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1.  Novel Developments of Mobile Sensing Based on the Integration of Microfluidic Devices and Smartphone 
Lab on a chip  2016;16(6):943-958.
Portable electronic devices and wireless communication systems enable a broad range of applications such as environmental and food safety monitoring, personalized medicine and healthcare management. Particularly, hybrid smartphone and microfluidic devices provide an integrated solution for the new generation of mobile sensing applications. Such mobile sensing based on microfluidic devices (broadly defined) and smartphones (MS2) offers a mobile laboratory for performing a wide range of bio-chemical detection and analysis functions such as water and food quality analysis, routine health tests and disease diagnosis. MS2 offers significant advantages over traditional platforms in terms of test speed and control, low cost, mobility, ease-of-operation and data management. These improvements put MS2 in a promising position in the fields of interdisciplinary basic and applied research. In particular, MS2 enables applications to remote infield testing, homecare, and healthcare in low-resource areas. The marriage of smartphones and microfluidic devices offers a powerful on-chip operating platform to enable various bio-chemical tests, remote sensing, data analysis and management in a mobile fashion. The implications of such integration are beyond telecommunication and microfluidic-related research and technology development. In this review, we will first provide the general background of microfluidic-based sensing, smartphone-based sensing, and their integration. Then, we will focus on several key application areas of MS2 by systematically reviewing the important literature in each area. We will conclude by discussing our perspectives on the opportunities, issues and future directions of this emerging novel field.
doi:10.1039/c5lc01524c
PMCID: PMC5142836  PMID: 26899264 CAMSID: cams6035
Smartphone; Microfluidic Device; Mobile Sensing; Environment and Food Safety; Point-of-Care (PoC); Health Management; Personalized Medicine
2.  A Randomized, Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Arthroscopic Debridement in Combination with Oral Medication Versus Oral Medication in Patients with Gouty Knee Arthritis 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2013;77(Suppl 2):628-634.
Gouty knee arthritis refers to a form of inflammatory diseases caused by deposits of needle-like crystals of uric acid in knee joint. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of arthroscopic debridement in combination with oral medication versus oral medication alone for the treatment of gouty knee arthritis. A total of 60 patients with gouty knee arthritis were randomized to receive either arthroscopic surgery in combination with oral medication or oral medication alone. Efficacy was assessed with the angle of motion, functions, and visual analog scale (VAS). These indices were measured prior to treatment and at 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks posttreatment. Surgery- and medication-related complications were observed. Significant differences in flexion and extension of the knee joint, lymphoma scores, and VAS were detected between the two groups at 2, 4, and 12 weeks posttreatment (P < 0.05) but not at weeks 24 and 48 posttreatment (P > 0.05) . Significant differences in these indices were detected at different time points in each group (P < 0.05), except between weeks 24 and 48 (P > 0.05). Arthroscopic surgery in combination with oral medication is superior to single oral medication in the flexion and extension of the knee joint, lymphoma scores, and pain relief (VAS) before 24 weeks, although no statistical differences were detected in the efficacy after 24 weeks, and in medication-related safety between the two groups. Although arthroscopic debridement cannot replace systemic uric acid-lowering treatments such as medication and dietary control, it is still an effective approach.
doi:10.1007/s12262-013-0949-6
PMCID: PMC4692926  PMID: 26730077
Randomized controlled trial; Gouty knee arthritis; Arthroscopic debridement
3.  Correlation between superconductivity and bond angle of CrAs chain in non-centrosymmetric compounds A2Cr3As3 (A = K, Rb) 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:37878.
Non-centrosymmetric superconductors, whose crystal structure is absent of inversion symmetry, have recently received special attentions due to the expectation of unconventional pairings and exotic physics associated with such pairings. The newly discovered superconductors A2Cr3As3 (A = K, Rb), featured by the quasi-one dimensional structure with conducting CrAs chains, belongs to such kind of superconductor. In this study, we are the first to report the finding that superconductivity of A2Cr3As3 (A = K, Rb) has a positive correlation with the extent of non-centrosymmetry. Our in-situ high pressure ac susceptibility and synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the larger bond angle of As-Cr-As (defined as α) in the CrAs chains can be taken as a key factor controlling superconductivity. While the smaller bond angle (defined as β) and the distance between the CrAs chains also affect the superconductivity due to their structural connections with the α angle. We find that the larger value of α-β, which is associated with the extent of the non-centrosymmetry of the lattice structure, is in favor of superconductivity. These results are expected to shed a new light on the underlying mechanism of the superconductivity in these Q1D superconductors and also to provide new perspective in understanding other non-centrosymmetric superconductors.
doi:10.1038/srep37878
PMCID: PMC5122944  PMID: 27886268
4.  Epidemiology Characteristics, Methodological Assessment and Reporting of Statistical Analysis of Network Meta-Analyses in the Field of Cancer 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:37208.
