Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease in China and case-fatality rate of SFTS is very high (approximately 10%). However, genetic susceptibility for SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection and fatal outcome of SFTSV infection in humans are unclear. In this study, we investigated the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological features of SFTS in a cluster of three sisters who died of SFTSV infection between late April and mid-May 2014. Before disease onset, two of the sisters (Case A and case B) had common exposure history for ticks by working together in a field to pick tea leaves from April 8 to April 12. The third sister (Case C) did not live or work together with case A and B, but had ticks in her living environment. SFTSV RNA sequences were amplified from three cases were not identical, suggesting that the three sisters were most likely infected with SFTSV through tick bite rather than through person-to-person transmission of SFTSV. The sequence of SFTSV from case C was identical to SFTSV sequences from 3 groups of ticks collected around the residential area of case C. Seroprevalence of SFTSV IgG antibody among healthy population in the area where the patients resided was 4.05% (3/74). The majority of SFTSV infections were mild cases and all three sisters died of SFTSV infection suggested that they were highly susceptible to SFTSV. Our findings indicated that genetic susceptibility was a risk factor for SFTSV infection and fatal outcome.
Aim: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays important roles in aging. However, the specific mechanisms for intracellular ROS accumulation, especially during aging, remain elusive. Results: We have reported that Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) phosphorylation abolishes the recruitment of phosphatase type 2A C subunit (PP2Ac) to protein kinase C (PKC)βII, which specifically regulates mitochondrial ROS generation by p66shc. Here, we have studied the role of FADD phosphorylation in an FADD constitutive-phosphorylation mutation (FADD-D) mouse model. In FADD-D mice, the constitutive FADD phosphorylation led to ROS accumulation (hydrogen peroxide [H2O2]), in a process that was dependent on PKCβ and accompanied by increased PKCβ and p66shc phosphorylation, impaired mitochondrial integrity, and enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, FADD-D mice exhibited premature aging-like phenotypes, including DNA damage, cellular senescence, and shortened lifespan. In addition, we demonstrate that FADD phosphorylation and the recruitment of PP2A and FADD to PKCβ are induced responses to oxidative stress, and that the extent of FADD phosphorylation in wild-type mice was augmented during aging, accompanied by impairment of the interaction between PKCβ and PP2A. Innovation: The present study first addresses the role of FADD phosphorylation in aging through controlling mitochondrial ROS specifically generated by PKCβ. Conclusion: These data identify that FADD phosphorylation is critical for the PKCβ-p66shc signaling route to generate H2O2 and to implicate enhanced FADD phosphorylation as a primary cause of ROS accumulation during aging. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 33–45.
This study investigated the transmission characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains collected from a hospital setting in China, in which consistent emergence of CRE strains were observable during the period of May 2013 to February 2014. Among the 45 CRE isolates tested, 21 (47%) strains were found to harbor the blaNDM-1 element, and the rest of 24 CRE strains were all positive for blaKPC-2. The 21 blaNDM-1—borne strains were found to comprise multiple Enterobacteriaceae species including nine Enterobacter cloacae, three Escherichia coli, three Citrobacter freundii, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two Klebsiella oxytoca, and two Morganella morganii strains, indicating that cross-species transmission of blaNDM-1 is a common event. Genetic analyses by PFGE and MLST showed that, with the exception of E. coli and E. cloacae, strains belonging to the same species were often genetically unrelated. In addition to blaNDM-1, several CRE strains were also found to harbor the blaKPC-2, blaVIM-1, and blaIMP-4 elements. Conjugations experiments confirmed that the majority of carbapenem resistance determinants were transferable. Taken together, our findings suggest that transmission of mobile resistance elements among members of Enterobacteriaceae and clonal spread of CRE strains may contribute synergistically to a rapid increase in the population of CRE in clinical settings, prompting a need to implement more rigorous infection control measures to arrest such vicious transmission cycle in CRE-prevalent areas.
carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae; NDM-1; clonal spread; mobile element
The ability to visualize and spare nerves during surgery is critical for avoiding chronic morbidity, pain, and loss of function. Visualization of such critical anatomic structures is even more challenging during minimal access procedures because the small incisions limit visibility. In this study, we focus on improving imaging of nerves through the use of a new small molecule fluorophore, GE3126, used in conjunction with our dual-mode (color and fluorescence) laparoscopic imaging instrument. GE3126 has higher aqueous solubility, improved pharmacokinetics, and reduced non-specific adipose tissue fluorescence compared to previous myelin-binding fluorophores. Dosing and kinetics were initially optimized in mice. A non-clinical modified Irwin study in rats, performed to assess the potential of GE3126 to induce nervous system injuries, showed the absence of major adverse reactions. Real-time intraoperative imaging was performed in a porcine model. Compared to white light imaging, nerve visibility was enhanced under fluorescence guidance, especially for small diameter nerves obscured by fascia, blood vessels, or adipose tissue. In the porcine model, nerve visualization was observed rapidly, within 5 to 10 minutes post-intravenous injection and the nerve fluorescence signal was maintained for up to 80 minutes. The use of GE3126, coupled with practical implementation of an imaging instrument may be an important step forward in preventing nerve damage in the operating room.
Blood ejected from the left ventricle perfuses the brain via central elastic arteries, which stiffen with advancing age and may elevate the risk of end-organ damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of central arterial aging on cerebral hemodynamics. Eighty-three healthy participants aged 22 to 80 years underwent the measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CBF velocity (CBFV) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transcranial Doppler, respectively. The CBF pulsatility was determined by the relative amplitude of CBFV to the mean value (CBFV%). Central arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), wave reflection (carotid augmentation index), and pressure were measured using applanation tonometry. Total volume of white-matter hyperintensity (WMH) was quantified from MR images. Total CBF decreased with age while systolic and pulsatile CBFV% increased and diastolic CBFV% decreased. Women showed greater total CBF and lower cerebrovascular resistance than men. Diastolic CBFV% was lower in women than in men. Age- and sex-related differences in CBF pulsatility were independently associated with carotid pulse pressure and arterial wave reflection. In older participants, higher pulsatility of CBF was associated with the greater total volume of WMH. These findings indicate that central arterial aging has an important role in age-related differences in cerebral hemodynamics.
age; arterial wave reflection; central arterial stiffness; cerebral hemodynamics; sex difference
Association between hyperuricaemia and chronic kidney disease has been studied widely, but the influence of uric acid on the kidneys remains controversial. We aimed to summarize the association between uric acid and diabetic kidney disease (DKD), and to evaluate the role of uric acid in DKD.
We enrolled 3,212 type 2 diabetic patients in a cross-sectional study. The patients’ basic characteristics (sex, age, BMI, duration of disease, and blood pressure) and chemical parameters (triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), microalbuminuria, creatinine, and uric acid) were recorded, and the association between uric acid and DKD was evaluated.
In the 3,212 diabetic patients, the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease was higher in hyperuricaemic patients than in patients with normouricaemia (68.3% vs 41.5%). The prevalence of DKD increased with increasing uric acid (p <0.0001). Logistic analysis identified uric acid as an independent predictor of DKD (p <0.0001; adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1.005 (1.004–1.007), p <0.0001). Uric acid was positively correlated with albuminuria and creatinine levels (p<0.0001) but negatively correlated with eGFR (p<0.0001) after adjusting for confounding factors.
Hyperuricaemia is a risk factor for DKD. Serum uric acid levels within the high-normal range are independently associated with DKD.
