A low eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to arachidonic acid (AA) ratio is a known risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the association between the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to AA ratio and ACS remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the association between the DHA/AA ratio and ACS by patient characteristics.
We enrolled 1733 patients and evaluated the serum levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in 5 cardiology departments in a metropolitan area of Japan. We assessed the relationship between the DHA/AA ratio (median cut-off value: 0.903) and ACS according to the following 10 subgroups: sex, age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking history, family history of ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and history of coronary revascularization.
Interaction tests in the 10 subgroup analyses revealed a significant difference for adjusted log odds ratios between male and females (p = 0.01), and those with and without hypertension (p = 0.06). Especially in the subgroup based on sex difference, a high DHA/AA ratio was significantly associated with a low risk of ACS among men (adjusted odds ratio = 0.389; 95 % confidence interval: 0.211–0.716). In contrast, a reverse association was found among women, although this was not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio = 3.820; 95 % confidence interval: 0.718–20.325).
The association between the DHA/AA ratio and ACS differed by clinical characteristic. Notably, patients with a low DHA/AA ratio had a higher risk of ACS than those with a high DHA/AA ratio, and this was significant for men in particular.
Acute coronary syndrome; Arachidonic acid; Docosahexaenoic acid; Eicosapentaenoic acid; DHA/AA ratio; EPA/AA ratio; Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) plays a key role in removing toxic aldehydes. Deficient variant ALDH2*2 genotype is prevalent in up to 40% of the East Asians and reported to be associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association of ALDH2*2 with AMI, we compared the clinical features of AMI patients with ALDH2*2 to those with wild‐type ALDH2*1/*1.
Methods and Results
The study subjects consisted of 202 Japanese patients with acute ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (156 men and 46 women; mean age, 67.3±12.0) who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In 85 patients, provocation test for coronary spasm was also done 6 month post‐PCI. ALDH2 genotyping was performed by direct application of the TaqMan polymerase chain system. Of the 202 patients, 103 (51.0%) were carriers of ALDH2*2 and 99 (49.0%) those of ALDH2*1/*1. There were no differences in clinical features between ALDH2*2 and ALDH2*1/*1 carrier groups except higher frequencies of coronary spasm and alcohol flush syndrome (AFS) (88.6% vs 56.1%; P=0.001 and 94.3% vs 17.6%; P<0.001), less‐frequent alcohol habit (14.6% vs 51.5%; P<0.001), and higher peak plasma creatine phophokinase levels (2224 vs 1617 mg/dL; P=0.002) in the ALDH2*2 than the ALDH2*1/*1 carrier group.
ALDH2*2 is prevalent (51.0%) among Japanese STEMI patients, and those with ALDH2*2 had higher frequencies of coronary spasm and AFS and more‐severe myocardial injury compared to those with ALDH2*1/*1.
acute myocardial infarction; alcohol flushing syndrome; aldehyde dehydrogenase 2; coronary spasm; coronary spastic angina; Cardiovascular Disease; Genetic, Association Studies; Stent; Quality and Outcomes
Increased short-term blood pressure (BP) variability on 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) is known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular events. However, very few studies have evaluated the effect of salt restriction on BP variability particularly in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of salt restriction on systolic BP (SBP) variability.
Methods and Results
10 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and not receiving antihypertensive agents were enrolled in the study. After admission, all patients received a salt-restricted diet and appropriate anti-diabetic treatments and were followed up for 7 consecutive days using ABPM. After the 7-day treatment, the median [interquartile range (IQR)] coefficient of variation (CV) for diurnal SBP variability changed from day 1 to day 7–13.0 [10.8 to 16.8] % to 13.3 [9.1 to 18.9] % (P = 0.959)—and the median [IQR] change between days 1 and 7 was -0.3 [-3.2 to 2.9] %. In addition, CV for BP variability and circadian rhythm of BP varied greatly on a day-by-day basis for 7 days, compared to mean BP values. Interestingly, increased SBP variability was associated with greater day-by-day changes in circadian rhythm of BP.
Salt restriction during 7-day hospitalization led to a -0.3 [-3.2 to 2.9] (median [IQR]) % change from baseline in CV for diurnal SBP variability in 10 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes not receiving antihypertensive agents.
UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000016243
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) is thought to be expressed in the heart as the dominant isoform of cardiac SGLT, although more information is required to delineate the subtypes of SGLTs in human hearts. Moreover, the functional role of SGLTs in the heart remains to be fully elucidated. We herein investigated whether SGLT1 is expressed in human hearts and whether SGLTs significantly contribute to cardiac energy metabolism during ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) via enhanced glucose utilization in mice.
Methods and Results
We determined that SGLT1 was highly expressed in both human autopsied hearts and murine perfused hearts, as assessed by immunostaining and immunoblotting with membrane fractionation. To test the functional significance of the substantial expression of SGLTs in the heart, we studied the effects of a non-selective SGLT inhibitor, phlorizin, on the baseline cardiac function and its response to ischemia-reperfusion using the murine Langendorff model. Although phlorizin perfusion did not affect baseline cardiac function, its administration during IRI significantly impaired the recovery in left ventricular contractions and rate pressure product, associated with an increased infarct size, as demonstrated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and creatine phosphokinase activity released into the perfusate. The onset of ischemic contracture, which indicates the initiation of ATP depletion in myocardium, was earlier with phlorizin. Consistent with this finding, there was a significant decrease in the tissue ATP content associated with reductions in glucose uptake, as well as lactate output (indicating glycolytic flux), during ischemia-reperfusion in the phlorizin-perfused hearts.
Cardiac SGLTs, possibly SGLT1 in particular, appear to provide an important protective mechanism against IRI by replenishing ATP stores in ischemic cardiac tissues via enhancing availability of glucose. The present findings provide new insight into the significant role of SGLTs in optimizing cardiac energy metabolism, at least during the acute phase of IRI.
Malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) level is a marker of oxidative stress and is linked to progression of arteriosclerosis; however, the clinical factors affecting the oxidised LDL level have not been elucidated. We investigate various factors to identify correlation with MDA-LDL level in high-risk patients requiring catheter intervention.
Secondary care (cardiology), single-centre study.
600 patients who were admitted to our hospital and underwent cardiac catheterisation.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Blood samples were obtained to measure lipid profiles and MDA-LDL level.
With regard to smoking status, MDA-LDL level was significantly higher in ex-smokers/current smokers compared with non-smokers. Of note, there was no improvement of MDA-LDL level even in patients who had quit smoking. Multiple regression analysis showed that MDA-LDL level was positively correlated with LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) level, Brinkman index and male gender. The correlation between smoking status and either MDA-LDL or LDL-C level was investigated in two groups: namely, patients with and patients without statin treatment. In the non-statin group, MDA-LDL level and MDA-LDL/LDL-C ratio were significantly higher in ex-smokers/current smokers compared with non-smokers, while no significant correlation was observed between smoking status and LDL-C level. In contrast, in the statin group, there were no significant correlations between smoking status and any of the cholesterol parameters.
We found that MDA-LDL level was affected by multiple factors, such as smoking status, LDL-C level and male gender. The present findings give additional evidence that smoking should be prohibited from a MDA-LDL standpoint. Furthermore, statin therapy might have a beneficial effect on the reduction of MDA-LDL level.
Although the plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level is a marker of heart failure, it is unclear whether BNP per se plays a pivotal role for pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD). In this study, we retrospectively examined the plasma BNP levels in stable patients with IHD and compared to stable patients with cardiovascular diseases other than IHD.
The study population was 2088 patients (1698 males and 390 females) who were admitted to our hospital due to IHD (n = 1,661) and non-IHD (n = 427) and underwent cardiac catheterization. Measurements of the hemodynamic parameters and blood sampling were performed.
The plasma BNP levels were significantly lower in the IHD group than in the non-IHD group (p<0.001). The multiple regression analysis examining the logBNP values showed that age, a male gender, low left ventricular ejection fraction, low body mass index, serum creatinine, atrial fibrillation and IHD per se were significant explanatory variables. When the total study population was divided according to gender, the plasma BNP levels were found to be significantly lower in the IHD group than in the non-IHD group among males (p<0.001), but not females (p = NS). Furthermore, a multiple logistic regression analysis of IHD showed the logBNP value to be a significant explanatory variable in males (regression coefficient: −0.669, p<0.001), but not females (p = NS).
The plasma BNP levels were relatively low in stable patients with IHD compared with those observed in stable patients with non-IHD; this tendency was evident in males. Perhaps, the low reactivity of BNP is causally associated with IHD in males. We hope that this study will serve as a test of future prospective studies.