Because of the methodological complexity of network meta-analyses (NMAs), NMAs may be more vulnerable to methodological risks than conventional pair-wise meta-analysis. Our study aims to investigate epidemiology characteristics, conduction of literature search, methodological quality and reporting of statistical analysis process in the field of cancer based on PRISMA extension statement and modified AMSTAR checklist. We identified and included 102 NMAs in the field of cancer. 61 NMAs were conducted using a Bayesian framework. Of them, more than half of NMAs did not report assessment of convergence (60.66%). Inconsistency was assessed in 27.87% of NMAs. Assessment of heterogeneity in traditional meta-analyses was more common (42.62%) than in NMAs (6.56%). Most of NMAs did not report assessment of similarity (86.89%) and did not used GRADE tool to assess quality of evidence (95.08%). 43 NMAs were adjusted indirect comparisons, the methods used were described in 53.49% NMAs. Only 4.65% NMAs described the details of handling of multi group trials and 6.98% described the methods of similarity assessment. The median total AMSTAR-score was 8.00 (IQR: 6.00–8.25). Methodological quality and reporting of statistical analysis did not substantially differ by selected general characteristics. Overall, the quality of NMAs in the field of cancer was generally acceptable.
doi:10.1038/srep37208
PMCID: PMC5111127  PMID: 27848997
5.  Dramatically Enhanced Visible Light Response of Monolayer ZrS2 via Non-covalent Modification by Double-Ring Tubular B20 Cluster 
The ability to strongly absorb light is central to solar energy conversion. We demonstrate here that the hybrid of monolayer ZrS2 and double-ring tubular B20 cluster exhibits dramatically enhanced light absorption in the entire visible spectrum. The unique near-gap electronic structure and large built-in potential at the interface will lead to the robust separation of photoexcited charge carriers in the hybrid. Interestingly, some Zr and S atoms, which are catalytically inert in isolated monolayer ZrS2, turn into catalytic active sites. The dramatically enhanced absorption in the entire visible light makes the ZrS2/B20 hybrid having great applications in photocatalysis or photodetection.
doi:10.1186/s11671-016-1719-8
PMCID: PMC5104703  PMID: 27832524
Electronic structure; Enhanced visible-light response; ZrS2/B20 hybrid; First-principles
6.  AtTMEM18 plays important roles in pollen tube and vegetative growth in Arabidopsis  
Abstract
In flowering plants, pollen tube growth is essential for delivery of male gametes into the female gametophyte or embryo sac for double fertilization. Although many genes have been identified as being involved in the process, the molecular mechanisms of pollen tube growth remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified that the Arabidopsis Transmembrane Protein 18 (AtTMEM18) gene played important roles in pollen tube growth. The AtTMEM18 shares a high similarity with the Transmembrane 18 proteins (TMEM18s) that are conserved in most eukaryotes and may play important roles in obesity in humans. Mutation in the AtTMEM18 by a Ds insertion caused abnormal callose deposition in the pollen grains and had a significant impact on pollen germination and pollen tube growth. AtTMEM18 is expressed in pollen grains, pollen tubes, root tips and other vegetative tissues. The pollen‐rescued assays showed that the mutation in AtTMEM18 also caused defects in roots, stems, leaves and transmitting tracts. AtTMEM18‐GFP was located around the nuclei. Genetic assays demonstrated that the localization of AtTMEM18 around the nuclei in the generative cells of pollen grains was essential for the male fertility. Furthermore, expression of the rice TMEM18‐homologous protein (OsTMEM18) driven by LAT52 promoter could recover the fertility of the Arabidopsis attmem18 mutant. These results suggested that the TMEM18 is important for plant growth in Arabidopsis.
doi:10.1111/jipb.12459
PMCID: PMC5067611  PMID: 26699939
Arabidopsis; male gametophyte; plant; pollen; TMEM18; transmembrane protein
7.  A Novel Two-Step Technique for Retrieving Fractured Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Segments Migrating into the Heart or the Pulmonary Artery 
BioMed Research International  2016;2016:7814529.