We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC) on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16) or blank gels (n = 16) from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark–light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function.
beta serum concentrate; milk fat globule membrane; gangliosides; phospholipids; brain development; memory; Morris water maze; neuroplasticity
The PSMD6 variant rs831571 has been identified as a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate the association of this variant with therapeutic effects of oral antidiabetic drugs in Chinese T2DM patients. 209 newly diagnosed T2DM patients were randomly assigned to treatment with repaglinide or rosiglitazone for 48 weeks, and the therapeutic effects were compared. In the rosiglitazone cohort, rs831571 showed significant associations with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h glucose and decrement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels after 24 weeks of treatment (P = 0.0368, 0.0468 and 0.0247, respectively). The C allele was significantly associated with a better attainment of FPG at 24 and 32 weeks (P = 0.0172 and 0.0257, respectively). Survival analyses showed CC homozygotes were more likely to attain a standard FPG level (P = 0.0654). In the repaglinide cohort, rs831571 was significantly associated with decreased HbA1c levels after 24 weeks of treatment, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and fasting insulin level after 48 weeks of treatment with repaglinide (P = 0.0096, 0235 and 0.0212, respectively). In conclusion, we observed that the PSMD6 variant rs831571 might be associated with the therapeutic effects of rosiglitazone and repaglinide in Chinese T2DM patients. However, these findings need to be confirmed in the future.
To optimize HPV vaccination implementation at the population-level in China, data are needed on age-specific HPV 16, 18, 6 and 11 prevalence. This cross-sectional, population-based study evaluated the age- and type-specific HPV 16, 18, 6 and 11 prevalence of DNA and serum antibodies among women in China. From July 2006 to April 2007, 17 to 54-year-old women from three rural provinces (Xinjiang, Shanxi, and Henan) and two cities (Beijing and Shanghai) provided cervical exfoliated cells for HPV DNA and liquid-based cervical cytology (SurePath). High and low-risk HPV types were detected with HC-II (Qiagen), with genotyping of HPV-positive samples using Linear Array (Roche). HPV 16, 18, 6, and 11 serum antibodies were detected using a Luminex-based, competitive immunoassay (Merck and Co). A total of 4,206 women with DNA and serum antibody results were included. HPV 16 DNA prevalence peaked in women aged 30–34 (4.2%) and 45–49 years (3.8%), while HPV 18 DNA prevalence peaked at ages 40–44 years (1.3%). Most women were dually DNA and serum antibody negative: HPV 16 (92.2%), 18 (97.2%), HPV 16 & 18 (90.2%), 6 (92.0%), 11 (96.6%), 6 & 11(89.9%), and HPV 16, 18, 6, & 11 (82.5%). Future national HPV vaccination programs in China should target younger women due to increased exposure to HPV types 16, 18, 6 and 11 with age. Cumulative exposure of HPV may be underreported in this population as cross-sectional data do not accurately reflect exposure to HPV infections over time.
HPV prevalence; HPV DNA; HPV antibodies; China
Severe spinal cord injury often causes temporary or permanent damages in strength, sensation, or autonomic functions below the site of the injury. So far, there is still no effective treatment for spinal cord injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to repair injured spinal cord as an effective strategy. However, the low neural differentiation frequency of MSCs has limited its application. The present study attempted to explore whether the grafted MSC-derived neural-like cells in a gelatin sponge (GS) scaffold could maintain neural features or transdifferentiate into myelin-forming cells in the transected spinal cord.
We constructed an engineered tissue by co-seeding of MSCs with genetically enhanced expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and its high-affinity receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase C (TrkC) separately into a three-dimensional GS scaffold to promote the MSCs differentiating into neural-like cells and transplanted it into the gap of a completely transected rat spinal cord. The rats received extensive post-operation care, including cyclosporin A administrated once daily for 2 months.
MSCs modified genetically could differentiate into neural-like cells in the MN + MT (NT-3-MSCs + TrKC-MSCs) group 14 days after culture in the GS scaffold. However, after the MSC-derived neural-like cells were transplanted into the injury site of spinal cord, some of them appeared to lose the neural phenotypes and instead transdifferentiated into myelin-forming cells at 8 weeks. In the latter, the MSC-derived myelin-forming cells established myelin sheaths associated with the host regenerating axons. And the injured host neurons were rescued, and axon regeneration was induced by grafted MSCs modified genetically. In addition, the cortical motor evoked potential and hindlimb locomotion were significantly ameliorated in the rat spinal cord transected in the MN + MT group compared with the GS and MSC groups.
