in this pathogenesis. Uremic retention toxins have been reported to be in associated with EPC dysfunction. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) free adducts, including Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nepsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), are formed by physiological proteolysis of AGEs and released into plasma for urinary excretion. They are retained in CKD patients and are considered to be potential uremic toxins. Though AGEs have been demonstrated to impair EPC function in various ways, the effect of AGE free adducts on EPC function has not been studied. Thus, we examined the role of CML and CEL in the regulation of growth-factor-dependent function in cultured human EPCs and the mechanisms by which they may affect EPC function.
Late outgrowth EPCs were incubated with different concentrations of CML or CEL for up to 72 hours. Cell proliferation was determined using WST-1 and BrdU assays. Cell apoptosis was tested with annexin V staining. Migration and tube formation assays were used to evaluate EPC function.
Though CML and CEL were determined to have anti-proliferative effects on EPCs, cells treated with concentrations of CML and CEL in the range found in CKD patients had no observable impairment on migration or tube formation. CML and CEL did not induce EPC apoptosis. The reduced growth response was accompanied by significantly less phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs).
Our study revealed that CML and CEL at uremic concentrations have low biological toxicity when separately tested. The biologic effects of AGE free adducts on the cardiovascular system merit further study.
PMCID: PMC3471041  PMID: 22853433
Endothelial progenitor cells; Mitogen-activated protein kinases; Nϵ-(carboxyethyl)lysine; Nϵ-(carboxymethyl)lysine; Uremic toxins
2.  Insulin resistance predicts progression of de novo atherosclerotic plaques in patients with coronary heart disease: a one-year follow-up study 
The aim of our study was to explore and evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance and progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. With the great burden coronary heart disease is imposing on individuals, healthcare professionals have already embarked on determining its potential modifiable risk factors in the light of preventive medicine. Insulin resistance has been generally recognized as a novel risk factor based on epidemiological studies; however, few researches have focused on its effect on coronary atherosclerotic plaque progression.
From June 7, 2007 to December 30, 2011, 366 patients received their index coronary angiogram and were subsequently found to have coronary atherosclerotic plaques or normal angiograms were consecutively enrolled in the study by the department of cardiology at the Ruijin Hospital, which is affiliated to the Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine. All patients had follow-up angiograms after the 1-year period for evaluating the progression of the coronary lesions. The modified Gensini score was adopted for assessing coronary lesions while the HOMA-IR method was utilized for determining the state of their insulin resistance. Baseline characteristics and laboratory test results were described and the binomial regression analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and coronary atherosclerotic plaque progression.
Index and follow-up Gensini scores were similar between the higher insulin lower insulin resistant groups (9.09 ± 14.33 vs 9.44 ± 12.88, p = 0.813 and 17.21 ± 18.46 vs 14.09 ± 14.18, p =0.358). However the Gensini score assessing coronary lesion progression between both visits was significantly elevated in the higher insulin resistant group (8.13 ± 11.83 versus 4.65 ± 7.58, p = 0.019). Multivariate logistic binomial regression analysis revealed that insulin resistance (HOMA-IR > 3.4583) was an independent predictor for coronary arterial plaque progression (OR = 4.969, p = 0.011). We also divided all the participants into a diabetic (n = 136) and a non-diabetic group (n = 230), and HOMA-IR remained an independent predictor for atherosclerosis plaque progression.
Insulin resistance is an independent predictor of atherosclerosis plaque progression in patients with coronary heart disease in both the diabetic and non-diabetic population.
PMCID: PMC3441242  PMID: 22709409
Coronary heart disease; Insulin resistance; Atherosclerosis plaque progression; In-stent restenosis; one-year follow-up; HOMA-IR
3.  Plasma concentrations of osteopontin, but not thrombin-cleaved osteopontin, are associated with the presence and severity of nephropathy and coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 
The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess possible associations between osteopontin (OPN), and thrombin-cleaved (N-half) OPN, and nephropathy and coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Plasma levels of OPN, N-half OPN, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were determined in 301 diabetic patients with (n = 226) or without (n = 75) angiographically documented CAD (luminal diameter narrowing >50%), as well as in 75 non-diabetic controls with normal angiography. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated in all patients.