Objective. To report the experience of a percutaneous technique for retrieving fractured peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) segments migrating into the heart or the pulmonary artery. Method. From April 2013 to July 2015, we performed percutaneous retrieval of fractured PICC segments migrating into the heart or the pulmonary artery in five cancer patients who had undergone chemotherapy via PICC. The fractures were diagnosed with chest plain radiography. The patients included three cases of breast cancer, one case of rectal cancer, and one case of lower limb Ewing's tumor. The fractures were retained in the vessels of the patients for 1 to 3 days. All the fractures were retrieved by using a novel two-step technique in the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) suite. This two-step technique involves inserting a pigtail catheter to the heart or the pulmonary artery to grasp the fractured catheter fragment and bring it to the lower segment of the inferior vena cava, followed by grasping and removing the catheter fragment with a retrieval loop system of the vena cava filter retrieval set. Result. The fractured PICC segments were removed successfully in all five patients via unilateral (four patients) or bilateral (one patient) femoral vein access. No complications occurred during the interventional procedure. Conclusion. Percutaneous retrieval can be a safe, convenient, and minimally invasive method for the removal of fractured PICC segments. The technique reported in this paper will be applicable for the retrieval of fractured PICC segments and other catheter fragments migrating into the heart or the pulmonary artery.
doi:10.1155/2016/7814529
PMCID: PMC5011500  PMID: 27642604
8.  Adsorption of Antibiotics on Graphene and Biochar in Aqueous Solutions Induced by π-π Interactions 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:31920.
The use of carbon based materials on the removal of antibiotics with high concentrations has been well studied, however the effect of this removal method is not clear on the actual concentration of environments, such as the hospital wastewater, sewage treatment plants and aquaculture wastewater. In this study, experimental studies on the adsorption of 7 antibiotics in environmental concentration of aqueous solutions by carbon based materials have been observed. Three kinds of carbon materials have shown very fast adsorption to antibiotics by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) detection, and the highest removal efficiency of antibiotics could reach to 100% within the range of detection limit. Surprisedly, the adsorption rate of graphene with small specific surface area was stronger than other two biochar, and adsorption rate of the two biochar which have approximate specific surface and different carbonization degree, was significantly different. The key point to the present observation were the π-π interactions between aromatic rings on adsorbed substance and carbon based materials by confocal laser scanning microscope observation. Moreover, adsorption energy markedly increased with increasing number of the π rings by using the density functional theory (DFT), showing the particular importance of π-π interactions in the adsorption process.
doi:10.1038/srep31920
PMCID: PMC4989150  PMID: 27534975
9.  Antibacterial effect of copper-bearing titanium alloy (Ti-Cu) against Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:29985.
Formation of bacterial biofilms on dental implant material surfaces (titanium) may lead to the development of peri-implant diseases influencing the long term success of dental implants. In this study, a novel Cu-bearing titanium alloy (Ti-Cu) was designed and fabricated in order to efficiently kill bacteria and discourage formation of biofilms, and then inhibit bacterial infection and prevent implant failure, in comparison with pure Ti. Results from biofilm based gene expression studies, biofilm growth observation, bacterial viability measurements and morphological examination of bacteria, revealed antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities of Ti-Cu alloy against the oral specific bacterial species, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Proliferation and adhesion assays with mesenchymal stem cells, and measurement of the mean daily amount of Cu ion release demonstrated Ti-Cu alloy to be biocompatible. In conclusion, Ti-Cu alloy is a promising dental implant material with antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities and acceptable biocompatibility.
doi:10.1038/srep29985
PMCID: PMC4960589  PMID: 27457788
10.  An investigation of the antibacterial ability and cytotoxicity of a novel cu-bearing 317L stainless steel 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:29244.
In order to solve the challenging problem of microbial infections caused by microorganisms on medical implants, it is imperative to develop novel antimicrobial biomaterials. This work demonstrated that 317L-Cu stainless steel (SS), created by adding copper through a solution and aging heat treatment process, exhibited good antibacterial properties against staphylococcus aureus, achieving 2 log reduction of planktonic cells after 5 days of incubation. In this study, the antibacterial test was performed using the plate count method, the fluorescence cell staining method and the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. It is well known that a high concentration of copper ion can lead to cytotoxicity. This work explored the cytotoxicity of 317L-Cu SS through real-time cell analysis (RTCA). Experimental results demonstrated that the 317L-Cu SS possessed a satisfactory antibacterial ability against S. aureus, and the antibacterial rate based on the reduction of sessile cell count reached 98.3% after 24-hour treatment. The bacterial adhesion and the biofilm thickness were considerably reduced by the 317L-Cu SS. The results of RTCA suggested that 317L-Cu SS did not introduce cytotoxicity to mouse cells, indicating its suitability as a medical implant material.
doi:10.1038/srep29244
PMCID: PMC4935851  PMID: 27385507
11.  Spontaneous remission of membranous glomerulonephritis with successful fetal outcome 
Medicine  2016;95(26):e4022.
Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text
Abstract
Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) represents an immunologically mediated disease characterized by deposition of immune complexes in the glomerular subepithelial space. Persistent proteinuria at diagnosis predicts poor prognosis. Pregnancy with MGN is a risk of fetal loss and may worsen maternal renal function.
Here, we report a lady with MGN and proteinuria achieved spontaneous remission and successful fetal outcome naive to any medications. The 26-year old woman had 1-year history of persistent proteinuria (5.5–12.56 g/24 hours) and biopsy-proven MGN. Histopathological characteristics included glomerular basement membrane spikes, subepithelial monoclonal IgG immunofluorescence, and diffuse electron dense deposits. She was sticking to a regular morning exercise routine without any medications. After successful delivery of a full-term baby girl, the mother had improved proteinuria (0.56 g/24 hours) and albuminuria (351.96 g/24 hours contrasting 2281.6 g/24 hours before pregnancy). The baby had normal height and body weight at 4 months old.
We identified more pregnancies with MGN in 5 case reports and 5 clinical series review articles (7–33 cases included). Spontaneous remission of maternal MGN with good fetal outcome rarely occurred in mothers on immunosuppressive therapy.
Mothers naive to immunosuppressive therapy may achieve spontaneous remission of maternal membranous glomerulonephritis and successful fetal outcome. Theoretically, fetus might donate stem cells to heal mother's kidney.
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000004022
PMCID: PMC4937936  PMID: 27368022
membranous glomerulonephritis; nephrotic syndrome; pregnancy; proteinuria; stem cell
12.  Amino Acid Thioester Derivatives: A Highly Promising Scaffold for the Development of Metallo-β-lactamase L1 Inhibitors 
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters  2015;6(6):660-664.
In light of the biomedical significance of metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs), ten new mercaptoacetic acid thioester amino acid derivatives were synthesized and characterized. Biological activity assays indicated that all these synthesized compounds are very potent inhibitors of L1, exhibiting an IC50 value range of 0.018–2.9 μM and a Ki value range of 0.11–0.95 μM using cefazolin as substrate. Partial thioesters also showed effective inhibitory activities against NDM-1 and ImiS with an IC50 value range of 12–96 and 3.6–65 μM, respectively. Also, all these thioesters increased susceptibility of E. coli cells expressing L1 to cefazolin, indicated by a 2–4-fold reduction in MIC of the antibiotic. Docking studies revealed potential binding modes of the two most potent L1 inhibitors to the active site in which the carboxylate group interacts with both Zn(II) ions and Ser221. This work introduces a highly promising scaffold for the development of metallo-β-lactamase L1 inhibitors.
doi:10.1021/acsmedchemlett.5b00098
PMCID: PMC4468392  PMID: 26101570
Antibiotic resistance; metallo-β-lactamase; subclass B3; L1; inhibitor; mercaptoacetic acid thioester
13.  Biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys with enhanced osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and long-lasting antibacterial effects 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:27374.
A series of biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys is designed to induce osteogenesis, stimulate angiogenesis, and provide long-lasting antibacterial performance at the same time. The Mg-Cu alloys with precipitated Mg2Cu intermetallic phases exhibit accelerated degradation in the physiological environment due to galvanic corrosion and the alkaline environment combined with Cu release endows the Mg-Cu alloys with prolonged antibacterial effects. In addition to no cytotoxicity towards HUVECs and MC3T3-E1 cells, the Mg-Cu alloys, particularly Mg-0.03Cu, enhance the cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, matrix mineralization, collagen secretion, osteogenesis-related gene and protein expressions of MC3T3-E1 cells, cell proliferation, migration, endothelial tubule forming, angiogenesis-related gene, and protein expressions of HUVECs compared to pure Mg. The favorable osteogenesis and angiogenesis are believed to arise from the release of bioactive Mg and Cu ions into the biological environment and the biodegradable Mg-Cu alloys with osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and long-term antibacterial ability are very promising in orthopedic applications.