Grafted MSC-derived neural-like cells in the GS scaffold can transdifferentiate into myelin-forming cells in the completely transected rat spinal cord.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13287-015-0100-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is not amenable to current targeted therapies and carries a poor prognosis; however, a specific systemic regimen cannot yet be recommended. The optimal duration of oxaliplatin (OXA) and S-1 combinatorial chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer is not currently known and is likely to be patient-specific based on efficacy and toxicity. In the present study, 52 patients with advanced TNBC received OXA and S-1 chemotherapy. The efficacy and toxicity were observed. The results showed that the median number of regimens was 4 (range 2–6). The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in all patients. The complete response, partial response, overall response and disease control rates were 3.8, 30.8, 34.6 and 69.2%, respectively. Four patients were lost to follow-up, and the median follow-up time was 13.7 months. The median progression-free survival time was 6.7 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.5–9.0] and the median overall survival (OS) time was 13.3 months (95% CI, 9.1–17.5). From the subgroup analysis, it was found that the median OS time of patients with stage IV disease and ≥2 metastases was significantly shorter than that of patients with stage IIIC disease and only 1 metastasis [11.3 vs. 22.7 months, P=0.010 (stage IV vs. stage IIC); 11.3 vs. 15.7 months, P=0.048 (≥2 vs. 1 metastasis)]. The main grade 3/4 toxic effects were neutropenia (11.5%), nausea (7.7%) and nerve toxicity (3.8%). The other toxic effects were mainly of grades 1–2 and included diarrhea, liver dysfunction, stomatitis, anemia and hand-foot syndrome. In conclusion, OXA combined with S-1 is an effective and tolerable regimen for the treatment of patients with advanced TNBC.
oxaliplatin; S-1; advanced triple-negative breast cancer; chemotherapy
Microalbuminuria is positively related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our aim was to investigate whether urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) within the normal range is independently associated with MetS in Chinese community-based patients with type 2 diabetes.
Materials and Methods
A total of 514 participants (206 males and 308 females; mean age 66 years) with UACR less than 3.5 mg/mmol were enrolled from two downtown areas of Shanghai. The participants were stratified into quartiles according to UACR levels. The prevalence of MetS was assessed and compared among the four groups by binary logistic regression.
Compared with participants with UACRs in the first quartile, the other quartiles had a higher prevalence of MetS (65.9%, 74.4% and 81.3%, respectively, P = 0.001) after adjustment for sex and age. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the second to the fourth quartile group had a 1.36-, 1.84- and 2.73-fold risk of MetS, respectively, relative to those in the lowest quartile. Furthermore, UACR, whether as quartile groups or as a continuous variable, is an independent predictor of MetS after fully adjusting for other variables.
These results suggest that UACR even within the normal range is independently associated with MetS in Chinese community-based patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Metabolic syndrome; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Urinary-to-albumin creatinine ratio
The associations between urine uric acid excretion (UUAE) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)/atherosclerosis have not been investigated. Our aims were to investigate the relationships between UUAE and CKD and carotid atherosclerotic lesions in hospitalized Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.
This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted with 2627 Chinese inpatients with type 2 diabetes. UUAE was determined enzymatically using a single 24-h urine collection. The subjects were stratified into quartiles according to their UUAE levels. Carotid atherosclerotic lesions, including carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), plaque and stenosis, were assessed by Doppler ultrasound. Both CKD and carotid atherosclerotic lesions were compared between the UUAE quartile groups.
After adjustment for confounding factors, there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of CKD in the patients with type 2 diabetes across the UUAE quartiles (16.9%, 8.5%, 5.9%, and 4.9%; p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the UUAE quartiles were significantly and inversely associated with the presence of CKD (p < 0.001). Compared with the diabetics in the highest UUAE quartile, those in the lowest quartile exhibited a nearly 4.2-fold increase in the risk of CKD (95% CI: 2.272-7.568; p < 0.001). The CIMT value (0.91 ± 0.22 mm for the diabetics with CKD and 0.82 ± 0.20 mm for the diabetics without CKD, p = 0.001) and the prevalence of carotid plaques (62.1% for the diabetics with CKD and 41.8% for the diabetics without CKD, p = 0.025) were significantly higher in the diabetics with CKD than in those without CKD. However, there was no obvious difference in carotid atherosclerotic lesions across the UUAE quartiles after controlling for the confounding factors.
