Considering the observations that linoleic acid conjugated with paclitaxel (CLA-PTX) possesses antitumor activity against brain tumors, is able to cross the blood–brain barrier, but has poor water solubility, the purpose of this study was to prepare a novel CLA-PTX microemulsion and evaluate its activity against brain tumors in vitro and in vivo.
The in vitro cytotoxicity of a CLA-PTX microemulsion was investigated in C6 glioma cells. The in vivo antitumor activity of the CLA-PTX microemulsion was evaluated in tumor-bearing nude mice and rats. The pharmacokinetics of the CLA-PTX microemulsion were investigated in rats, and its safety was also evaluated in mice.
The average droplet size of the CLA-PTX microemulsion was approximately 176.3 ± 0.8 nm and the polydispersity index was 0.294 ± 0.024. In vitro cytotoxicity results showed that the IC50 of the CLA-PTX microemulsion was 1.61 ± 0.83 μM for a C6 glioma cell line, which was similar to that of free paclitaxel and CLA-PTX solution (P > 0.05). The antitumor activity of the CLA-PTX microemulsion against brain tumors was confirmed in our in vivo C6 glioma tumor-bearing nude mice as well as in a rat model. In contrast, Taxol® had almost no significant antitumor effect in C6 glioma tumor-bearing rats, but could markedly inhibit growth of C6 tumors in C6 glioma tumor-bearing nude mice. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that CLA-PTX in solution has a much longer circulation time and produces higher drug plasma concentrations compared with the CLA-PTX microemulsion. The results of the acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of CLA-PTX solution was 103.9 mg/kg. In contrast, the CLA-PTX microemulsion was well tolerated in mice when administered at doses up to 200 mg/kg.
CLA-PTX microemulsion is a novel formulation with significant antitumor efficacy in the treatment of brain tumors, and is safer than CLA-PTX solution.
CLA-PTX; microemulsion; pharmacokinetics; brain tumor; antitumor efficacy; safety
CyberKnife (CK), hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery, is a preferred option for the treatment of advanced refractory lung cancer which is usually inoperable. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell immunotherapy has a marked radiosensitization effect which aids the elimination of residual tumor cells in distant areas. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of CK alone and combined with CIK cell therapy for advanced refractory lung cancer. In one year, 22 patients with advanced lung cancer underwent CK therapy at a CyberKnife Center. Of these patients, 11 received CIK cell therapy before or after the CK therapy course. The median prescribed dose in the combined CK and CIK group was 35 Gy (mean, 33.8±5.0 Gy) with a median number of fractions of 5. The median dose for patients who underwent CK alone was 35 Gy (mean, 35.2±6.0 Gy). CIK cell therapy was administered according to the condition of each patient, generally 2 continuous therapeutic sessions in 2 months. The median follow-up period was 3 months. The preliminary curative efficiency rate was 81.82% for patients who underwent CK/CIK and 72.73% for those who received CK alone, according to radiographic re-examination (P>0.05). The median improvement in the Karnofsky scores of the CK/CIK group was 20 (18±10.51) compared with 10 (8.6±11.85) for those who underwent CK alone (P<0.05). The median expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) before and after treatment was 40.81 and 12.21 ng/ml, respectively, for the CK/CIK group compared with 39.04 and 26.36 ng/ml for CK alone. The median percentage of phenotype expression of the CIK cells (CD3+/CD8+ and CD3+/CD56+) in the patients who underwent CK/CIK was recorded as 64.35% (57.08±16.94%) and 15.27% (18.80±7.00%), respectively, prior to transfusion. The preliminary results of the present study suggest that CK combined with CIK cell immunotherapy improved the short-term outcomes of patients for curative efficacy, Karnofsky scores, tumor marker levels and immune status compared with alternative CK treatments, although further studies are required.
CyberKnife; stereotactic radiosurgery; cytokine-induced killer; immunotherapy; clinical efficacy
To evaluate the relationship between different hCG priming-to-oocyte retrieval intervals and assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcome.
We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index, Chinese biomedicine (CBM) literature database, and Chinese Journal Full-text Database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to November 2010. Data was extracted from the studies by two independent reviewers. Statistical analysis was performed with Cochrane Collaboration’s Review Manager (RevMan) 5.0.2. From extracted data, Risk Ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated.
