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author:("gigas, stelis")
1.  Determinants of vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes 
Background
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is independently associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases that is primarily due to the early development of advanced atherosclerotic vascular changes. The aim of our study was to investigate the predictors of vascular dysfunction in T2DM patients.
Methods
We studied 165 T2DM patients without known macrovascular or microvascular disease. Standard demographic (age, gender, cardiovascular risk factors, medications), clinical (body mass index, blood pressure) and laboratory (glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipids, renal function) parameters were included in analyses. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitrate mediated dilation (NMD) and Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) were measured.
Results
Median age was 66 years and duration since T2DM diagnosis was 10 years, 70% were females and 79% hypertensives, while only 10% had a glycated hemoglobin <7%. FMD was positively associated with NMD (r 0.391, P < 0.001), while PWV was inversely associated with FMD (r -0.218, P = 0.014) and NMD (r -0.309, P < 0.001). Time since diagnosis of diabetes was the single independent predictor of FMD (β -0.40, P = 0.003). Increased age and fasting glucose and the presence of hypertension were independent predictors of decreased NMD (P < 0.001). Increased age and systolic blood pressure were independently associated with increased PWV (P < 0.001).
Conclusions
In T2DM patients, impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation was independently associated only with longer diabetes duration while no association with other established risk factors was found. Vascular smooth muscle dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness were more prominent in older T2DM patients with hypertension. Worse glycemic control was associated with impaired vascular smooth muscle function.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-127
PMCID: PMC3490819  PMID: 23062182
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Pulse wave velocity; Flow-mediated dilation; Nitrate-mediated dilation; Atherosclerosis
2.  Endocrine and metabolic manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease 
Annals of Gastroenterology  2012;25(1):37-44.
Extraintestinal manifestations from nearly every organ system are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This review article describes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of the main endocrine and metabolic manifestations in IBD, including metabolic bone disease, growth retardation, hypogonadism, pubertal delay, lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance. These clinical problems are commonly interrelated and they share a common basis, influenced by disease-related inflammation and nutritional status. In addition to nutritional support, every effort should be made to achieve and maintain disease remission, thus correcting the underlying chronic inflammation. The criteria for screening and diagnosing osteoporosis are described and treatment options are discussed (lifestyle advice, vitamin D and calcium supplementation, use of bisphosphonates or other specific antiosteoporotic agents, correction of hypogonadism). Chronic glucocorticoid therapy may affect growth as well as predispose to osteoporosis. The diagnosis and management of growth failure, pubertal delay and hypogonadism in IBD are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3959350
Inflammatory bowel disease; osteoporosis; growth failure; hypogonadism; lipids; insulin resistance

Results 1-2 (2)