Decreased UUAE was closely associated with the presence of CKD but not with carotid atherosclerotic lesions in hospitalized Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Our results suggest that UUAE is an independent risk factor for CKD in type 2 diabetes. In selected populations, such as patient with type 2 diabetes, the role of uric acid in atherosclerosis might be the result of other concomitant atherosclerotic risk factors, such as CKD.
Urine uric acid excretion; Type 2 diabetes; Chronic kidney disease; Atherosclerosis; Carotid arteries
AIM: To investigate the clinical significance of methyl-methanesulfonate sensitivity 19 (MMS19) expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
METHODS: Between June 2008 and May 2013, specimens from 103 patients who underwent endoscopic biopsy for the diagnosis of ESCC at the endoscopy center of Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center were collected; 52 matched-normal esophageal squamous epithelium samples were biopsied as controls. MMS19 protein expression was measured by immunohistochemistry. Of the 103 cases of ESCC, 49 received radical surgery following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy consisting of concurrent radiation in a total dose of 40 Gy and two cycles of chemotherapy with vinorelbine and cisplatin. Relationships between MMS19 expression, clinicopathologic characteristics and chemoradiotherapy response were analyzed.
RESULTS: The MMS19 protein could be detected in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of most specimens. High cytoplasmic expression of MMS19 was detected in 63.1% of ESCC samples, whereas high nuclear expression of MMS19 was found in 35.0%. High cytoplasmic MMS19 expression was associated with regional lymph node metastases (OR = 11.3, 95%CI: 2.3-54.7; P < 0.001) and distant metastases (OR = 13.1, 95%CI: 1.7-103.0; P = 0.002). Furthermore, high cytoplasmic MMS19 expression was associated with a response of ESCC to chemoradiotherapy (OR = 11.5, 95%CI: 3.0-44.5; P < 0.001), with a high cytoplasmic MMS19 expression rates in 79.3% and 25.0% of patients from the good chemoradiotherapy response group and poor response group, respectively. Nuclear MMS19 expression did not show any significant association with clinicopathologic characteristics or chemoradiotherapy response in ESCC.
CONCLUSION: The results of our preliminary study suggest that MMS19 may be a potential new predictor of metastasis and chemoradiotherapy response in ESCC.
Chemoradiotherapy; Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Metastases; Methyl-methanesulfonate sensitivity 19; Surgery
Stemonae radix has been applied in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Alkaloids are the main active ingredient in stemonae radix, so their composition and concentration levels are directly linked to clinic effects.
The objective was to develop an analytical method with multiple markers for quality survey of commercial stemonae radix.
Materials and Methods:
A method for simultaneous determination of six compounds in commercial stemonae radix was performed using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector. The separation was carried out on an Agilent TC-C18 column with 0.1% acetonitrile solution of triethylamine aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient elution within 70 min. The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) was successfully used to classify the samples in accordance with their chemical constituents.
Linearity (R2 > 0.9990), intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviations <4%), limit of detection (0.011–0.086 μg/mL), limit of quantification (0.033–0.259 μg/mL) of the six alkaloids were determined, and the recoveries were between 96.6% and 103.7%. The method was successfully applied to analysis 36 batches of commercial stemonae radix. All the samples could be classified into five clusters by HCA.
This article provides an accurate and simple analytical method for quality survey of commercial stemonae radix. Because of the significant chemical variations, careful selection of Stemona sources with obvious antitussive value but devoid of croomine followed by good agricultural practice and good manufacturing practice process is suggested.