5 RCTs totaling 895 participants were included. Oocyte maturation rate was higher in the long interval group compared with short interval group (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.62–0.73). There were no significant difference between the two groups with regard to fertilization rate (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.94–1.04), implantation rate (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.40–2.04), and pregnancy rate (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.58–1.08).
The percentage of mature (MII) oocytes can be increased by prolonging the interval between hCG priming and oocyte retrieval. The prolonged interval could not increase the fertilization rate, implantation rate, and pregnancy rate. Although there was evidence to confirm the results, they still need to be confirmed by large-sample, multicenter, randomized controlled trials. The time interval dependent mechanisms responsible for ART performance need to be elucidated.
Human chorionic gonadotropin; Oocyte retrieval; Time interval; Infertility; Assisted reproductive technology; Meta-analysis
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Endothelial progenitor cell (EPCs) dysfunction plays a key role in this pathogenesis. Uremic retention toxins have been reported to be in associated with EPC dysfunction. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) free adducts, including Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nepsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), are formed by physiological proteolysis of AGEs and released into plasma for urinary excretion. They are retained in CKD patients and are considered to be potential uremic toxins. Though AGEs have been demonstrated to impair EPC function in various ways, the effect of AGE free adducts on EPC function has not been studied. Thus, we examined the role of CML and CEL in the regulation of growth-factor-dependent function in cultured human EPCs and the mechanisms by which they may affect EPC function.
Late outgrowth EPCs were incubated with different concentrations of CML or CEL for up to 72 hours. Cell proliferation was determined using WST-1 and BrdU assays. Cell apoptosis was tested with annexin V staining. Migration and tube formation assays were used to evaluate EPC function.
Though CML and CEL were determined to have anti-proliferative effects on EPCs, cells treated with concentrations of CML and CEL in the range found in CKD patients had no observable impairment on migration or tube formation. CML and CEL did not induce EPC apoptosis. The reduced growth response was accompanied by significantly less phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs).
Our study revealed that CML and CEL at uremic concentrations have low biological toxicity when separately tested. The biologic effects of AGE free adducts on the cardiovascular system merit further study.
Endothelial progenitor cells; Mitogen-activated protein kinases; Nϵ-(carboxyethyl)lysine; Nϵ-(carboxymethyl)lysine; Uremic toxins
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells which reside in many tissues and can give rise to multiple lineages including bone, cartilage and adipose. Although MSCs have attracted significant attention for basic and translational research, primary MSCs have limited life span in culture which hampers MSCs' broader applications. Here, we investigate if mouse mesenchymal progenitors can be conditionally immortalized with SV40 large T antigen and maintain long-term cell proliferation without compromising their multipotency. Using the system which expresses SV40 large T antigen flanked with Cre/loxP sites, we demonstrate that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) can be efficiently immortalized by SV40 large T antigen. The conditionally immortalized MEFs (iMEFs) exhibit an enhanced proliferative activity and maintain long-term cell proliferation, which can be reversed by Cre recombinase. The iMEFs express most MSC markers and retain multipotency as they can differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages under appropriate differentiation conditions in vitro and in vivo. The removal of SV40 large T reduces the differentiation potential of iMEFs possibly due to the decreased progenitor expansion. Furthermore, the iMEFs are apparently not tumorigenic when they are subcutaneously injected into athymic nude mice. Thus, the conditionally immortalized iMEFs not only maintain long-term cell proliferation but also retain the ability to differentiate into multiple lineages. Our results suggest that the reversible immortalization strategy using SV40 large T antigen may be an efficient and safe approach to establishing long-term cell culture of primary mesenchymal progenitors for basic and translational research, as well as for potential clinical applications.
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) play important roles in insect olfaction. The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Delphacidae, Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera) is one of the most important rice pests. Its monophagy (only feeding on rice), wing form (long and short wing) variation, and annual long distance migration (seeking for rice plants of high nutrition) imply that the olfaction would play a central role in BPH behavior. However, the olfaction related proteins have not been characterized in this insect.
Full length cDNA of three OBPs were obtained and distinct expression profiles were revealed regarding to tissue, developmental stage, wing form and gender for the first time for the species. The results provide important clues in functional differentiation of these genes. Binding assays with 41 compounds demonstrated that NlugOBP3 had markedly higher binding ability and wider binding spectrum than the other two OBPs. Terpenes and Ketones displayed higher binding while Alkanes showed no binding to the three OBPs. Focused on NlugOBP3, RNA interference experiments showed that NlugOBP3 not only involved in nymph olfaction on rice seedlings, but also had non-olfactory functions, as it was closely related to nymph survival.
