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1.  Systemic arteriosclerosis and eating behavior in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with visceral fat accumulation 
Background
Visceral fat accumulation is a major etiological factor in the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. We described previously visceral fat accumulation and multiple cardiovascular risk factors in a considerable number of Japanese non-obese subjects (BMI <25 kg/m2). Here, we investigated differences in systemic arteriosclerosis, serum adiponectin concentration, and eating behavior in type 2 diabetic patients with and without visceral fat accumulation.
Methods
The study subjects were 75 Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (age: 64.8 ± 11.5 years, mean ± SD). Visceral fat accumulation represented an estimated visceral fat area of 100 cm2 using the bioelectrical impedance analysis method. Subjects were divided into two groups; with (n = 53) and without (n = 22) visceral fat accumulation. Systemic arteriosclerosis was scored for four arteries by ultrasonography. Eating behavior was assessed based on The Guideline for Obesity questionnaire issued by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity.
Results
The visceral fat accumulation (+) group showed significantly higher systemic vascular scores and significantly lower serum adiponectin levels than the visceral fat accumulation (−) group. With respect to the eating behavior questionnaire items, (+) patients showed higher values for the total score and many of the major sub-scores than (−) patients.
Conclusions
Type 2 diabetic patients with visceral fat accumulation showed 1) progression of systemic arteriosclerosis, 2) low serum adiponectin levels, and 3) differences in eating behavior, compared to those without visceral fat accumulation. Taken together, the findings highlight the importance of evaluating visceral fat area in type 2 diabetic patients. Furthermore, those with visceral fat accumulation might need to undergo more intensive screening for systemic arteriosclerosis and consider modifying their eating behaviors.
doi:10.1186/s12933-015-0174-7
PMCID: PMC4301666  PMID: 25592402
Type 2 diabetes; Visceral fat accumulation; Adiponectin; Systemic arteriosclerosis; Vascular ultrasonography; Eating behavior
3.  Short‐ and long‐term effect of sitagliptin after near normalization of glycemic control with insulin in poorly controlled Japanese type 2 diabetic patients 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction
The aim of the present study was to examine the short‐ and long‐term effect of sitagliptin on glucose tolerance after near normalization of glycemic control with insulin in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients.
Materials and Methods
We consecutively enrolled a total of 30 type 2 diabetic patients whose glycated hemoglobin levels (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program) were ≥7.4%, stopped all oral antidiabetic drugs and started insulin therapy. When fasting plasma glucose levels became <140 mg/dL, we carried out the first oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). After 1‐week sitagliptin treatment (50 mg/day), the second OGTT was carried out. Furthermore, we evaluated the long‐term efficacy of sitagliptin on glucose tolerance after near normalization of glycemic control with insulin.
Results
After 1‐week sitagliptin treatment, the area under the curve of insulin was markedly increased, and the area under the curve of glucagon and glucose was markedly decreased. Duration of diabetes and insulin secretory capacity were correlated with the effect of sitagliptin. Furthermore, interestingly, near normalization of glycemic control with insulin therapy for 1–2 weeks brought out the long‐term effectiveness of sitagliptin on glucose tolerance for 24 weeks, which was not observed with other antidiabetic drugs.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that near normalization of glycemic control with insulin improves the clinical response to sitagliptin in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients.
doi:10.1111/jdi.12176
PMCID: PMC4188113  PMID: 25411623
Dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor; Insulin therapy; Sitagliptin
6.  Painful Diabetic Neuropathy in Japanese Diabetic Patients Is Common but Underrecognized 
Pain Research and Treatment  2013;2013:318352.
Although chronic pain due to diabetic neuropathy, defined as painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN), is a debilitating and distressing complication of diabetes, epidemiological data on PDN has been scarce, especially in Asia. We evaluated the prevalence of Japanese PDN and its impact on their quality of life (QOL) and metnal state. In addition, we examined to which extent physicians are aware of patients' PDN. A total of 298 patients with diabetes were found to be eligible for the study. We revealed that substantial percentage (22.1%) of Japanese diabetic patients had PDN and that PDN had negative effect on patients' QOL and mental state. However, physicians were aware of PDN in only 36.4% of patients with the condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the extent of physicians' awareness of patients' PDN. In conclusion, physicians treating diabetes need to be more aware of patients' PDN in everyday clinical practice to prevent the progression of PDN and improve the patients' QOL and mental state.
doi:10.1155/2013/318352
PMCID: PMC3860156  PMID: 24377045
7.  Vascular complications and changes in body mass index in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity 
Background
Although many Asian type 2 diabetic patients have been considered to be not obese and have low capacity of insulin secretion, the proportion of obese patients with visceral fat accumulation has increased in recent years. We found previously considerable number of Japanese non-obese subjects (body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2) with visceral fat accumulation and multiple cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the difference in clinical features of type 2 diabetic patients with and without visceral fat accumulation, focusing on vascular complications and changes in BMI.