Alkaloid; commercial stemonae radix; quantification; solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector
To seek better methods of measurement and more accurate model of reconstruction in the field of reverse engineering has been the focus of researchers. Based on this, a new method of adaptive measurement, real-time reconstruction, and online evaluation of free-form surface was presented in this paper. The coordinates and vectors of the prediction points are calculated according to a Bézier curve which is fitted by measured points. Final measured point cloud distribution is in agreement with the geometric characteristics of the free-form surfaces. Fitting the point cloud to a surface model by the nonuniform B-spline method, extracting some check points from the surface models based on grids and a feature on the surface, review the location of these check points on the surface with CMM and evaluate the model, and then update the surface model to meet the accuracy. Integrated measurement, reconstruction, and evaluation, with the closed-loop reverse process, established an accurate model. The results of example show that the measuring points are distributed over the surface according to curvature, and the reconstruction model can be completely expressed with micron level. Meanwhile, measurement, reconstruction and evaluation are integrated in forms of closed-loop reverse system.
The objectives of the present work were to use blends of Eudragit L and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) as enteric film coatings for lansoprazole (LSP) pellets. The enteric-coated pellets were prepared with a fluid-bed coater. The influence of the blend ratio, type of plasticizer, plasticizer level, coating level, and curing conditions on gastric stability in vitro drug release and drug stability was evaluated. Furthermore, the bioavailability of the blend-coated pellets in beagle dogs was also performed. The blend-coated pellets exhibited significant improvement of gastric stability and drug stability compared to the pure polymer-coated pellets. Moreover, the AUC values of blend-coated pellets were greater than that of the pure polymer-coated pellets. It was concluded that the using blends of Eudragit L and HPMCAS as enteric film coatings for LSP pellets improved the drug stability and oral bioavailability.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12249-013-0035-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
bioavailability; drug stability; enteric coating; lansoprazole; pellets
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an important microvascular complication of diabetes with a high concordance rate in patients with diabetes. Inflammation is supposed to participate in the development of DR. This study aimed to investigate whether genetic variants of CRP are associated with DR.
A total of 1,018 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited in this study. Of these patients, 618 were diagnosed with DR, 400 were patients with diabetes for over 10 years but without DR, considered as cases and controls for DR, respectively. Four tagging SNPs (rs2808629, rs3093077, rs1130864 and rs2808634) within CRP region were genotyped for all the participants. Fundus photography was performed for diagnosis and classification for DR.
rs2808629 was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to DR (odds ratio 1.296, 95% CI 1.076-1.561, P = 0.006, empirical P = 0.029, for G allele). This association remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (odds ratio 1.261, 95% CI 1.022-1.555, P = 0.030).
In this study, we found CRP rs2808629 was associated with DR in the Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.
C-reactive protein; Diabetic retinopathy; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Inflammation; Type 2 diabetes
To determine if global brain hypoperfusion and oxygen hypometabolism occur in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).
Thirty-two aMCI and 21 normal subjects participated. Total cerebral blood flow (TCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and brain tissue volume were measured using color-coded duplex ultrasonography (CDUS), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and MRI. TCBF was normalized by total brain tissue volume (TBV) for group comparisons (nTCBF). Cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was calculated as mean arterial pressure divided by TCBF.
Reductions in nTCBF by 9%, CMRO2 by 11%, and increase in CVR by 13% were observed in aMCI relative to normal subjects. No group differences in TBV were observed. nTCBF was correlated with CMRO2 in normal controls, but not in aMCI.
Global brain hypoperfusion, oxygen hypometabolism and neurovascular decoupling observed in aMCI suggest that changes in cerebral hemodynamics occur early at prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease, which can be assessed using low cost and bed-side available CDUS and NIRS technology.
mild cognitive impairment; cerebral blood flow; cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen; ultrasonography; near-infrared spectroscopy; MRI
Glioblastoma is the most malignant human brain tumor and has a dismal prognosis; however, some patients show long-term survival. The interaction between the costimulatory molecule OX40 and its ligand OX40L generates key signals for T-cell activation. The augmentation of this interaction enhances antitumor immunity. In this present study, we explored whether OX40 signaling is responsible for antitumor adaptive immunity against glioblastoma and also established therapeutic antiglioma vaccination therapy.