Intracellular sodium ([Na+]i) kinetics are involved in cardiac diseases including ischemia, heart failure, and hypertrophy. Because [Na+]i plays a crucial role in modulating the electrical and contractile activity in the heart, quantifying [Na+]i is of great interest. Using fluorescent microscopy with sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate (SBFI) is the most commonly used method for measuring [Na+]i. However, one limitation associated with this technique is that the test cannot simultaneously evaluate the effects of several types or various concentrations of compounds on [Na+]i. Moreover, there are few reports on the long-term effects of compounds on [Na+]i in cultured cells, although rapid changes in [Na+]i during a period of seconds or several minutes have been widely discussed.
We established a novel technique for quantifying [Na+]i in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes attached to a 96-well plate using a microplate reader in combination with SBFI and probenecid. We showed that probenecid is indispensable for the accurate measurement because it prevents dye leakage from the cells. We further confirmed the reliability of this system by quantifying the effects of ouabain, which is known to transiently alter [Na+]i. To illustrate the utility of the new method, we also examined the chronic effects of aldosterone on [Na+]i in cultured cardiomyocytes.
Our technique can rapidly measure [Na+]i with accuracy and sensitivity comparable to the traditional microscopy based method. The results demonstrated that this 96-well plate based measurement has merits, especially for screening test of compounds regulating [Na+]i, and is useful to elucidate the mechanisms and consequences of altered [Na+]i handling in cardiomyocytes.
Intracellular sodium; Cardiomyocyte; SBFI; Probenecid; Microplate reader
In addition to classical adrenal cortical biosynthetic pathway, there is increasing evidence that aldosterone is produced in extra-adrenal tissues. Although we previously reported aldosterone production in the heart, the concept of cardiac aldosterone synthesis remains controversial. This is partly due to lack of established experimental models representing aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) expression in robustly reproducible fashion. We herein investigated suitable conditions in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) culture system producing CYP11B2 with considerable efficacy. NRCMs were cultured with various glucose doses for 2–24 hours. CYP11B2 mRNA expression and aldosterone concentrations secreted from NRCMs were determined using real-time PCR and enzyme immunoassay, respectively. We found that suitable conditions for CYP11B2 induction included four-hour incubation with high glucose conditions. Under these particular conditions, CYP11B2 expression, in accordance with aldosterone secretion, was significantly increased compared to those observed in the cells cultured under standard-glucose condition. Angiotensin II receptor blocker partially inhibited this CYP11B2 induction, suggesting that there is local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation under high glucose conditions. The suitable conditions for CYP11B2 induction in NRCMs culture system are now clarified: high-glucose conditions with relatively brief period of culture promote CYP11B2 expression in cardiomyocytes. The current system will help to accelerate further progress in research on cardiac tissue aldosterone synthesis.
Thrombin, the final coagulation product of the coagulation cascade, has been demonstrated to have many physiological effects, including pro-fibrotic actions via protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1. Recent investigations have demonstrated that activation of the cardiac local coagulation system was associated with atrial fibrillation. However, the distribution of thrombin in the heart, especially difference between the atria and the ventricle, remains to be clarified. We herein investigated the expression of thrombin and other related proteins, as well as tissue fibrosis, in the human left atria and left ventricle.
We examined the expression of thrombin and other related molecules in the autopsied hearts of patients with and without atrial fibrillation. An immunohistochemical analysis was performed in the left atria and the left ventricle.
The thrombin was immunohistologically detected in both the left atria and the left ventricles. Other than in the myocardium, the expression of thrombin was observed in the endocardium and the subendocardium of the left atrium. Thrombin was more highly expressed in the left atrium compared to the left ventricle, which was concomitant with more tissue fibrosis and inflammation, as detected by CD68 expression, in the left atrium. We also confirmed the expression of prothrombin in the left atrium. The expression of PAR-1 was observed in the endocardium, subendocardium and myocardium in the left atrium. In patients with atrial fibrillation, strong thrombin expression was observed in the left atrium.
The strong expression levels of thrombin, prothrombin and PAR-1 were demonstrated in the atrial tissues of human autopsied hearts.
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are reported to provide direct protection to many organs by controlling inflammation and decreasing oxidant stress. Pioglitazone, an anti-diabetic agent that improves insulin resistance, was also reported to decrease inflammation and protect against atherosclerosis. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of combination therapy with both medicines from the viewpoint of anti-inflammatory effects.
