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1.  Overview of saxagliptin efficacy and safety in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease 
Most individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have or will develop multiple independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and treating these patients is challenging. The risk of hypoglycemia, weight gain, or fluid retention with some diabetes medications should be considered when developing a treatment plan for individuals with a history of CAD or at risk for CAD. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are oral antihyperglycemic agents that inhibit the breakdown of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, resulting in increased glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppression of glucagon secretion. Saxagliptin is a potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor that improves glycemic control and is generally well tolerated when used as monotherapy and as add-on therapy to other antihyperglycemic medications. This review summarizes findings from recently published post hoc analyses of saxagliptin clinical trials that have been conducted in patients with and without a history of cardiovascular disease and in patients with and without various risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results show that saxagliptin was generally well tolerated and consistently improved glycemic control, as assessed by reductions from baseline in glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose concentration, and postprandial glucose concentration, regardless of the presence or absence of baseline cardiovascular disease, hypertension, statin use, number of cardiovascular risk factors, or high Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk score.
PMCID: PMC4278729  PMID: 25565858
cardiovascular disease; dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors; incretin; saxagliptin; type 2 diabetes mellitus
2.  Dyslipidemia in women: etiology and management 
Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent among women. The management of dyslipidemia is a cornerstone in the prevention of both primary and secondary cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and coronary death. All major international guidelines on the treatment of dyslipidemia recommend similar approaches to the management of dyslipidemia in both men and women. Estrogen replacement therapy should not be considered as a therapeutic option for managing dyslipidemia in women. The reduction of atherogenic lipoprotein burden (reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol based on risk-stratified thresholds and treatment targets) provided the framework for managing dyslipidemia in the US, Europe, Canada, and elsewhere in the world. Very recently, new guidelines in the US have changed this paradigm, whereby rather than focusing on treatment targets, risk now defines the intensity of treatment with statin therapy, with no specific goals for what level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol should be attained. It is not clear if this will lead to changes in lipid guidelines in other parts of the world. In the meantime, region-specific guidelines should be followed. Lipid lowering with statin therapy does correlate with reductions in cardiovascular event rates in women. The clinical impact of treating dyslipidemias in women with nonstatin drugs (eg, fibrates, nicotinic acid, bile acid-binding resins, omega-3 fish oils) is as yet not determined.
PMCID: PMC3923614  PMID: 24532973
dyslipidemia; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; statins
3.  The role of plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to predict cardiovascular outcomes in chronic kidney disease 
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is substantially increased in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Triglycerides (TG) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is an indirect measure of insulin resistance and an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. No study to date has been performed to evaluate whether the TG/HDL-C ratio predicts CVD risk in patients with CKD.
A total of 197 patients (age 53 ± 12 years) with CKD Stages 1 to 5, were enrolled in this longitudinal, observational, retrospective study. TG/HDL-C ratio, HOMA-IR indexes, serum asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorous, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and albumin levels were measured. Flow mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery was assessed by using high-resolution ultrasonography.
A total of 11 cardiovascular (CV) deaths and 43 nonfatal CV events were registered in a mean follow-up period of 30 (range 9 to 35) months. Subjects with TG/HDL-C ratios above the median values (>3.29) had significantly higher plasma ADMA, PTH, and phosphorous levels (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, p = 0.01 respectively) and lower eGFR and FMD values (p = 0.03, p < 0.001 respectively). The TG/HDL-C ratio was an independent determinant of FMD (β = −0.25 p = 0.02) along with TG, HDL-C, hsCRP, serum albumin, phosphate levels, systolic blood pressure, PTH, eGFR and the presence of diabetes mellitus. The TG/HDL-C ratio was also a significant independent determinant of cardiovascular outcomes [HR: 1.36 (1.11-1.67) (p = 0.003)] along with plasma ADMA levels [HR: 1.31 (1.13-1.52) (p < 0.001)] and a history of diabetes mellitus [HR: 4.82 (2.80-8.37) (p < 0.001)].
This study demonstrates that the elevated TG/HDL-C ratio predicts poor CVD outcome in subjects with CKD. Being a simple, inexpensive, and reproducible marker of CVD risk, the TG/HDL-C ratio may emerge as a novel and reliable indicator among the many well-established markers of CVD risk in CKD.
Systematic review registration
Clinical trial registration number and date: NCT02113462 / 10-04-2014.
