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1.  Clinical and angiographic features associated with coronary collateralization in stable angina patients with chronic total occlusion 
Objective: Coronary collateral circulation is an alternative source of blood supply to myocardium in the presence of advanced coronary artery disease. We sought to determine which clinical and angiographic variables are associated with collateral development in patients with stable angina and chronic total coronary occlusion. Methods: Demographic variables, biochemical measurements, and angiographic findings were collected from 478 patients with stable angina and chronic total coronary occlusion. The presence and extent of collaterals supplying the distal aspect of a total coronary occlusion from the contra-lateral vessel were graded from 0 to 3 according to the Rentrop scoring system. Results: Low (Rentrop score of 0 or 1) and high (Rentrop score of 2 or 3) coronary collateralizations were detected in 186 and 292 patients, respectively. Despite similar age, cigarette smoking, and medical treatment, patients with low collateralization were female in a higher proportion and less hypertensive, and had higher rates of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia than those with high collateralization (for all comparisons, P<0.05). In addition, patients with low collateralization exhibited more single-vessel disease, less right coronary artery occlusion, more impaired renal function, and higher serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) compared with those with high collateralization. Multivariate analysis revealed that age of ≥65 years, female gender, diabetes, no history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, moderate to severe renal dysfunction, single-vessel disease, and elevated hsCRP levels were independently associated with low coronary collateralization. Conclusions: Coronary collateralization was reduced in almost 40% of stable angina patients with chronic total occlusion, which was related to clinical and angiographic factors. The impact of coronary collateralization on outcomes after revascularization needs further investigation.
doi:10.1631/jzus.BQICC704
PMCID: PMC3735970  PMID: 23897789
Stable angina; Coronary collateral circulation; Risk factors; Angiography; Chronic total coronary occlusion
2.  Increased blood glycohemoglobin A1c levels lead to overestimation of arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry in patients with type 2 diabetes 
Background
Non-enzymatic glycation increases hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and reduces oxygen delivery to tissues by altering the structure and function of hemoglobin.
Objectives
We investigated whether an elevated blood concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) could induce falsely high pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO2) in type 2 diabetic patients during mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy.
Methods
Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) were determined with simultaneous monitoring of SpO2 in 261 type 2 diabetic patients during ventilation or oxygen inhalation.
Results
Blood concentration of HbA1c was >7% in 114 patients and ≤ 7% in 147 patients. Both SaO2 (96.2 ± 2.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 95.7-96.7% vs. 95.1 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.7-95.6%) and SpO2 (98.0 ± 2.6%, 95% CI 97.6-98.5% vs. 95.3 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.9-95.8%) were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c >7% than in those with HbA1c ≤ 7% (Data are mean ± SD, all p < 0.01), but PO2 did not significantly differ between the two groups. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a significant bias between SpO2 and SaO2 (1.83 ±0.55%, 95% CI 1.73% -1.94%) and limits of agreement (0.76% and 2.92%) in patients with HbA1c >7%. The differences between SpO2 and SaO2 correlated closely with blood HbA1c levels (Pearson’s r = 0.307, p < 0.01).
Conclusions
Elevated blood HbA1c levels lead to an overestimation of SaO2 by SpO2, suggesting that arterial blood gas analysis may be needed for type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control during the treatment of hypoxemia.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-110
PMCID: PMC3489581  PMID: 22985301
Glycohemoglobin A1c; Diabetes mellitus; Arterial blood gas analysis; Pulse oxygen saturation
3.  Screening for significant atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis with a regression model in patients undergoing transradial coronary angiography/intervention 
Objective: Early detection of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is clinically important with respect to blood pressure control, prevention of renal insufficiency, and even improving survival. We investigated whether the presence of significant ARAS (luminal diameter narrowing ≥70%) could be predicted using a logistic regression model before coronary angiography/intervention. Methods: Initially, we developed a logistic regression model for detecting significant ARAS based upon clinical and angiographic features and biochemical measurements in a cohort of 1 813 patients undergoing transfemoral coronary and renal angiography. This model was then prospectively applied to an additional 495 patients who received transradial renal angiography to ascertain its predictive accuracy for the presence of significant ARAS. Results: Multivariate regression analysis revealed that older age (≥65 years), resistant hypertension, type 2 diabetes, creatinine clearance (Ccr) ≤60 ml/min, and multivessel coronary disease were independent predictors for significant ARAS. A logistic regression model for detecting ARAS by incorporating conventional risk factors and multivessel coronary disease was generated as: P/(1−P)=exp(−2.618+1.112[age≥65 years]+1.891[resistant hypertension]+0.453[type 2 diabetes]+0.587[Ccr≤60 ml/min]+2.254[multivessel coronary disease]). When this regression model was prospectively applied to the additional 495 patients undergoing transradial coronary and renal angiography, significant ARAS could be detected with a sensitivity of 81.2%, specificity of 88.9%, and positive and negative predictive accuracies of 53.8% and 96.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The logistic regression model generated in this study may be useful for screening for significant ARAS in patients undergoing transradial coronary angiography/intervention.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1201003
PMCID: PMC3411096  PMID: 22843183
Renal artery stenosis; Transradial coronary angiography; Resistant hypertension
4.  Value of serum glycated albumin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in the prediction of presence of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes 
Background
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major vascular complication of diabetes mellitus and reveals high mortality. Up to 30% of diabetic patients with myocardial ischemia remain asymptomatic and are associated with worse prognosis compared to non-diabetic counterpart, which warrants routine screening for CAD in diabetic population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of serum glycated albumin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in predicting the presence of CAD in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods
Three hundred and twenty-four patients with type 2 diabetes were divided into two groups based on presence (CAD group, n = 241) or absence (control group, n = 83) of angiographically-documented CAD (lumen diameter narrowing ≥70%). Serum levels of glycated albumin and hs-CRP as well as serum concentrations of glucose, lipids, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid were measured in both groups. Predictors of CAD were determined using multivariate logistic regression model and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
Results
Serum glycated albumin and hs-CRP levels were significantly increased in diabetic patients with CAD. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that male gender, age, serum levels of glycated albumin, hs-CRP, creatinine and lipoprotein (a) were independent predictors for CAD. Areas under the curve of glycated albumin and hs-CRP and for regression model were 0.654 (95%CI 0.579–0.730, P < 0.001), 0.721 (95%CI 0.658–0.785, P < 0.001) and 0.824 (95% CI 0.768–0.879, P < 0.001), respectively. The optimal values of cut-off point were 18.7% (sensitivity 67.9%, specificity 60.0%) for glycated albumin and 5.2 mg/l (sensitivity 72.2%, specificity 60.0%) for hs-CRP to predict CAD. Logistic regression model was defined as: P/(1-P) = EXP(-1.5 + 1.265 gender + 0.812 age + 1.24 glycated albumin + 0.953 hs-CRP + 0.902 lipoprotein(a) + 1.918 creatinine). The optimal probability value for predicting CAD in type 2 diabetic patients was 0.648 (sensitivity 82.3%, specificity 68.6%).
Conclusion
Serum glycated albumin and hs-CRP levels were significantly elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD. The logistic regression model incorporating with glycated albumin, hs-CRP and other major risk factors of atherosclerosis may be useful for screening CAD in patients with type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-5-27
PMCID: PMC1764721  PMID: 17178005

Results 1-4 (4)