We administered candesartan (12 mg daily) and pioglitazone (15 mg daily) simultaneously for 6 months to hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and evaluated whether there were improvements in the serum inflammatory parameters of high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-ADN), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and urinary-8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (U-8-OHdG). We then analyzed the relationship between the degree of reductions in blood pressure and HbA1c values and improvements in inflammatory factors. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between pulse pressure and the degree of lowering of HbA1c and improvements in inflammatory factors. Finally, we examined predictive factors in patients who received benefits from the co-administration of candesartan with pioglitazone from the viewpoint of inflammatory factors.
After 6 months of treatment, in all patients significant improvements from baseline values were observed in HMW-ADN and PAI-1 but not in VCAM-1, Hs-CRP, and U-8-OHdG. Changes in HbA1c were significantly correlated with changes in HMW-ADN and PAI-1 in all patients, but changes in blood pressure were not correlated with any of the parameters examined. Correlation and multilinear regression analyses were performed to determine which factors could best predict changes in HbA1c. Interestingly, we found a significant positive correlation of pulse pressure values at baseline with changes in HbA1c.
Our data suggest that the pulse pressure value at baseline is a key predictive factor of changes in HbA1c. Co-administration of candesartan with pioglitazone, which have anti-inflammatory (changes in HMW-ADN and PAI-1) effects and protective effects on organs, could be an effective therapeutic strategy for treating hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Candesartan; Angiotensin receptor blockers; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Inflammatory parameters; Pulse pressure
Although a decrease in serum potassium level has been suggested to be a fairly common observation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS), there have so far been no definitive reports directly demonstrating the transient potassium decrease (the potassium dip) during ischemic attack of ACS compared to stable phase in individual patients. To understand the pathophysiological significance of the potassium dip, we examined the changes in serum potassium level throughout ischemic attack and evaluated the clinical factors affecting it.
The degree of the potassium dip during ischemic attack (as indicated by ΔK, ΔK = K at discharge − K on admission) was examined in 311 consecutive patients with ACS who required urgent hospitalization in our institution.
Serum potassium level during ischemic attack was significantly decreased compared to that during stable phase (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that plasma glucose level during attack was the sole factor which was positively correlated with ΔK (P < 0.01), while HbA1c level was negatively correlated (P < 0.05). The medication profiles and renal function had no impact on ΔK. A longer hospitalization period, higher incidence of myocardial infarction and higher peak creatine kinase level were observed in patients with a larger ΔK.
We have clearly demonstrated that there is a transient decrease in serum potassium level during ischemic attack of ACS compared to stable phase. The degree of the potassium dip was tightly correlated with glucose level, which overwhelmed the diabetic condition, and it also indicates the disease severity. The present study therefore promotes awareness of the significance of monitoring potassium level in parallel with glucose level in patients with ACS.
Potassium level; Acute coronary syndrome; Glucose level; Diabetes
To investigate whether rosuvastatin reduces blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypercholesterolemia.
The present study investigated the effect of rosuvastatin on lipids and clinical parameters in 25 patients with a mean (± SD) age of 58.4±10.6 years over a three-month period.
Rosuvastatin (2.5 mg/day to 5.0 mg/day) reduced systolic BP from 136.3±13.1 mmHg to 130.8±10.7 mmHg (P<0.01), along with a significant reduction in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (P<0.01). The patients were divided into two groups: 13 responders whose BP decreased by >5 mmHg with rosuvastatin treatment and 12 nonresponders who showed a BP reduction of ≤5 mmHg. Baseline systolic BP was significantly higher in responders than nonresponders (143.6±9.6 mmHg versus 128.4±11.9 mmHg, respectively; P<0.01). Responders also had a lower serum concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein compared with nonresponders (0.11±0.07 mg/dL versus 0.40±0.28 mg/dL; P<0.01). The extent of BP reduction was positively correlated with baseline systolic BP (r=0.585; P=0.0021) but not with the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Among the patients with baseline systolic BP >130 mmHg, all 11 responders (138.3 mmHg) were nonsmokers, while five of six nonresponders (145.7 mmHg) were smokers.
Rosuvastatin had an additive antihypertensive effect in patients with poorly controlled hypertension that was independent of its lipid-lowering effect, which may be related to an inflammatory mechanism.