Methods
We enrolled 88 Japanese hospitalized type 2 diabetic patients. Abdominal obesity represented waist circumference (WC) of ≥85 cm for males and ≥90 cm for females (corresponding to visceral fat area of 100 cm2). Subjects were divided into two groups; with or without abdominal obesity.
Results
Hypertension, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases were significantly more in the patients with abdominal obesity. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the non-obese patients (BMI < 25 kg/m2) with abdominal obesity were similar in obese patients (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). The mean BMI of the patients with abdominal obesity was < 25 kg/m2 at 20 years of age, but reached maximum to more than 30 kg/m2 in the course. Furthermore, substantial portion of the type 2 diabetic patients (52% in males and 43% in females) were not obese at 20 year-old (BMI < 25 kg/m2), but developed abdominal obesity by the time of admission.
Conclusion
These results emphasize the need to control multiple risk factors and prevent atherosclerotic disease in patients with abdominal obesity. The significant weight gain after 20 years of age in patients with abdominal obesity stresses the importance of lifestyle modification in younger generation, to prevent potential development of type 2 diabetes and future atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-12-88
PMCID: PMC3698109  PMID: 23773268
Abdominal obesity; Type 2 diabetes; Waist circumference; Visceral fat accumulation; Body mass index; Cardiovascular disease
8.  A Case of Hypocalcemia with Severe Vitamin D Deficiency following Treatment for Graves' Disease with Methimazole 
Case Reports in Endocrinology  2013;2013:512671.
We herein report the case of a 41-year-old Japanese female office worker who developed symptomatic hypocalcemia with severe vitamin D deficiency following treatment for Graves' disease with methimazole. The patient's hypocalcemia was mainly caused by vitamin D deficiency due to unbalanced diets and inadequate exposure to sunlight in addition to the resolution of hyperthyroidism. Vitamin D deficiency is increasing worldwide, and it has been more recently shown to relate to the pathogenesis of Graves' disease. However, vitamin D deficiency as a cause of hypocalcemia has received little attention. Taken together, this case suggests that we should take more care in calcium kinetics and vitamin D status during treatment for Graves' disease with antithyroid drugs.
doi:10.1155/2013/512671
PMCID: PMC3655481  PMID: 23710380
9.  Dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitors are effective in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with sustained endogenous insulin‐secreting capacity, a higher body mass index and insulin resistance 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction
Recently, dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 (DPP‐4) inhibitors have become available in Japan. It has not yet been clarified what clinical parameters could discriminate DPP‐4 inhibitor‐effective patients from DPP‐4 inhibitor‐ineffective patients.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed 33 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes admitted to Osaka University Hospital for glycemic control. All of the patients were treated with medical nutrition therapy plus insulin therapy to improve fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial glucose below 150 and 200 mg/dL, respectively. After insulin secretion and insulin resistance were evaluated, insulin was replaced by DPP‐4 inhibitors. The efficacy of DPP‐4 inhibitors was determined according to whether glycemic control was maintained at the target levels.
Results
Dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitors were effective in 16 of 33 patients. DPP‐4 inhibitor‐effective patients were younger than DPP‐4 inhibitor‐ineffective patients. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher in DPP‐4 inhibitor‐effective patients. Endogeneous insulin‐secreting capacity, including insulinogenic index (II), fasting plasma C‐peptide (F‐CPR) and C‐peptide index (CPI), was more sustained in DPP‐4 inhibitor‐effective patients than DPP‐4 inhibitor‐ineffective patients. Insulin resistance evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA‐IR) was significantly higher in DPP‐4 inhibitor‐effective patients than DPP‐4 inhibitor‐ineffective patients. In receiver operating characteristic analyses, the cut‐off values for predicting the efficacy of DPP‐4 inhibitors were 0.07 for II, 1.5 ng/mL for F‐CPR, 1.0 for CPI, 23.0 kg/m2 for BMI, 1.3 for HOMA‐IR and 67.5 years for age.