PMCID: PMC4407467  PMID: 25885289
Asymmetric dimethyl arginine; Chronic kidney disease; Flow mediated dilatation; Triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio
4.  Statin intolerance – an attempt at a unified definition. Position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel 
Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. They are usually well tolerated and effectively prevent cardiovascular events. Most adverse effects associated with statin therapy are muscle-related. The recent statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has focused on statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and avoided the use of the term ‘statin intolerance’. Although muscle syndromes are the most common adverse effects observed after statin therapy, excluding other side effects might underestimate the number of patients with statin intolerance, which might be observed in 10–15% of patients. In clinical practice, statin intolerance limits effective treatment of patients at risk of, or with, cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the most common adverse effects of statin therapy that might cause statin intolerance and the clear definition of this phenomenon is crucial to effectively treat patients with lipid disorders. Therefore, the aim of this position paper was to suggest a unified definition of statin intolerance, and to complement the recent EAS statement on SAMS, where the pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management were comprehensively presented.
PMCID: PMC4379380  PMID: 25861286
definition; muscle symptoms; risk factors; statin intolerance
5.  Comparison of a Novel Method vs the Friedewald Equation for Estimating Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels From the Standard Lipid Profile 
JAMA  2013;310(19):2061-2068.
In clinical and research settings worldwide, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is typically estimated using the Friedewald equation. This equation assumes a fixed factor of 5 for the ratio of triglycerides to very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG:VLDL-C); however, the actual TG:VLDL-C ratio varies significantly across the range of triglyceride and cholesterol levels.
To derive and validate a more accurate method for LDL-C estimation from the standard lipid profile using an adjustable factor for the TG:VLDL-C ratio.
We used a convenience sample of consecutive clinical lipid profiles obtained from 2009 through 2011 from 1 350 908 children, adolescents, and adults in the United States. Cholesterol concentrations were directly measured after vertical spin density-gradient ultracentrifugation, and triglycerides were directly measured. Lipid distributions closely matched the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Samples were randomly assigned to derivation (n = 900 605) and validation (n = 450 303) data sets.
Individual patient-level concordance in clinical practice guideline LDL-C risk classification using estimated vs directly measured LDL-C (LDL-CD).
In the derivation data set, the median TG:VLDL-C was 5.2 (IQR, 4.5–6.0). The triglyceride and non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels explained 65% of the variance in the TG:VLDL-C ratio. Based on strata of triglyceride and non–HDL-C values, a 180-cell table of median TG:VLDL-C values was derived and applied in the validation data set to estimate the novel LDL-C (LDL-CN). For patients with triglycerides lower than 400 mg/dL, overall concordance in guideline risk classification with LDL-CD was 91.7% (95% CI, 91.6%–91.8%) for LDL-CN vs 85.4% (95% CI, 85.3%–85.5%) for Friedewald LDL-C (LDL-CF) (P < .001). The greatest improvement in concordance occurred in classifying LDL-C lower than 70 mg/dL, especially in patients with high triglyceride levels. In patients with an estimated LDL-C lower than 70 mg/dL, LDL-CD was also lower than 70 mg/dL in 94.3% (95% CI, 93.9%–94.7%) for LDL-CN vs 79.9% (95% CI, 79.3%–80.4%) for LDL-CF in samples with triglyceride levels of 100 to 149 mg/dL; 92.4% (95% CI, 91.7%–93.1%) for LDL-CN vs 61.3% (95% CI, 60.3%–62.3%) for LDL-CF in samples with triglyceride levels of 150 to 199 mg/dL; and 84.0% (95% CI, 82.9%–85.1%) for LDL-CN vs 40.3% (95% CI, 39.4%–41.3%) for LDL-CF in samples with triglyceride levels of 200 to 399 mg/dL (P < .001 for each comparison).
A novel method to estimate LDL-C using an adjustable factor for the TG:VLDL-C ratio provided more accurate guideline risk classification than the Friedewald equation. These findings require external validation, as well as assessment of their clinical importance. The implementation of these findings into clinical practice would be straightforward and at virtually no cost.