Tumor specimens were obtained from patients with primary glioblastoma (n = 110) and grade III glioma (n = 34). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze OX40L expression in human glioblastoma specimens. Functional consequences of OX40 signaling were studied using glioblastoma cell lines, mouse models of glioma, and T cells isolated from human subjects and mice. Cytokine production assay with mouse regulatory T cells was conducted under hypoxic conditions (1.5% O2).
OX40L mRNA was expressed in glioblastoma specimens and higher levels were associated with prolonged progression-free survival of patients with glioblastoma, who had undergone gross total resection. In this regard, OX40L protein was expressed in A172 human glioblastoma cells and its expression was induced under hypoxia, which mimics the microenvironment of glioblastoma. Notably, human CD4 T cells were activated when cocultured in anti-CD3-coated plates with A172 cells expressing OX40L, as judged by the increased production of interferon-γ. To confirm the survival advantage of OX40L expression, we then used mouse glioma models. Mice bearing glioma cells forced to express OX40L did not die during the observed period after intracranial transplantation, whereas all mice bearing glioma cells lacking OX40L died. Such a survival benefit of OX40L was not detected in nude mice with an impaired immune system. Moreover, compared with systemic intraperitoneal injection, the subcutaneous injection of the OX40 agonist antibody together with glioma cell lysates elicited stronger antitumor immunity and prolonged the survival of mice bearing glioma or glioma-initiating cell-like cells. Finally, OX40 triggering activated regulatory T cells cultured under hypoxia led to the induction of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL10.
Glioblastoma directs immunostimulation or immunosuppression through OX40 signaling, depending on its microenvironment.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12943-015-0307-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Glioblastoma; OX40; OX40 ligand; Immunotherapy; Hypoxia; Regulatory T cell
The aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films with various thicknesses under 50 nm were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on silicon substrate. The surface topography investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the samples were smooth and crack-free. The ellipsometric spectra of Al2O3 thin films were measured and analyzed before and after annealing in nitrogen condition in the wavelength range from 250 to 1,000 nm, respectively. The refractive index of Al2O3 thin films was described by Cauchy model and the ellipsometric spectra data were fitted to a five-medium model consisting of Si substrate/SiO2 layer/Al2O3 layer/surface roughness/air ambient structure. It is found that the refractive index of Al2O3 thin films decrease with increasing film thickness and the changing trend revised after annealing. The phenomenon is believed to arise from the mechanical stress in ALD-Al2O3 thin films. A thickness transition is also found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SE after 900°C annealing.
ALD; Al2O3 thin film; Optical properties; Spectroscopic ellipsometry
Expansions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been identified in human solid tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the nature of these tumor-associated MDSCs and their interactions with tumor cells in CRC are still poorly understood.
The percentages and phenotype of MDSCs in peripheral blood and tumorous and paraneoplastic tissues from CRC patients, as well as the clinical relevance of these MDSCs, were assessed. Age-matched healthy donors were included as controls. The interaction between MDSCs and T cells or tumor cells was investigated in a coculture system in vitro, and the molecular mechanism of the effect of MDSCs on T cells or tumor cells was evaluated.
We discovered that CRC patients had elevated levels of CD33+CD11b+HLA-DR− MDSCs in primary tumor tissues and in peripheral blood, and the elevated circulating MDSCs were correlated with advanced TNM stages and lymph node metastases. Radical resection significantly decreases the proportions of circulating MDSCs and CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ regulatory T cells. In vitro, CRC cells mediate the promotion of MDSC induction. Moreover, these tumor-induced MDSCs could suppress T cell proliferation and promote CRC cell growth via cell-to-cell contact. Such effects could be abolished by the inhibition of oxidative metabolism, including the production of nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Our results reveal the functional interdependence between MDSCs, T cells and cancer cells in CRC pathogenesis. Understanding the impact of MDSCs on T cells and tumor cells will be helpful to establish an immunotherapeutic strategy in CRC patients.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12967-015-0410-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells; Colorectal carcinoma; Radical resection