Conclusions
Dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitors were effective in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with sustained endogenous insulin‐secreting capacity, a higher BMI and insulin resistance.
doi:10.1111/jdi.12016
PMCID: PMC4019274  PMID: 24843651
Dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor; Insulin secretion; Type 2 diabetes
10.  Regular insulin, rather than rapid‐acting insulin, is a suitable choice for premeal bolus insulin in lean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to compare the usefulness of premeal rapid‐acting and regular insulin in type 2 diabetes patients. A total of 56 type 2 diabetic patients were investigated during hospitalization. Premeal rapid‐acting insulin was applied instead of other medications. Premeal insulin was titrated to adjust premeal and bedtime blood glucose levels to 81–120 mg/dL. Premeal rapid‐acting insulin was changed to regular insulin just before a meal at the same dosage if the postmeal blood glucose level was lower than the premeal blood glucose level. A total of 15 patients changed to regular insulin, and 41 patients continued rapid‐acting insulin. The blood glucose level was comparable between these two groups. Body mass index was significantly lower in the patients using regular insulin. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, low body mass index was an independent variable accounting for the usefulness of regular insulin. Regular insulin, rather than rapid‐acting insulin, is a suitable choice for premeal insulin in lean type 2 diabetic patients.
doi:10.1111/j.2040-1124.2012.00231.x
PMCID: PMC4019291  PMID: 24843634
Hypoglycemia; Insulin action; Insulin therapy
11.  A Case of Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Caused by Opioid Treatment for Nonmalignant Chronic Pain 
Case Reports in Medicine  2012;2012:740603.
We report a case of 42-year-old male patient with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. He suffered from general fatigue and erectile dysfunction after the treatment with transdermal fentanyl for chronic pain by traffic injury. Endocrine examinations and hormone stimulating tests showed that he had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormal findings, and he had no past history of accounting for acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Therefore, his hypogonadism was diagnosed to be caused by opioid treatment. Although opioid-induced endocrine dysfunctions are not widely recognized, this case suggests that we should consider the possibility of endocrine dysfunctions in patients with opioid treatment.
doi:10.1155/2012/740603
PMCID: PMC3541691  PMID: 23326276
13.  Efficacy of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, on body weight, eating behavior, and glycemic control, in Japanese obese type 2 diabetes 
Background
We recently reported that short-term treatment with liraglutide (20.0 ± 6.4 days) reduced body weight and improved some scales of eating behavior in Japanese type 2 diabetes inpatients. However, it remained uncertain whether such liraglutide-induced improvement is maintained after discharge from the hospital. The aim of the present study was to determine the long-term effects of liraglutide on body weight, glycemic control, and eating behavior in Japanese obese type 2 diabetics.
Methods
Patients with obesity (body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2) and type 2 diabetes were hospitalized at Osaka University Hospital between November 2010 and December 2011. BMI and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were examined on admission, at discharge and at 1, 3, and 6 months after discharge. For the liraglutide group (BMI; 31.3 ± 5.3 kg/m2, n = 29), patients were introduced to liraglutide after correction of hyperglycemic by insulin or oral glucose-lowering drugs and maintained on liraglutide after discharge. Eating behavior was assessed in patients treated with liraglutide using The Guideline For Obesity questionnaire issued by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity, at admission, discharge, 3 and 6 months after discharge. For the insulin group (BMI; 29.1 ± 3.0 kg/m2, n = 28), each patient was treated with insulin during hospitalization and glycemic control maintained by insulin after discharge.
Results
Liraglutide induced significant and persistent weight loss from admission up to 6 months after discharge, while no change in body weight after discharge was noted in the insulin group. Liraglutide produced significant improvements in all major scores of eating behavior questionnaire items and such effect was maintained at 6 months after discharge. Weight loss correlated significantly with the decrease in scores for recognition of weight and constitution, sense of hunger, and eating style.
Conclusion
Liraglutide produced meaningful long-term weight loss and significantly improved eating behavior in obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-107
PMCID: PMC3459720  PMID: 22973968
Liraglutide; Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1); Obesity; Eating behavior; Diabetes; Incretin
14.  Basal Insulin Requirement Is ∼30% of the Total Daily Insulin Dose in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Who Use the Insulin Pump 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(5):1089-1090.