NlugOBP3 plays important roles in both olfaction and survival of BPH. It may serve as a potential target for developing behavioral disruptant and/or lethal agent in N. lugens.
Since the first human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line was generated by Thomson et al. (in Science 282:1145–1147, 1998), hundreds of hESC lines have been reported by different labs, providing resources for basic research and regenerative medicine as well. However it has been widely recognized that hESC lines varied on their properties, in terms of gene expression profile, epigenetic modify profile, and differentiation tendency. Generation of more hESC lines will largely enhance our knowledge of hESCs innate character. In this current work, we reported the generation of HN4, a hESC line derived from grade III IVF human embryo by using a mixture of human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) as feeder layers, and a whole-mechanical method in inner cell mass (ICM) isolation. HN4 satisfied the criteria of hESCs pluripotency, with high expression of hESC surface markers (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81), transcription factors (OCT-4, NANOG, REX-1), and alkaline phosphatase. It is able to differentiate to three germ layer derivatives when cultured in vitro, or in teratoma formation. Moreover, it displayed promising potential in neural differentiation under a proper culture condition, suggesting the advantage of HN4 in further investigation. Additionally, the whole-mechanical protocol for ICM isolation facilitates hESC line generation for its ease to handle.
Human stem cells; ICM mechanical isolation; Mixed feeder layer; Neural differentiation
The cell wall is important for pollen tube growth, but little is known about the molecular mechanism that controls cell wall deposition in pollen tubes. Here, the functional characterization of the pollen-expressed Arabidopsis cellulose synthase-like D genes CSLD1 and CSLD4 that are required for pollen tube growth is reported. Both CSLD1 and CSLD4 are highly expressed in mature pollen grains and pollen tubes. The CSLD1 and CSLD4 proteins are located in the Golgi apparatus and transported to the plasma membrane of the tip region of growing pollen tubes, where cellulose is actively synthesized. Mutations in CSLD1 and CSLD4 caused a significant reduction in cellulose deposition in the pollen tube wall and a remarkable disorganization of the pollen tube wall layers, which disrupted the genetic transmission of the male gametophyte. In csld1 and csld4 single mutants and in the csld1 csld4 double mutant, all the mutant pollen tubes exhibited similar phenotypes: the pollen tubes grew extremely abnormally both in vitro and in vivo, which indicates that CSLD1 and CSLD4 are not functionally redundant. Taken together, these results suggest that CSLD1 and CSLD4 play important roles in pollen tube growth, probably through participation in cellulose synthesis of the pollen tube wall.
Arabidopsis; cell wall; cellulose; CSLD1; CSLD4; pollen tube
Stem cells are characterized by their capability to self-renew and terminally differentiate into multiple cell types. Somatic or adult stem cells have a finite self-renewal capacity and are lineage-restricted. The use of adult stem cells for therapeutic purposes has been a topic of recent interest given the ethical considerations associated with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells that can differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, or myogenic lineages. Owing to their ease of isolation and unique characteristics, MSCs have been widely regarded as potential candidates for tissue engineering and repair. While various signaling molecules important to MSC differentiation have been identified, our complete understanding of this process is lacking. Recent investigations focused on the role of epigenetic regulation in lineage-specific differentiation of MSCs have shown that unique patterns of DNA methylation and histone modifications play an important role in the induction of MSC differentiation toward specific lineages. Nevertheless, MSC epigenetic profiles reflect a more restricted differentiation potential as compared to ES cells. Here we review the effect of epigenetic modifications on MSC multipotency and differentiation, with a focus on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. We also highlight clinical applications of MSC epigenetics and nuclear reprogramming.
Osteosarcoma (OS) is associated with poor prognosis due to its high incidence of metastasis and chemoresistance. It often arises in areas of rapid bone growth in long bones during the adolescent growth spurt. Although certain genetic conditions and alterations increase the risk of developing OS, the molecular pathogenesis is poorly understood. Recently, defects in differentiation have been linked to cancers, as they are associated with high cell proliferation. Treatments overcoming these defects enable terminal differentiation and subsequent tumor inhibition. OS development may be associated with defects in osteogenic differentiation. While early regulators of osteogenesis are unable to bypass these defects, late osteogenic regulators, including Runx2 and Osterix, are able to overcome some of the defects and inhibit tumor propagation through promoting osteogenic differentiation. Further understanding of the relationship between defects in osteogenic differentiation and tumor development holds tremendous potential in treating OS.
Mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) are nonhematopoietic multipotent cells capable of differentiating into mesenchymal and nonmesenchymal lineages. While they can be isolated from various tissues, MPCs isolated from the bone marrow are best characterized. These cells represent a subset of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) which, in addition to their differentiation potential, are critical in supporting proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. They are of clinical interest because they can be easily isolated from bone marrow aspirates and expanded in vitro with minimal donor site morbidity. The BMSCs are also capable of altering disease pathophysiology by secreting modulating factors in a paracrine manner. Thus, engineering such cells to maximize therapeutic potential has been the focus of cell/gene therapy to date. Here, we discuss the path towards the development of clinical trials utilizing BMSCs for orthopaedic applications. Specifically, we will review the use of BMSCs in repairing critical-sized defects, fracture nonunions, cartilage and tendon injuries, as well as in metabolic bone diseases and osteonecrosis. A review of www.ClinicalTrials.gov of the United States National Institute of Health was performed, and ongoing clinical trials will be discussed in addition to the sentinel preclinical studies that paved the way for human investigations.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone with poorly characterized molecular pathways important in its pathogenesis. Increasing evidence indicates that elevated lipid biosynthesis is a characteristic feature of cancer. We sought to investigate the role of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase β (LPAATβ, aka, AGPAT2) in regulating the proliferation and growth of human osteosarcoma cells. LPAATβ can generate phosphatidic acid, which plays a key role in lipid biosynthesis as well as in cell proliferation and survival. Although elevated expression of LPAATβ has been reported in several types of human tumors, the role of LPAATβ in osteosarcoma progression has yet to be elucidated.
Endogenous expression of LPAATβ in osteosarcoma cell lines is analyzed by using semi-quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of LPAATβ and silencing LPAATβ expression is employed to determine the effect of LPAATβ on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro and osteosarcoma tumor growth in vivo. We have found that expression of LPAATβ is readily detected in 8 of the 10 analyzed human osteosarcoma lines. Exogenous expression of LPAATβ promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration, while silencing LPAATβ expression inhibits these cellular characteristics. We further demonstrate that exogenous expression of LPAATβ effectively promotes tumor growth, while knockdown of LPAATβ expression inhibits tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft model of human osteosarcoma.
Our results strongly suggest that LPAATβ expression may be associated with the aggressive phenotypes of human osteosarcoma and that LPAATβ may play an important role in regulating osteosarcoma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Thus, targeting LPAATβ may be exploited as a novel therapeutic strategy for the clinical management of osteosarcoma. This is especially attractive given the availability of selective pharmacological inhibitors.
Advanced glycation products (AGEs), as endogenous inflammatory mediator, compromise the physiological function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs have a potential role in cell replacement therapy in acute myocardial infarction and ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, mechanisms of AGEs on MSCs are still not unveiled.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), genes regulation, cell proliferation and migration have been detected by AGE-BSA stimulated MSCs.
We found that in vitro stimulation with AGE-BSA induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibited dose-dependently proliferation and migration of MSCs. Microarray and molecular biological assessment displayed an increased expression and secretion of Ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl4 and Il1b in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These chemokines/cytokines of equivalent concentration to those in conditioned medium exerted an inhibitory effect on MSC proliferation and migration after stimulation for 24 h. Transient elevation of phospho-p38 in MSCs upon AGE-BSA stimulation was blocked with p38 inhibitor.
The study indicates that AGE-BSA induces production of chemokines/cytokines in a dose- and time-dependent manner via activation of ROS-p38 mediated pathway. These chemokines/cytokines exert an inhibitory effect on MSC growth and migration, suggesting an amplified dysfunction of MSCs by AGEs.