Plasma levels of OPN and hsCRP were significantly higher in patients with T2DM compared with controls. In addition, there was a higher occurrence of moderate renal insufficiency and lower eGFR in patients with T2DM (all P < 0.01). T2DM patients in whom OPN levels were greater than the median value had higher serum creatinine levels, a greater prevalence of mild or moderate renal insufficiency, a higher incidence of CAD, and lower eGFR (all P < 0.05) than T2DM patients in whom OPN levels were the same as or lower than the median value. However, there were no differences in these parameters when patients were stratified according to plasma N-half OPN levels. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between OPN, but not N-half OPN, and the severity of nephropathy and CAD in diabetes. After adjustment for potential confounders and treatments, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated an independent association between OPN, but not N-half OPN, and eGFR. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that higher OPN levels conferred a fourfold greater risk of renal insufficiency and CAD in patients with T2DM.
The results of the present study demonstrate that there is an independent association between plasma levels of OPN, but not N-half OPN, and the presence and severity of nephropathy and CAD in diabetes.
PMCID: PMC2988001  PMID: 21034455
4.  Chromosome 9p21.3 polymorphism in a Chinese Han population is associated with angiographic coronary plaque progression in non-diabetic but not in type 2 diabetic patients 
We sought to explore the association of variant rs1333049 on chromosome 9p21.3 with coronary artery disease (CAD) and angiographic plaque progression in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients.
Genotyping and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) were performed in 2046 Chinese Han patients (1012 diabetic cases) undergoing coronary angiography; 430 of them received repeat angiographic studies at 1-year follow-up.
CC genotype at rs1333049 on chromosome 9p21.3 was associated with CAD (unadjusted OR 1.524, p = 0.001 and adjusted OR 1.859, p = 0.005, respectively). However, CC genotype had no magnified association with CAD in diabetic patients (OR 1.275, p = 0.150) compared with non-diabetic counterparts (OR 1.446, p = 0.020) after adjusting for conventional risk factors. During angiographic follow-up, non-diabetic patients (n = 280) had significant decrease in minimal lumen diameter and increase in percent diameter stenosis among the three genotypes (p = 0.005 and p = 0.038, respectively), demonstrating that CC or GC genotype carriers had a more severe plaque progression than GG genotype carriers. In patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 150), although plaque progression was more severe than that in non-diabetic counterparts, no relations existed between plaque progression and genotypes. Rs1333049 was an independent determinant of plaque progression for non-diabetic (OR 3.468, p = 0.004 and OR 4.339, p = 0.002 for GC and CC genotype, respectively) but not for diabetic patients (OR 0.529, p = 0.077 and 0R 0.878, p = 0.644 for GC and CC genotype, respectively).
This study demonstrates a significant association of homozygous CC genotype of rs1333049 on chromosome 9p21.3 with CAD in Chinese Han population. Rs1333049 polymorphism is an independent determinant for coronary plaque progression in non-diabetic but not in type 2 diabetic patients.
PMCID: PMC2924260  PMID: 20691078
5.  Neointimal hyperplasia persists at six months after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic porcine 
Observational clinical studies have shown that patients with diabetes have less favorable results after percutaneous coronary intervention compared with the non-diabetic counterparts, but its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the changes of neointimal hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation in a diabetic porcine model, and to evaluate the impact of aortic inflammation on this proliferative process.
Diabetic porcine model was created with an intravenous administration of a single dose of streptozotocin in 15 Chinese Guizhou minipigs (diabetic group); each of them received 2 SES (Firebird, Microport Co, China) implanted into 2 separated major epicardial coronary arteries. Fifteen non-diabetic minipigs with SES implantation served as controls (control group). At 6 months, the degree of neointimal hyperplasia was determined by repeat coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and histological examination. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α protein level in the aortic intima was evaluated by Western blotting, and TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels were assayed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction.
The distribution of stented vessels, diameter of reference vessels, and post-procedural minimal lumen diameter were comparable between the two groups. At 6-month follow-up, the degree of in-stent restenosis (40.4 ± 24.0% vs. 20.2 ± 17.7%, p < 0.05), late lumen loss (0.33 ± 0.19 mm vs. 0.10 ± 0.09 mm, p < 0.001) by quantitative angiography, percentage of intimal hyperplasia in the stented area (26.7 ± 19.2% vs. 7.3 ± 6.1%, p < 0.001) by IVUS, and neointimal area (1.59 ± 0.76 mm2 vs. 0.41 ± 0.18 mm2, p < 0.05) by histological examination were significantly exacerbated in the diabetic group than those in the controls. Significant increases in TNF-α protein and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels were observed in aortic intima in the diabetic group.
Neointimal hyperplasia persisted at least up to 6 months after SES implantation in diabetic porcine, which may be partly related to an exaggerated inflammatory response within the blood vessel wall. Our results provide theoretical support for potential direct beneficial effects of anti-diabetic and anti-inflammation medications in reducing the risk of restenosis after stenting.
PMCID: PMC1892541  PMID: 17550588

Results 1-5 (5)