doi:10.1038/srep27374
PMCID: PMC4895436  PMID: 27271057
14.  The evolving roles of canonical WNT signaling in stem cells and tumorigenesis: Implications in targeted cancer therapies 
The canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway governs a myriad of biological processes underlying development and maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis, including regulation of stem cell self-renewal, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. WNTs are secreted lipid-modified glycoproteins that act as short-range ligands to activate receptor-mediated signaling pathways. The hallmark of the canonical pathway is the activation of β-catenin mediated transcriptional activity. Canonical WNTs control the β-catenin dynamics as the cytoplasmic level of β-catenin is tightly regulated via phosphorylation by the ‘destruction complex’, consisting of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), casein kinase 1α (CK1α), the scaffold protein AXIN, and the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Aberrant regulation of this signaling cascade is associated with varieties of human diseases, especially cancers. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of canonical WNT signaling. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of WNT signaling at the extracellular, cytoplasmic membrane, and intracellular/nuclear levels, including the emerging knowledge of crosstalk with other pathways. Recent progresses in developing novel WNT pathway-targeted therapies will also be reviewed. Thus, this review is intended to serve as a refresher of the current understanding about the physiologic and pathogenic roles of WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, and to outline potential therapeutic opportunities by targeting the canonical WNT pathway.
doi:10.1038/labinvest.2015.144
PMCID: PMC4731283  PMID: 26618721
15.  Advanced imaging techniques in the therapeutic response of transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2016;22(20):4835-4847.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic liver disease. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) can significantly improve the survival rate of patients with HCC and is the first treatment choice for patients who are not suitable for surgical resections. The evaluation of the response to TACE treatment affects not only the assessment of the therapy efficacy but also the development of the next step in the treatment plan. The use of imaging to examine changes in tumor volume to assess the response of solid tumors to treatment has been controversial. In recent years, the emergence of new imaging technology has made it possible to observe the response of tumors to treatment prior to any morphological changes. In this article, the advances in studies reporting the use of computed tomography perfusion imaging, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intravoxel incoherent motion, diffusion kurtosis imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging, blood oxygen level-dependent MRI, positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography and PET/MRI to assess the TACE treatment response are reviewed.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i20.4835
PMCID: PMC4873876  PMID: 27239110
Blood oxygen level-dependent; Computed tomography perfusion imaging; Chemoembolization; Diffusion kurtosis imaging; Diffusion-weighted imaging; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging; Intravoxel incoherent motion; Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
16.  Algicidal Effects of Prodigiosin on the Harmful Algae Phaeocystis globosa 
Phaeocystis globosa blooms can have negative effects on higher trophic levels in the marine ecosystem and consequently influence human activities. Strain KA22, identified as the bacterium Hahella, was isolated from coastal surface water and used to control P. globosa growth. A methanol extract from the bacterial cells showed strong algicidal activity. After purification, the compound showed a similar structure to prodigiosin when identified with Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The compound showed algicidal activity against P. globosa with a 50% Lethal Dose (LD50) of 2.24 μg/mL. The prodigiosin was stable under heat and acid environment, and it could be degraded under alkaline environment and natural light condition. The growth rates of strain KA22 was fast in 2216E medium and the content of prodigiosin in this medium was more than 70 μg/mL after 16 h incubation. The compound showed particularly strong algicidal activity against Prorocentrum donghaiense, P. Globosa, and Heterosigma akashiwo, but having little effect on three other phytoplankton species tested. The results of our research could increase our knowledge on harmful algal bloom control compound and lead to further study on the mechanisms of the lysis effect on harmful algae.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00602
PMCID: PMC4844626  PMID: 27199932
red tide; Phaeocystis globosa; algicidal bacterium; prodigiosin; anti-algal
17.  Azolylthioacetamide: A Highly Promising Scaffold for the Development of Metallo-β-lactamase Inhibitors 
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters  2015;6(4):455-460.