Blood pressure; Hypercholesterolemia; Hypertension; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are reported to provide direct protection to many organs by controlling inflammation and decreasing oxidant stress in patients without arteriosclerosis. This study aimed to evaluate (1) whether an ARB (candesartan) decreases values for inflammatory parameters in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of long duration accompanied by arteriosclerosis and (2) whether there any predictors of which patients would receive the benefits of organ protection by candesartan.
We administered candesartan therapy (12 mg daily) for 6 months and evaluated whether there was improvement in serum inflammatory parameters high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-ADN), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in serum and urinary-8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (U-8-OHdG). We then analyzed the relationship between the degree of lowering of blood pressure and inflammatory factors and the relationship between pulse pressure and inflammatory factors. Finally, we analyzed predictive factors in patients who received the protective benefit of candesartan.
After 6 months of treatment, significant improvements from baseline values were observed in all patients in HMW-ADN and PAI-1 but not in Hs-CRP, VCAM-1 and U-8-OHdG. Multilinear regression analysis was performed to determine which factors could best predict changes in HMW-ADN and PAI-1. Changes in blood pressure were not significant predictors of changes in metabolic factors in all patients. We found that the group with baseline pulse pressure <60 mmHg had improved HMW-ADN and PAI-1 values compared with the group with baseline pulse pressure ≥ 60 mmHg. These results suggest that pulse pressure at baseline could be predictive of changes in HMW-ADN and PAI-1.
Candesartan improved inflammatory parameters (HMW-ADN and PAI-1) in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of long duration independent of blood pressure changes. Patients with pulse pressure <60 mmHg might receive protective benefits by candesartan.
Candesartan; Angiotensin receptor blockers; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Inflammatory parameters; Pulse pressure
The magnitude of improvement of acute heart failure achieved during treatment varies greatly among patients. We examined changes in the plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels of patients with acute heart failure and attempted to elucidate the clinical factors associated with amelioration of acute heart failure.
Methods and results:
The study population consisted of 208 consecutive patients admitted to our institution with acute heart failure. We measured plasma BNP levels before and after treatment of acute heart failure and evaluated these levels based on median age, body mass index (BMI), creatinine (Cr) level, and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). Plasma BNP levels before treatment were equivalent between the younger and older age groups; however, plasma BNP levels after treatment were higher in the older age group (p<0.01). Plasma BNP levels before treatment were significantly high in the lower BMI group (p<0.05) and the higher Cr group (p<0.01). Similarly, plasma BNP levels after treatment were high in both the lower BMI and higher Cr groups (p<0.01 for both). In the low EF group, plasma BNP levels before treatment were significantly high (p<0.01), while plasma BNP levels after treatment were equivalent to those in the high EF group. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that Cr was positively correlated and BMI and EF were negatively correlated with plasma BNP levels before treatment; however, the contributions of age, BMI, and Cr in reducing plasma BNP levels were more significant after treatment.
The contributions of clinical factors working against amelioration of heart failure vary before and after treatment. Regarding plasma BNP levels, older age, very low BMI, and the presence of renal dysfunction eventually act to prevent amelioration of acute heart failure. Systolic dysfunction does not act against amelioration of acute heart failure.
Body mass index; B-type natriuretic peptide; creatinine; diastolic dysfunction; ejection fraction
A higher increase in intracellular Na+ via Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) during ischemia has been reported in type 2 diabetic mouse hearts. We investigated the role of NHE in inducing changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and alterations in ventricular function during ischemia-reperfusion in type 2 diabetic mouse hearts.
Hearts from male type 2 diabetic db/db (12-15 weeks old) and age-matched control db/+ mice were subjected to Langendorff perfusion and loaded with 4μM of the Ca2+ indicator fura-2. The hearts were exposed to no-flow ischemia for 15 minutes and then reperfused. [Ca2+]i was measured by monitoring fura-2 fluorescence at 500 nm (excitation wavelengths of 340 and 380 nm), while left ventricular (LV) pressure was simultaneously measured.
db/db hearts exhibited a lower recovery of LV developed pressure than db/+ hearts during reperfusion following ischemia. Diastolic [Ca2+]i was increased to a greater level in diabetic hearts than in the control hearts during ischemia and reperfusion. Such an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ overload during ischemia-reperfusion in diabetic hearts was markedly reduced in the presence of the NHE inhibitor cariporide. This was accompanied by a significantly improved recovery of ventricular function on reperfusion, as shown by a lower increase in diastolic pressure and increased recovery of developed pressure.