TRIAL REGISTRATION Identifier: NCT01698489
PMCID: PMC4226221  PMID: 24240933
6.  Ezetimibe therapy: mechanism of action and clinical update 
The lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the primary target of therapy in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Although statin therapy is the mainstay for LDL-C lowering, a significant percentage of patients prescribed these agents either do not achieve targets with statin therapy alone or have partial or complete intolerance to them. For such patients, the use of adjuvant therapy capable of providing incremental LDL-C reduction is advised. One such agent is ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor that targets uptake at the jejunal enterocyte brush border. Its primary target of action is the cholesterol transport protein Nieman Pick C1 like 1 protein. Ezetimibe is an effective LDL-C lowering agent and is safe and well tolerated. In response to significant controversy surrounding the use and therapeutic effectiveness of this drug, we provide an update on the biochemical mechanism of action for ezetimibe, its safety and efficacy, as well as the results of recent randomized studies that support its use in a variety of clinical scenarios.
PMCID: PMC3402055  PMID: 22910633
bile; coronary artery disease; ezetimibe; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; Nieman pick C1 like 1 protein; statin
7.  Niacin extended-release/simvastatin combination therapy produces larger favorable changes in high-density lipoprotein particles than atorvastatin monotherapy 
The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of niacin extended-release in combination with simvastatin (NER/S) versus atorvastatin monotherapy on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle number and size in patients with hyperlipidemia or dyslipidemia from the SUPREME study.
This was a post hoc analysis of patients (n = 137) who completed the SUPREME study and who had lipid particle number and size measurements at both baseline and at week 12 by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Following ≥4 weeks without lipid-modifying therapy (washout period), the patients received NER/S 1000/40 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by NER/S 2000/40 mg/day for 8 weeks, or atorvastatin 40 mg/day for 12 weeks. Median percent changes in HDL particle number and size from baseline to week 12 were compared between the NER/S and atorvastatin treatment groups using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Distribution of HDL particle subclasses at week 12 was compared between the treatment groups using the Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test.
Treatment with NER/S resulted in a significantly greater percent reduction in small HDL particle number at week 12 compared with atorvastatin monotherapy (−1.8% versus 4.2%, P = 0.014), and a numerically greater percent increase in large HDL particle number (102.4% versus 39.2%, P = 0.078) compared with atorvastatin monotherapy. A significantly greater percent increase in HDL particle size from baseline at week 12 was observed with NER/S compared with atorvastatin (6.0% versus 1.3%, P < 0.001). NER/S treatment also resulted in a significant shift in HDL particle size from small and medium at baseline to large at week 12 (P < 0.0001).
Treatment with NER/S resulted in larger favorable changes in number and size of HDL particle subclasses compared with atorvastatin monotherapy, including a numerically greater increase in number of large HDL particles, and a significantly greater decrease in number of small HDL particles compared with atorvastatin monotherapy. In addition, NER/S treatment resulted in a significant change in HDL particle size distribution from small and medium to large.
PMCID: PMC3273410  PMID: 22323895
niacin; simvastatin; atorvastatin; lipoprotein particles; dyslipidemia; combination therapy; high-density lipoprotein
8.  Narrowing Sex Differences in Lipoprotein Cholesterol Subclasses Following Mid‐Life: The Very Large Database of Lipids (VLDL‐10B) 
Women have less risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease compared with men up until midlife (ages 50 to 60), after which the gap begins to narrow post menopause. We hypothesized that the average lipid profile of women undergoes unfavorable changes compared with men after midlife.
Methods and Results
We examined lipids by sex and age in the Very Large Database of Lipids 10B (VLDL 10B) study. The analysis included 1 350 908 unique consecutive patients clinically referred for lipoprotein testing by density gradient ultracentrifugation from 2009 to 2011. Ratio variables were created for density subclasses of LDL‐C, HDL‐C, and VLDL‐C (LLDR, LHDR, LVDR, respectively). Men showed higher median LDL‐C values than women for ages 20 to 59, with the greatest difference in their 30s: 146 mg/dL in men versus 130 mg/dL in women. In contrast, women consistently had higher values after midlife (age 60), for example ages 70 to 79: 129 mg/dL in women versus 112 mg/dL in men. After age 50, women had higher LDL‐C each decade, for example 14% higher from their 30s to 50s, while HDL‐C concentrations did not differ. Women had more buoyant LDL‐C and HDL‐C (lower LLDR and LHDR) than men at all ages but the gap closed in higher age groups. In contrast, women had a generally denser VLDL‐C (higher LVDR) leading into midlife, with the gap progressively closing in higher age groups, approximating that of men in their 60s and 70s.
The narrowing sex differential in cardiovascular disease risk after midlife is mirrored by a higher total atherogenic lipoprotein cholesterol burden in women and a closer approximation of the less favorable density phenotype characteristic of men.