A new scaffold, azolylthioacetamide, was constructed and assayed against metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs). The obtained molecules specifically inhibited MβL ImiS, and 1c was found to be the most potent inhibitor, with a Ki = 1.2 μM using imipenem as substrate. Structure–activity relationships reveal that the aromatic carboxyl improves inhibitory activity of the inhibitors, but the aliphatic carboxyl does not. Compounds 1c–d and 1h–i showed the best antibacterial activities against E. coli BL21(DE3) cells producing CcrA or ImiS, resulting in 32- and 8-fold reduction in MIC values, respectively; 1c and 1f–j resulted in a reduction in MIC against P. aeruginosa. Docking studies revealed that 1a, 1c, and 1d fit tightly into the substrate binding site of CphA as a proxy for ImiS with the aromatic carboxylate forming interactions with Lys224, the Zn(II) ion, the backbone of Asn233, and hydrophobic portions of the inhibitors aligning with hydrophobic patches of the protein surface.
doi:10.1021/ml500534c
PMCID: PMC4394341  PMID: 25893049
Antibiotic resistance; metallo-β-lactamase; subclass B2; ImiS; inhibitor; azolylthioacetamide
18.  Hand-Sewn Versus Stapled Esophagogastric Anastomosis in the Neck: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2013;77(2):133-140.
The application of cervical esophagogastric anastomoses was of great concern. However, between circular stapler (CS) and hand-sewn (HS) methods with anastomosis in the neck, which one has better postoperative effects still puzzles surgeons. This study aims to systematically evaluate the effectiveness, security, practicality, and applicability of CS compared with the HS method for the esophagogastric anastomosis after esophageal resection. A systematic literature search, as well as other additional resources, was performed which was completed in January 2013. The relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the surgical technique for esophageal resection were included. Trial data was reviewed and extracted independently by two reviewers. The quality of the included studies was assessed by the recommended standards basing on Cochrane handbook 5.1.0, and the data was analyzed via RevMan 5 software (version 5.2.0). Nine studies with 870 patients were included. The results showed that in comparing HS to CS methods with cervical anastomosis, no significant differences were found in the risk of developing anastomotic leakages (relative risk (RR) = 1.30, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.87–1.92, p = 0.20), as well as the anastomosis stricture (RR = 0.97, 95 % CI 0.47–1.99, p = 0.93), postoperative mortality (RR = 0.83, 95 % CI 0.43–1.58, p = 0.57), blood loss (mean difference (MD) = 39.68; 95 % CI −6.97, 86.33; p = 0.10) and operative time (MD = 18.05; 95 % CI −3.22, 39.33; p = 0.10). However, the results also illustrated that the CS methods with cervical anastomosis might be less time-consuming and have shorter hospital stay and higher costs. Based upon this meta-analysis, there were no differences in the postoperative outcomes between HS and CS techniques. And the ideal technique of cervical esophagogastric anastomosis following esophagectomy remains under controversy.
doi:10.1007/s12262-013-0984-3
PMCID: PMC4484531  PMID: 26139968
Circular stapler; Hand-sewn; Esophagectomy; Cervical anastomosis; Systematic review; Meta-analysis
19.  Negative short-term impact of intraoperative biliary lavage in patients with hepatolithiasis 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2016;22(11):3234-3241.
AIM: To evaluate short-term outcomes following intraoperative biliary lavage for hepatolithiasis.
METHODS: A total of 932 patients who were admitted to the West China Medical Center of Sichuan University between January 2010 and January 2014 and underwent bile duct exploration and lithotomy were retrospectively included in our study. The patients were divided into the lavage group and the control group. Related pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors were recorded, analyzed, and compared between the two groups in order to verify the effects of biliary lavage on the short-term outcome of patients with hepatolithiasis.
RESULTS: Amongst the patients who were included, 678 patients with hepatolithiasis were included in the lavage group, and the other 254 patients were enrolled in the control group. Data analyses revealed that preoperative baseline and related intraoperative variables were not significantly different. However, patients who underwent intraoperative biliary lavage had prolonged postoperative hospital stays (6.67 d vs 7.82 d, P = 0.024), higher hospitalization fees (RMB 28437.1 vs RMB 32264.2, P = 0.043), higher positive rates of bacterial cultures from blood (13.3% vs 25.8%, P = 0.001) and bile (23.6% vs 40.7%, P = 0.001) samples, and increased usage of advanced antibiotics (26.3% vs 38.2%, P = 0.001). In addition, in the lavage group, more patients had fever (> 37.5 °C, 81.4% vs 91.1%, P = 0.001) and hyperthermia (> 38.5°C,39.7% vs 54.9%, P = 0.001), and higher white blood cell counts within 7 d after the operation compared to the control group.
CONCLUSION: Intraoperative biliary lavage might increase the risk of postoperative infection, while not significantly increasing gallstone removal rate.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i11.3234
PMCID: PMC4789999  PMID: 27004001
Hepatolithiasis; Biliary lavage; Postoperative infection
20.  Reduction Impairs the Antibacterial Activity but Benefits the LPS Neutralization Ability of Human Enteric Defensin 5 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:22875.