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the basal insulin requirement in total daily insulin dose in Japanese type 1 diabetic patients who use the insulin pump.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The basal insulin requirement in 35 type 1 diabetic patients without detectable C-peptide using the insulin pump (Paradigm 712) was investigated during 2–3 weeks of hospitalization. The patients were served diabetic diets of 25–30 kcal/kg ideal body weight. Each meal omission was done to confirm stable blood glucose levels within 30 mg/dL variance until the next meal. Target blood glucose level was set at 100 mg/dL before each meal and 150 mg/dL at 2 h after each meal.
RESULTS
Total daily insulin dose was 31.6 ± 8.5 units, and total basal insulin requirement was 8.7 ± 2.9 units, which was 27.7 ± 6.9% of the total daily dose.
CONCLUSIONS
Basal insulin requirement is ∼30% of the total daily dose in Japanese type 1 diabetic patients who use the insulin pump.
doi:10.2337/dc10-2149
PMCID: PMC3114495  PMID: 21430086
16.  Relationship Between Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and the Presence and Extent of Coronary Stenosis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Carotid Atherosclerosis but Without History of Coronary Artery Disease 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(2):468-470.
OBJECTIVE
We examined the relationship between the presence and extent of coronary stenosis and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in type 2 diabetic patients without history of coronary artery disease (CAD) but with carotid atherosclerosis.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 91 type 2 diabetic patients underwent multi-slice computed tomography coronary angiography.
RESULTS
Max-IMT in the ≥50% stenosis group by multi-slice computed tomography coronary angiography estimation was significantly greater than the 0–25 and 25–50% stenosis group (2.68 ± 0.77 vs. 1.61 ± 0.49 mm, P < 0.0005, and 2.14 ± 0.81 mm, P < 0.05, respectively), and max-IMT in the 25–50% stenosis group was significantly greater than the 0–25% stenosis group (P < 0.05) after adjustment for age, sex, duration of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. In the analysis for trend through the categories of max-IMT, as max-IMT increased, the percentage of ≥50% stenosis increased and the percentage of 0–25% stenosis decreased.
CONCLUSIONS
Our data suggest that max-IMT might be closely associated with the extent of coronary stenosis in type 2 diabetic patients without history of CAD but with carotid atherosclerosis.
doi:10.2337/dc10-1222
PMCID: PMC3024369  PMID: 21270201
17.  Identification of a Portable Repression Domain and an E1A-Responsive Activation Domain in Pax4: a Possible Role of Pax4 as a Transcriptional Repressor in the Pancreas 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1999;19(12):8281-8291.
Pax4 is a paired-domain (PD)-containing transcription factor which plays a crucial role in pancreatic β/δ-cell development. In this study, we characterized the DNA-binding and transactivation properties of mouse Pax4. Repetitive rounds of PCR-based selection led to identification of the optimal DNA-binding sequences for the PD of Pax4. In agreement with the conservation of the optimal binding sequences among the Pax family transcription factors, Pax4 could bind to the potential binding sites for Pax6, another member of the Pax family also involved in endocrine pancreas development. The overexpression of Pax4 in HIT-T15 cells dose dependently inhibited the basal transcriptional activity as well as Pax6-induced activity. Detailed domain mapping analyses using GAL4-Pax4 chimeras revealed that the C-terminal region of Pax4 contains both activation and repression domains. The activation domain was active in the embryonic kidney-derived 293/293T cells and embryonal carcinoma-derived F9 cells, containing adenoviral E1A protein or E1A-like activity, respectively but was inactive or very weakly active in other cells including those of pancreatic β- and α-cell origin. Indeed, the exogenous overexpression of type 13S E1A in heterologous cell types could convert the activation domain to an active one. On the other hand, the repression domain was active regardless of the cell type. When the repression domain was linked to the transactivation domain of a heterologous transcription factor, PDX-1, it could completely abolish the transactivation potential of PDX-1. These observations suggest a primary role of Pax4 as a transcriptional repressor whose function may involve the competitive inhibition of Pax6 function. The identification of the E1A-responsive transactivation domain, however, indicates that the function of Pax4 is subject to posttranslational regulation, providing further support for the complexity of mechanisms that regulate pancreas development.
PMCID: PMC84912  PMID: 10567553

Results 1-17 (17)