PMCID: PMC4187479  PMID: 24755154
aging; lipids; menopause; prevention; statins
9.  Combination of niacin extended-release and simvastatin results in a less atherogenic lipid profile than atorvastatin monotherapy 
To compare the effects of combination niacin extended-release + simvastatin (NER/S) versus atorvastatin alone on apolipoproteins and lipid fractions in a post hoc analysis from SUPREME, a study which compared the lipid effects of niacin extended-release + simvastatin and atorvastatin in patients with hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia.
Patients and methods:
Patients (n = 137) with dyslipidemia (not previously receiving statin therapy or having discontinued any lipid-altering treatment 4–5 weeks prior to the study) received NER/S (1000/40 mg/day for four weeks, then 2000/40 mg/day for eight weeks) or atorvastatin 40 mg/day for 12 weeks. Median percent changes in apolipoprotein (apo) A-1, apo B, and the apo B:A-I ratio, and nuclear magnetic resonance lipoprotein subclasses from baseline to week 12 were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Fisher’s exact test.
NER/S treatment produced significantly greater percent changes in apo A-I and apo B:A-I, and, at the final visit, apo B < 80 mg/dL was attained by 59% versus 33% of patients, compared with atorvastatin treatment (P = 0.003). NER/S treatment resulted in greater percent reductions in calculated particle numbers for low-density lipoprotein (LDL, 52% versus 43%; P = 0.022), small LDL (55% versus 45%; P = 0.011), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and total chylomicrons (63% versus 39%; P < 0.001), and greater increases in particle size for LDL (2.7% versus 1.0%; P = 0.007) and VLDL (9.3% versus 0.1%; P < 0.001), compared with atorvastatin.
NER/S treatment significantly improved apo A-I levels and the apo B:A-I ratio, significantly lowered the number of atherogenic LDL particles and VLDL and chylomicron particles, and increased the mean size of LDL and VLDL particles, compared with atorvastatin.
PMCID: PMC3004509  PMID: 21191426
niacin; simvastatin; atorvastatin; dyslipidemia; lipid particles; diameter; number; size
10.  Residual macrovascular risk in 2013: what have we learned? 
Cardiovascular disease poses a major challenge for the 21st century, exacerbated by the pandemics of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. While best standards of care, including high-dose statins, can ameliorate the risk of vascular complications, patients remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. The Residual Risk Reduction Initiative (R3i) has previously highlighted atherogenic dyslipidaemia, defined as the imbalance between proatherogenic triglyceride-rich apolipoprotein B-containing-lipoproteins and antiatherogenic apolipoprotein A-I-lipoproteins (as in high-density lipoprotein, HDL), as an important modifiable contributor to lipid-related residual cardiovascular risk, especially in insulin-resistant conditions. As part of its mission to improve awareness and clinical management of atherogenic dyslipidaemia, the R3i has identified three key priorities for action: i) to improve recognition of atherogenic dyslipidaemia in patients at high cardiometabolic risk with or without diabetes; ii) to improve implementation and adherence to guideline-based therapies; and iii) to improve therapeutic strategies for managing atherogenic dyslipidaemia. The R3i believes that monitoring of non-HDL cholesterol provides a simple, practical tool for treatment decisions regarding the management of lipid-related residual cardiovascular risk. Addition of a fibrate, niacin (North and South America), omega-3 fatty acids or ezetimibe are all options for combination with a statin to further reduce non-HDL cholesterol, although lacking in hard evidence for cardiovascular outcome benefits. Several emerging treatments may offer promise. These include the next generation peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorα agonists, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors and monoclonal antibody therapy targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. However, long-term outcomes and safety data are clearly needed. In conclusion, the R3i believes that ongoing trials with these novel treatments may help to define the optimal management of atherogenic dyslipidaemia to reduce the clinical and socioeconomic burden of residual cardiovascular risk.
PMCID: PMC3922777  PMID: 24460800
Residual cardiovascular risk; Atherogenic dyslipidaemia; Type 2 diabetes; Therapeutic options
11.  Changes in LDL-C levels and goal attainment associated with addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin compared with titrating statin monotherapy 
Many high-risk coronary heart disease (CHD) patients on statin monotherapy do not achieve guideline-recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals, and combination lipid-lowering therapy may be considered for these individuals. The effect of adding ezetimibe to simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin therapy versus titrating these statins on LDL-C changes and goal attainment in CHD or CHD risk-equivalent patients was assessed in a large, managed-care database in the US.