Oxidized human defensin 5 (HD5OX), a Paneth cell-secreted antibacterial peptide with three characteristic disulfide bonds, protects the host from invasion by morbigenous microbes in the small intestine. HD5OX can be reduced by thioredoxin (Trx) in vitro, while the biochemical properties of the reduced linear peptide, HD5RED, remain unclear. Here, we first confirm that HD5RED does exist in vivo. Furthermore, we reveal that the recruitment of HD5RED to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and to the anionic lipid A is lower than that of HD5OX, and HD5RED is less efficient in penetrating bacterial outer and inner membranes and inducing membrane depolarization, which confers an attenuated antibacterial activity to HD5RED. However, due to its higher structural flexibility, the binding of HD5RED to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is markedly stronger than that of HD5OX. Consequently, HD5RED is more effective in suppressing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in LPS-stimulated macrophages by blocking the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein, thus suggesting that HD5RED might act as a scavenger to neutralize LPS in the gut. This study provides insights into the antibacterial and immunoregulatory effects of HD5RED and expands the known repertoire of the enteric defensins.
doi:10.1038/srep22875
PMCID: PMC4785407  PMID: 26960718
21.  Prospective, single-center cohort study analyzing the efficacy of complete laparoscopic resection on recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma 
Background
Laparoscopic hepatectomy is increasingly being used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, few studies have examined the treatment of recurrent HCC in patients who received a prior hepatectomy. The present prospective study compared the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic surgery with conventional open surgery in HCC patients with postoperative tumor recurrence.
Methods
We conducted a prospective study of 64 patients, all of whom had undergone open surgery once before, who were diagnosed with recurrent HCC between June 2014 and November 2014. The laparoscopic group (n = 31) underwent laparoscopic hepatectomy, and the control group (n = 33) underwent conventional open surgery. Operation time, intraoperative blood loss, surgical margins, postoperative pain scores, postoperative time until the patient could walk, anal exsufflation time, length of hospital stay, and inpatient costs were compared between the two groups. The patients were followed up for 1 year after surgery, and relapse-free survival was compared between the two groups.
Results
All surgeries were successfully completed. No conversion to open surgery occurred in the laparoscopic group, and no serious postoperative complications occurred in either group. No significant difference in inpatient costs was found between the laparoscopic group and the control group (P = 0.079), but significant differences between the two groups were observed for operation time (116.7 ± 37.5 vs. 148.2 ± 46.7 min, P = 0.031), intraoperative blood loss (117.5 ± 35.5 vs. 265.9 ± 70.3 mL, P = 0.012), postoperative time until the patient could walk (1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.2 ± 0.8 days, P < 0.05), anal exsufflation time (2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 2.8 ± 0.7 days, P = 0.041), visual analogue scale pain score (P < 0.05), postoperative hepatic function (P < 0.05), and length of hospital stay (4.5 ± 1.3 vs. 6.0 ± 1.2 days, P = 0.014). During the 1-year postoperative follow-up period, 6 patients in each group had recurrent HCC on the side of the initial operation, but no significant difference between groups was observed in the recurrence rate or relapse-free survival. In the laparoscopic group, operation time, postoperative time until the patient could walk, anal exsufflation time, and inpatient costs were not different (P > 0.05) between the patients with contralateral HCC recurrence (n = 18) and those with ipsilateral HCC recurrence (n = 13). However, intraoperative blood loss was significantly less (97.7 ± 14.0 vs. 186.3 ± 125.6 mL, P = 0.012) and the hospital stay was significantly shorter (4.2 ± 0.7 vs. 6.1 ± 1.7 days, P = 0.021) for the patients with contralateral recurrence than for those with ipsilateral recurrence.
Conclusions
For the patients who previously underwent conventional open surgical resection of HCC, complete laparoscopic resection was safe and effective for recurrent HCC and resulted in a shorter operation time, less intraoperative blood loss, and a faster postoperative recovery than conventional open surgery. Laparoscopic resection was especially advantageous for the patients with contralateral HCC recurrence.