NHE plays a key role in enhancing cytoplasmic Ca2+ overload during ischemia-reperfusion and severely impairing post-ischemic cardiac function in hearts from type 2 diabetic db/db mice.
The derangement of the cardiac energy substrate metabolism plays a key role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The utilization of non-carbohydrate substrates, such as fatty acids, is the predominant metabolic pathway in the normal heart, because this provides the highest energy yield per molecule of substrate metabolized. In contrast, glucose becomes an important preferential substrate for metabolism and ATP generation under specific pathological conditions, because it can provide greater efficiency in producing high energy products per oxygen consumed compared to fatty acids. Manipulations that shift energy substrate utilization away from fatty acids toward glucose can improve the cardiac function and slow the progression of heart failure. However, insulin resistance, which is highly prevalent in the heart failure population, impedes this adaptive metabolic shift. Therefore, the acceleration of the glucose metabolism, along with the restoration of insulin sensitivity, would be the ideal metabolic therapy for heart failure. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of modifying substrate utilization to optimize cardiac metabolism in heart failure.
myocardial glucose and fatty acid metabolism; insulin resistance; metabolic therapy; heart failure.
Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is a cell-cell adhesion molecule involved in endothelial barrier function. Here, we show that initial circumferential actin bundling induced by cyclic AMP-Epac-Rap1 signal and its linkage to VE-cadherin through α- and β-catenins lead to the stabilization of VE-cadherin at cell-cell contacts.
Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is a cell–cell adhesion molecule involved in endothelial barrier functions. Previously, we reported that cAMP-Epac-Rap1 signal enhances VE-cadherin–dependent cell adhesion. Here, we further scrutinized how cAMP-Epac-Rap1 pathway promotes stabilization of VE-cadherin at the cell–cell contacts. Forskolin induced circumferential actin bundling and accumulation of VE-cadherin fused with green fluorescence protein (VEC-GFP) on the bundled actin filaments. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analyses using VEC-GFP revealed that forskolin stabilizes VE-cadherin at cell–cell contacts. These effects of forskolin were mimicked by an activator for Epac but not by that for protein kinase A. Forskolin-induced both accumulation and stabilization of junctional VEC-GFP was impeded by latrunculin A. VE-cadherin, α-catenin, and β-catenin were dispensable for forskolin-induced circumferential actin bundling, indicating that homophilic VE-cadherin association is not the trigger of actin bundling. Requirement of α- and β-catenins for forskolin-induced stabilization of VE-cadherin on the actin bundles was confirmed by FRAP analyses using VEC-GFP mutants, supporting the classical model that α-catenin could potentially link the bundled actin to cadherin. Collectively, circumferential actin bundle formation and subsequent linkage between actin bundles and VE-cadherin through α- and β-catenins are important for the stabilization of VE-cadherin at the cell–cell contacts in cAMP-Epac-Rap1 signal-activated cells.
To identify a novel target for the treatment of heart failure, we examined gene expression in the failing heart. Among the genes analyzed, Alox15 encoding the protein 12/15 lipoxygenase (LOX) was markedly up-regulated in heart failure. To determine whether increased expression of 12/15-LOX causes heart failure, we established transgenic mice that overexpressed 12/15-LOX in cardiomyocytes. Echocardiography showed that Alox15 transgenic mice developed systolic dysfunction. Cardiac fibrosis increased in Alox15 transgenic mice with advancing age and was associated with the infiltration of macrophages. Consistent with these observations, cardiac expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) was up-regulated in Alox15 transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. Treatment with 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid, a major metabolite of 12/15-LOX, increased MCP-1 expression in cardiac fibroblasts and endothelial cells but not in cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of MCP-1 reduced the infiltration of macrophages into the myocardium and prevented both systolic dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis in Alox15 transgenic mice. Likewise, disruption of 12/15-LOX significantly reduced cardiac MCP-1 expression and macrophage infiltration, thereby improving systolic dysfunction induced by chronic pressure overload. Our results suggest that cardiac 12/15-LOX is involved in the development of heart failure and that inhibition of 12/15-LOX could be a novel treatment for this condition.