Eligible patients (n = 17,830), initially on statin monotherapy who were ≥18 years with baseline and follow-up LDL-C values, no concomitant use of other lipid-lowering therapy, and on lipid-lowering therapy for ≥42 days, were identified between November 1, 2002 and September 30, 2009. The percent change from baseline in LDL-C levels and the odds ratios for attainment of LDL-C <1.8 and <2.6 mmol/L (70 and 100 mg/dL) were estimated using an analysis of covariance and logistic regression, respectively, adjusted for various baseline factors.
LDL-C reductions from baseline and goal attainment improved substantially in patients treated with ezetimibe added onto simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin therapy (n = 2,312) versus those (n = 13,053) who titrated these statins. In multivariable models, percent change from baseline in LDL-C was −13.1% to −14.8% greater for those who added ezetimibe onto simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin versus those who titrated. The odds of attaining LDL-C <1.8 and <2.6 mmol/L (70 and 100 mg/dL) increased by 2.6–3.2-fold and 2.5–3.1-fold, respectively, in patients who added ezetimibe onto simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin versus titrating statins.
CHD/CHD risk-equivalent patients in a large US managed-care database, who added ezetimibe onto simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin, had greater LDL-C reductions and goal attainment than those who uptitrated these statin therapies. Our study suggests that high-risk CHD patients in need of more intensive LDL-C lowering therapy may benefit by adding ezetimibe onto statin therapy.
PMCID: PMC3833706  PMID: 24265554
low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal; ezetimibe; atorvastatin; rosuvastatin
12.  Treatment with exenatide once weekly or twice daily for 30 weeks is associated with changes in several cardiovascular risk markers 
Dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes are two of the most significant risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Measurement of lipoprotein subclasses provides important information about derangements in lipid metabolism and helps refine cardiovascular risk assessment. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, improved glycemic control, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes in clinical trials.
In the DURATION-1 trial, patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with exenatide once weekly or twice daily for 30 weeks. This post hoc analysis evaluated the impact of exenatide on lipoprotein subclasses in 211 DURATION-1 patients using vertical auto profile methodology and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences general linear model adjusted for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight.
Baseline lipids and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were normal overall based on the standard lipid panel. Once-weekly exenatide reduced apolipoprotein B and the apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratio (P < 0.05), independent of glycemic improvement and weight loss. A significant shift in lipoprotein pattern away from small, dense low-density lipoprotein-4 cholesterol was also observed (P < 0.05). Exenatide once weekly increased high-density lipoprotein-2 cholesterol, even after adjustment for changes in HbA1c and weight (P < 0.05). Triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were reduced with both the once-weekly and twice-daily exenatide regimens (P < 0.05).
In this post hoc analysis, exenatide significantly improved a number of cardiovascular risk markers. Continuous exenatide exposure with exenatide once weekly elicited a greater response than did immediate-release exenatide twice daily, generally independent of glycemic improvement and weight loss. Thus, in addition to improving glycemic control, exenatide induced favorable changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and decreased systemic inflammation.
PMCID: PMC3500143  PMID: 23166441
glucagon-like protein-1 receptor agonist; incretin mimetic; dyslipidemia; type 2 diabetes mellitus
13.  The impact of serum lipids on risk for microangiopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Few large-scale, real-world studies have assessed the relative associations of lipid fractions with diabetic microvascular events. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association of the lipid profile components, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) with microvascular complications (MVCs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.
This observational cohort study queried the HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRDSM) for newly-diagnosed (Index Date) 18-64-year-old patients with diabetes mellitus between 01/01/2005-06/30/2010. Inclusion required ≥12 months pre-index continuous health plan eligibility and ≥1 pre-index lipid profile result. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and prior MVCs were excluded. Incident complications were defined as the earliest occurrence of diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and/or nephropathy post-index. Cox proportional models and Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves were used to evaluate associations among variables.