doi:10.1186/s40880-016-0088-0
PMCID: PMC4784396  PMID: 26956022
Laparoscopic hepatectomy; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Recurrence; Relapse-free survival
22.  Objective and quantitative assessment of motor function in Parkinson’s disease—from the perspective of practical applications 
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder with high morbidity because of the coming aged society. Currently, disease management and the development of new treatment strategies mainly depend on the clinical information derived from rating scales and patients’ diaries, which have various limitations with regard to validity, inter-rater variability and continuous monitoring. Recently the prevalence of mobile medical equipment has made it possible to develop an objective, accurate, remote monitoring system for motor function assessment, playing an important role in disease diagnosis, home-monitoring, and severity evaluation. This review discusses the recent development in sensor technology, which may be a promising replacement of the current rating scales in the assessment of motor function of PD.
doi:10.21037/atm.2016.03.09
PMCID: PMC4791329  PMID: 27047949
Parkinson’s disease (PD); motor function; objective measurement; wearable sensors
23.  The Changes of HIF-1α and VEGF Expression After TACE in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
As a common malignant tumor, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high prevalence and is a serious threat to human health. The surgical resection rate of HCC is low, and the prognosis is poor. Although transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the main treatment for HCC patients who are not candidates for surgical resection, it is not considered a curative procedure. For HCC, poor TACE efficacy or TACE failure may be related to tumor angiogenesis of the residual disease. Among the many regulatory factors in tumor angiogenesis, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play vital roles in this process. In this paper, we conducted a review of the dynamic change and relevance of HIF-1α and VEGF levels after TACE of HCC patients.
doi:10.14740/jocmr2496w
PMCID: PMC4780492  PMID: 26985249
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Transarterial chemoembolization; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α
24.  Combining Whole-Brain Radiotherapy with Gefitinib/Erlotinib for Brain Metastases from Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis 
BioMed Research International  2016;2016:5807346.
Background. To comprehensively assess the efficacy and safety of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) combined with gefitinib/erlotinib for treatment of brain metastases (BM) from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods. Databases including PubMed, EMBASE.com, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to April 12, 2015. Studies on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and case-control trials comparing WBRT combined with gefitinib/erlotinib versus WBRT alone for BM from NSCLC were included. Literature selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two trained reviewers. RevMan 5.3 software was used to analyze data. Results. A total of 7 trials involving 622 patients were included. Compared with WBRT alone or WBRT plus chemotherapy, WBRT plus gefitinib/erlotinib could significantly improve response rate (OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.35–3.47; P = 0.001), remission rate of central nervous system (OR = 6.06, 95% CI: 2.57–14.29; P < 0.0001), disease control rate (OR = 3.34, 95% CI: 1.84–6.07; P < 0.0001), overall survival (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58–0.89; P = 0.002), and 1-year survival rate (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.51–3.91; P = 0.0002). In adverse events (III-IV), statistically significant differences were not found, except for rash (OR = 7.96, 95% CI: 2.02–31.34; P = 0.003) and myelosuppression (OR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.07–0.51; P = 0.0010). Conclusions. WBRT plus gefitinib/erlotinib was superior to WBRT alone and well tolerated in patients with BM from NSCLC.
doi:10.1155/2016/5807346
PMCID: PMC4783530  PMID: 27006948
25.  Molecular basis of differentiation therapy for soft tissue sarcomas 
Stem cells are undifferentiated precursor cells with the capacity for proliferation or terminal differentiation. Progression down the differentiation cascade results in a loss of proliferative potential in exchange for the differentiated phenotype. This balance is tightly regulated in the physiologic state. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that during tumorigenesis, disruptions preventing terminal differentiation allow cancer cells to maintain a proliferative, precursor cell phenotype. Current therapies (i.e., chemotherapy and radiation therapy) target the actively proliferating cells in tumor masses, which in many cases inevitably induce therapy-resistant cancer cells. It is conceivable that promising therapy regimens can be developed by treating human cancers by inducing terminal differentiation, thereby restoring the interrupted pathway and shifting the balance from proliferation to differentiation. For example, osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary bone cancer caused by differentiation defects in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for which several differentiation therapies have shown great promise. In this review, we discuss the various differentiation therapies in the treatment of human sarcomas with a focus on OS. Such therapies hold great promise as they not only inhibit tumorigenesis, but also avoid the adverse effects associated with conventional chemotherapy regimens. Furthermore, it is conceivable that a combination of conventional therapies with differentiation therapy should significantly improve anticancer efficacy and reduce drug-resistance in the clinical management of human cancers, including sarcomas.
PMCID: PMC4762605  PMID: 26912947
soft tissue tumors; Sarcomas; Osteosarcoma; Mesenchymal stem cells; lineage-specific differentiation; differentiation therapy; tumorigenesis; sarcomagenesis

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