Notch1 is an important regulator of intercellular interactions in cardiovascular development. We show that the nuclear-localized, cleaved and active form of Notch1, the Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD), appeared in mesothelial cells of the pro-epicardium during epicardial formation at looped heart stages. N1ICD was also present in mesothelial cells and mesenchymal cells specifically within the epicardium at sulcus regions. N1ICD-positive endothelial cells were detected within the nascent vessel plexus at the atrio-ventricular junction and within the compact myocardium (HH25-30). The endothelial cells expressing N1ICD were surrounded by N1ICD positive smooth muscle cells after coronary orifice formation (HH32-35), while N1ICD expression was absent in the mesenchymal and mesothelial cells surrounding mature coronary vessels. We propose that differential activation of the hypoxia/HIF1-VEGF-Notch pathway may play a role in epicardial cell interactions that promote epicardial EMT and coronary progenitor cell differentiation during epicardial development and coronary vasculogenesis in particularly hypoxic sulcus regions.
chicken embryo; heart development; coronary development; Notch1ICD; pro-epicardial organ; epicardium-derived cells
In order to study the daily Pb absorption in fetus and to monitor the main Pb sources in prenatal fetus, we have investigated several cases of Pb distribution along the longitudinal axis of fetal hair. The changes of Pb levels in the pregnancy period, even the daily changes of Pb levels can be detected in the hair. Therefore, by analyzing the Pb distribution curves in the fetal hair and the living habits of their mothers, the main sources of Pb in the prenatal fetus can be evaluated. In our study, the main sources of Pb in the two cases of prenatal fetus studied here should be from the polluted aquatics.
Synchrotron radiation micro XRF analysis; Fetal hair; Lead
As one of the least studied bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), BMP9 is one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is known to play an important role in development, differentiation and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigate the effect of RA signaling on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs).
Both primary MPCs and MPC line are used for BMP9 and RA stimulation. Recombinant adenoviruses are used to deliver BMP9, RARα and RXRα into MPCs. The in vitro osteogenic differentiation is monitored by determining the early and late osteogenic markers and matrix mineralization. Mouse perinatal limb explants and in vivo MPC implantation experiments are carried out to assess bone formation. We find that both 9CRA and ATRA effectively induce early osteogenic marker, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and late osteogenic markers, such as osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC). BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation and mineralization is synergistically enhanced by 9CRA and ATRA in vitro. 9CRA and ATRA are shown to induce BMP9 expression and activate BMPR Smad-mediated transcription activity. Using mouse perinatal limb explants, we find that BMP9 and RAs act together to promote the expansion of hypertrophic chondrocyte zone at growth plate. Progenitor cell implantation studies reveal that co-expression of BMP9 and RXRα or RARα significantly increases trabecular bone and osteoid matrix formation.
Our results strongly suggest that retinoid signaling may synergize with BMP9 activity in promoting osteogenic differentiation of MPCs. This knowledge should expand our understanding about how BMP9 cross-talks with other signaling pathways. Furthermore, a combination of BMP9 and retinoic acid (or its agonists) may be explored as effective bone regeneration therapeutics to treat large segmental bony defects, non-union fracture, and/or osteoporotic fracture.
A novel angucycline metabolite, 2,3-dehydro-UWM6, was identified in a jadH mutant of Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230. Both UWM6 and 2,3-dehydro-UWM6 could be converted to jadomycin A or B by a ketosynthase a (jadA) mutant of S. venezuelae. These angucycline intermediates were also converted to jadomycin A by transformant of the heterologous host Streptomyces lividans expressing the jadFGH oxygenases in vivo and by its cell-free extracts in vitro; thus the three gene products JadFGH are implicated in catalysis of the post-polyketide synthase biosynthetic reactions converting UWM6 to jadomycin aglycone. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicate that JadH possesses dehydrase activity, not previously associated with polyketide-modifying oxygenase. Since the formation of aromatic polyketides often requires multiple dehydration steps, bifunctionality of oxygenases modifying aromatic polyketides may be a general phenomenon.
Cytotoxic activities of jadomycin B and five new jadomycin derivatives against four cancer cell lines (HepG2, IM-9, IM-9/Bcl-2 and H460) were evaluated. Jadomycin S was most potent against HepG2, IM-9 and IM-9/Bcl-2 while jadomycin F was most potent against H460. Their potencies correlated with the degrees of apoptosis induced. Structure-activity-relationship analyses clearly demonstrate that the side chains of the oxazolone ring derived from the incorporated amino acids make a significant impact on biological activity. Therefore, jadomycin offers an ideal scaffold to manipulate structure and could be exploited to make many novel bioactive compounds with altered activities.
jadomycin; derivative; Streptomyces venezuelae; cytotoxic
Membrane proteins are an important class of proteins, playing a key role in many biological processes, and are a promising target in pharmaceutical development. However, membrane proteins are often difficult to produce in large quantities for the purpose of crystallographic or biochemical analyses.