Of the patients (N = 72,267), 50.05 % achieved HDL-C, 64.28 % LDL-C, 59.82 % TG, and 56.79 % non-HDL-C American Diabetes Association goals at baseline. During follow-up (mean, 21.74 months), there were 5.21 microvascular events per 1,000 patient-months. A 1-mg/dL increase in HDL-C was associated with 1 % decrease in any MVC risk (P < .0001), but for LDL-C, TG, and non-HDL-C, 1-mg/dL increase resulted in increases of 0.2 % (P < .0001), 0.1 % (P < 0.001) and 0.3 % (P < 0.001) in MVC risk. Patients achieving HDL-C goals had a 11 % lower risk of MVC versus non-achievers (RR 0.895, [95 % CI, 0.852-0.941], P < .0001). Similarly, TG goal attainment was associated with a lowered risk for any MVC (RR 0.849, [95 % CI, 0.808-0.892], P < .0001). Evaluation of KM survival curves demonstrated no significant difference in the risk of MVCs between patients achieving vs. not achieving LDL-C goals, but did demonstrate a difference in MVC risk between patients achieving vs. not achieving non-HDL-C goals.
This study demonstrates significant independent associations among lipid fractions and risk for microangiopathy. These findings suggest that attaining established ADA goals for HDL-C, TG, and non-HDL-C may reduce risk for microvascular events among patients with diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3473235  PMID: 22978715
Lipid subfractions; ADA treatment goals; Diabetes; Microvascular complications; Retinopathy; Neuropathy; Nephropathy
14.  Achieving Secondary Prevention Low-Density Lipoprotein Particle Concentration Goals Using Lipoprotein Cholesterol-Based Data 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e33692.
Epidemiologic studies suggest that LDL particle concentration (LDL-P) may remain elevated at guideline recommended LDL cholesterol goals, representing a source of residual risk. We examined the following seven separate lipid parameters in achieving the LDL-P goal of <1000 nmol/L goal for very high risk secondary prevention: total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, TC/HDL, <3; a composite of ATP-III very high risk targets, LDL-C<70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C<100 mg/dL and TG<150 mg/dL; a composite of standard secondary risk targets, LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150; LDL phenotype; HDL-C≥40; TG<150; and TG/HDL-C<3.
We measured ApoB, ApoAI, ultracentrifugation lipoprotein cholesterol and NMR lipoprotein particle concentration in 148 unselected primary and secondary prevention patients.
TC/HDL-C<3 effectively discriminated subjects by LDL-P goal (F = 84.1, p<10−6). The ATP-III very high risk composite target (LDL-C<70, nonHDL-C<100, TG<150) was also effective (F = 42.8, p<10−5). However, the standard secondary prevention composite (LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150) was also effective but yielded higher LDL-P than the very high risk composite (F = 42.0, p<10−5) with upper 95% confidence interval of LDL-P less than 1000 nmol/L. TG<150 and TG/HDL-C<3 cutpoints both significantly discriminated subjects but the LDL-P upper 95% confidence intervals fell above goal of 1000 nmol/L (F = 15.8, p = 0.0001 and F = 9.7, p = 0.002 respectively). LDL density phenotype neared significance (F = 2.85, p = 0.094) and the HDL-C cutpoint of 40 mg/dL did not discriminate (F = 0.53, p = 0.47) alone or add discriminatory power to ATP-III targets.
A simple composite of ATP-III very high risk lipoprotein cholesterol based treatment targets or TC/HDL-C ratio <3 most effectively identified subjects meeting the secondary prevention target level of LDL-P<1000 nmol/L, providing a potential alternative to advanced lipid testing in many clinical circumstances.
PMCID: PMC3315574  PMID: 22479428
15.  Dyslipidemia treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus in a US managed care plan: a retrospective database analysis 
To evaluate real-world pharmacologic treatment of mixed dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).
All commercial health plan members in a large US managed care database with complete lipid panel results (HDL-C, LDL-C, TG) between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2006 were identified (N = 529,236). DM patients (N = 53,679) with mixed dyslipidemia were defined as having any 2 suboptimal lipid parameters (N = 28,728). Lipid treatment status 6 months pre- and post-index date was determined using pharmacy claims for any lipid therapy.
Post-index, 41.1% of DM patients with 2 abnormal lipid parameters and 45.1% with 3 abnormal lipid parameters did not receive lipid-modifying treatment. Post-index treatment rates were 57.4%, 63.6%, and 66.4% for patients with LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG in the most severe quartiles, respectively. Statin monotherapy was the primary lipid-modifying regimen prescribed (54.8% and 47.8% of patients with any 2 and all 3 lipids not at goal, respectively). Less than 30% of treated patients received combination therapy.
Over 40% of DM patients with mixed dyslipidemia received no lipid-modifying therapy during the follow-up period. Those who were treated were primarily prescribed statin monotherapy. This study suggests that DM patients are not being treated to ADA-suggested targets.
PMCID: PMC2694778  PMID: 19450274

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