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1.  Intraoperative defibrillation threshold testing and postoperative long-term efficacy of cardioverter-defibrillator implantation 
The aim of this study was to determine the defibrillation threshold (DFT) of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and outcomes of treatment. Sixty-four patients received cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. During implantation, the DFT was determined by the defibrillation safety margin (DSM). All patients were followed up for 12–48 months after the implantation. The overall DFT was 14.27±2.56 J and the DSM was 18.40±1.89 J. Malignant ventricular arrhythmias occurred in 42 patients following cardioverter-defibrillator implantation including 500 episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and 289 episodes of persistent VT. VT was treated using antitachycardia pacing (ATP); 265 episodes were treated successfully by a single ATP treatment (91.69%) and 12 episodes were treated successfully by two ATP treatments (4.15%). Twelve episodes were converted by low-energy electrical cardioversion (4.15%). A total of 175 ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes were identified, of which 18 episodes automatically terminated prior to treatment. In total, 146 episodes were converted by a single cardioversion with a defibrillation energy of 13.21±2.58 J and 11 episodes were converted by two cardioversions with a defibrillation energy of 16.19±2.48 J. It is safe and feasible to determine the DFT by DSM measurement during cardioverterdefibrillator implantation.
doi:10.3892/etm.2012.797
PMCID: PMC3524161  PMID: 23251292
implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; defibrillation threshold; ventricular arrhythmia
2.  Effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptors and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the heart and aorta in type 2 diabetic rats 
Background
Diabetic cardiovascular disease is associated with decreased adiponectin and increased oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (adipoR2) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits in the heart and the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) in aorta in type 2 diabetic rats.
Methods
Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet and intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). Heart function, adipoR2, p22phox, NOX4, glucose transporter 4(GLUT4), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)in the heart, and adipoR1, MCP-1 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in aorta were analyzed in controls and diabetic rats treated with or without telmisartan (5mg/kg/d) by gavage for 12 weeks.
Results
Heart function, plasma and myocardial adiponectin levels, the expression of myocardial adipoR2 and GLUT4 were significantly decreased in diabetic rats (P <0.05). The expression of myocardial p22phox, NOX4, MCP-1, and CTGF was significantly increased in diabetic rats (P <0.05). The expression of adipoR1 was decreased and the expression of MCP-1 and NF-κB was increased in the abdominal aorta in diabetic rats (P <0.05). Telmisartan treatment significantly attenuated these changes in diabetic rats (P <0.05).
Conclusions
Our results suggest that telmisartan upregulates the expression of myocardial adiponectin, its receptor 2 and GLUT4. Simultaneously, it downregulates the expression of myocardial p22phox, NOX4, MCP-1, and CTGF, contributing so to the improvement of heart function in diabetic rats. Telmisartan also induces a protective role on the vascular system by upregulating the expression of adipoR1 and downregulating the expression of MCP-1 and NF-κB in the abdominal aorta in diabetic rats.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-94
PMCID: PMC3471013  PMID: 22873349
Telmisartan; Adiponectin receptor; NADPH oxidase; Type 2 diabetic; Cardiac; Aorta

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