In this paper, we demonstrate that synthetic gene circuits designed specifically to overexpress certain genes can be applied to manipulate the expression kinetics of a model membrane protein, cytochrome bd quinol oxidase in E. coli, resulting in increased expression rates. The synthetic circuit involved is an engineered, autoinducer-independent variant of the lux operon activator LuxR from V. fischeri in an autoregulatory, positive feedback configuration.
Our proof-of-concept experiments indicate a statistically significant increase in the rate of production of the bd oxidase membrane protein. Synthetic gene networks provide a feasible solution for the problem of membrane protein production.
In the title compound, C15H13BrN2O, the pyrimidine ring adopts a skew boat conformation. The amino H atom forms an intermolecular hydrogen bond with the carbonyl O atom of an adjacent molecule, forming an inversion dimer. Another lone pair of electrons on the same carbonyl O atom acts as acceptor for another N—H⋯O intermolecular hydrogen bond with a neighbouring molecule, forming chains along the c axis.
KATP channels are metabolic sensors and targets of potassium channel openers (KCO; e.g. diazoxide and pinacidil). They comprise four sulfonylurea receptors (SUR) and four potassium channel subunits (Kir6) and are critical in regulating insulin secretion. Different SUR subtypes (SUR1, SUR2A, SUR2B) largely determine the metabolic sensitivities and the pharmacologoical profiles of KATP channels. SUR1-but not SUR2-containing channels are highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition and diazoxide while SUR2-channels are sensitive to pinacidil. It is generally believed that SUR1 and SUR2 are incompatible in channel coassembly. We used triple tandems, T1 and T2, each containing one SUR (SUR1 or SUR2A) and two Kir6.2Δ26 (last 26 residues are deleted) to examine the coassembly of different SUR. When T1 or T2 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes, small whole-cell currents were activated by metabolic inhibition (induced by azide) plus a KCO (diazoxide for T1, pinacidil for T2). When coexpressed with any SUR subtype, the activated-currents were increased 2 to 13-fold, indicating that different SUR can coassemble. Consistent with this, heteromeric SUR1+SUR2A channels were sensitive to azide, diazoxide, pinacidil and their single-channel burst duration was 2-fold longer than that of the T1 channels. Furthermore, SUR2A was coprecipitated with SUR1. Using whole-cell recording and immunostaining, heteromeric channels could also be detected when T1 and SUR2A were coexpressed in mammalian cells. Finally, the response of the SUR1+SUR2A channels to azide was found to be intermediate to those of the homomeric channels. Therefore, different SUR subtypes can coassemble into KATP channels with distinct metabolic sensitivities and pharmacological profiles.
Cytochrome bd catalyzes the two-electron oxidation of either ubiquinol or menaquinol and the four-electron reduction of O2 to H2O. In the current work, the rates of reduction of the fully oxidized and oxoferryl forms of the enzyme by the 2-electron donor ubiquinol-1 and single electron donor TMPD have been examined by stopped-flow techniques. Reduction of the all-ferric form of the enzyme is 1000-fold slower than required for a step in the catalytic cycle, whereas the observed rates of reduction of the oxoferryl and singly-reduced forms of the cytochrome are consistent with the catalytic turnover. The data support models of the catalytic cycle which do not include the fully oxidized form of the enzyme as an intermediate.
cytochrome bd; ubiquinol; respiration
SCFFbx4 was recently identified as the E3 ligase for cyclin D1. We now describe cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation and dimerization of Fbx4 that is regulated by GSK3β and defective in human cancer. We present data demonstrating that a pathway involving Ras-Akt-GSK3β controls the temporal phosphorylation and dimerization of the SCFFbx4 E3 ligase. Inhibition of Fbx4 activity results in accumulation of nuclear cyclin D1 and oncogenic transformation. The importance of this regulatory pathway for normal cell growth is emphasized by the prevalence of mutations in Fbx4 in human cancer that impair dimerization. Collectively, this data reveals that inactivation of the cyclin D1 E3 ligase will likely contribute to cyclin D1 overexpression in a significant fraction of human cancer.
Cyclin D1; Fbx4; esophageal cancer; GSK3β
The title compound, C14H11N3O3, adopts an E conformation, with a dihedral angle of 41.8 (1) ° between the mean planes of the two benzene rings. One of the amino H atoms forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond with the amide N atom, while the other H atom forms an intermolecular hydrogen bond with the carbonyl O atom of an adjacent molecule, forming dimers about inversion centers. A non-classical intermolecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond also links adjacent molecules into dimers.