In the title compound, [ZnCl2(C12H11N3)], the ZnII atom is four-coordinated by two N atoms from an N-(2-pyridylmethylene)benzene-1,4-diamine ligand and two Cl atoms in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal, the complex molecules are connected by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional layer structure parallel to (110).
During Xenopus laevis metamorphosis, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is directly induced by thyroid hormone (TH) at the transcription level as one of the earliest events in intestinal remodeling. However, the regulation of other components of this signaling pathway remains to be analyzed. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal expression of Patched (Ptc)-1, Smoothened (Smo), Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3 during natural and TH-induced intestinal remodeling. We show that all of the genes examined are transiently up-regulated in the mesenchymal tissues during intestinal metamorphosis. Interestingly, in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors, Gli2 but not the others was induced by TH, suggesting that Gli2 is a direct TH response gene, while the others are likely indirect ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate by the organ culture experiment that overexpression of Shh enhances the expression of Ptc-1, Smo and Glis even in the absence of TH, indicating that Shh regulates its own pathway components during intestinal remodeling.
Patched (Ptc); Smoothened (Smo); Sonic hedgehog (Shh); Gli transcription factor; Xenopus laevis; metamorphosis; intestinal remodeling
Intestinal remodeling during amphibian metamorphosis resembles the maturation of the adult intestine during mammalian postembryonic development when the adult epithelial self-renewing system is established under the influence of high concentrations of plasma thyroid hormone (T3). This process involves de novo formation and subsequent proliferation and differentiation of the adult stem cells.
The T3-dependence of the formation of adult intestinal stem cell during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis offers a unique opportunity to identify genes likely important for adult organ-specific stem cell development. We have cloned and characterized the ectopic viral integration site 1 (EVI) and its variant myelodysplastic syndrome 1 (MDS)/EVI generated via transcription from the upstream MDS promoter and alternative splicing. EVI and MDS/EVI have been implicated in a number of cancers including breast, leukemia, ovarian, and intestinal cancers. We show that EVI and MDS/EVI transcripts are upregulated by T3 in the epithelium but not the rest of the intestine in Xenopus laevis when adult stem cells are forming in the epithelium.
Our results suggest that EVI and MDS/EVI are likely involved in the development and/or proliferation of newly forming adult intestinal epithelial cells.
Accurate localization of moving sensors is essential for many fields, such as robot navigation and urban mapping. In this paper, we present a framework for GPS-supported visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Bundle Adjustment (BA-SLAM) using a rigorous sensor model in a panoramic camera. The rigorous model does not cause system errors, thus representing an improvement over the widely used ideal sensor model. The proposed SLAM does not require additional restrictions, such as loop closing, or additional sensors, such as expensive inertial measurement units. In this paper, the problems of the ideal sensor model for a panoramic camera are analysed, and a rigorous sensor model is established. GPS data are then introduced for global optimization and georeferencing. Using the rigorous sensor model with the geometric observation equations of BA, a GPS-supported BA-SLAM approach that combines ray observations and GPS observations is then established. Finally, our method is applied to a set of vehicle-borne panoramic images captured from a campus environment, and several ground control points (GCP) are used to check the localization accuracy. The results demonstrated that our method can reach an accuracy of several centimetres.
panoramic camera; visual SLAM; bundle adjustment; GPS
Gastric intramural hematoma is a rare injury of the stomach, and is most often seen in patients with underlying disease. Such injury following endoscopic therapy is even rarer, and there are no universally accepted guidelines for its treatment. In this case report, we describe a gastric intramural hematoma which occurred within 6 h of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Past medical history of this patient was negative, and laboratory examinations revealed normal coagulation profiles and platelet count. Following EMR, the patient experienced severe epigastric pain and vomited 150 mL of gastric contents which were bright red in color. Subsequent emergency endoscopy showed a 4 cm × 5 cm diverticulum-like defect in the anterior gastric antrum wall and a 4 cm × 8 cm intramural hematoma adjacent to the endoscopic submucosal dissection lesion. Following unsatisfactory temporary conservative management, the patient was treated surgically and made a complete recovery. Retrospectively, one possible reason for the patient’s condition is that the arterioles in the submucosa or muscularis may have been damaged during deep and massive submucosal injection. Thus, endoscopists should be aware of this potential complication and improve the level of surgery, especially the skills required for submucosal injection.
Gastric intramural hematoma; Endoscopic mucosal resection; Complication
Thyroid hormone (T3) plays diverse roles in adult organ function and during vertebrate development. The most important stage of mammalian development affected by T3 is the perinatal period when plasma T3 level peaks. Amphibian metamorphosis resembles this mammalian postembryonic period and is absolutely dependent on T3. The ability to easily manipulate this process makes it an ideal model to study the molecular mechanisms governing T3 action during vertebrate development. T3 functions mostly by regulating gene expression through T3 receptors (TRs). Studies in vitro, in cell cultures and reconstituted frog oocyte transcription system have revealed that TRs can both activate and repress gene transcription in a T3-dependent manner and involve chromatin disruption and histone modifications. These changes are accompanied by the recruitment of diverse cofactor complexes. More recently, genetic studies in mouse and frog have provided strong evidence for a role of cofactor complexes in T3 signaling in vivo. Molecular studies on amphibian metamorphosis have also revealed that developmental gene regulation by T3 involves histone modifications and the disruption of chromatin structure at the target genes as evidenced by the loss of core histones, arguing that chromatin remodeling is an important mechanism for gene activation by liganded TR during vertebrate development.
Transcriptional coactivator; Corepressor; Thyroid hormone receptor; Stem cell; Apoptosis; Metamorphosis; Xenopus laevis and tropicalis; Histone methylation; Histone acetylation; Nucleosome removal
There is overwhelming evidence that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly EPA (C20:5n-3) and DHA (C22:6n-3), has cardiovascular protective effects on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but not on healthy people. Because the T2DM heart increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO) to compensate for the diminished utilization of glucose, we hypothesize that T2DM hearts consume more n-3 PUFAs and, therefore, need more n-3 PUFAs. In the present study, we investigated the changes in cardiac n-3 PUFAs and peroxisomal beta-oxidation, which are responsible for the degradation of PUFAs in a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic rat model.
Methods and results
The capillary gas chromatography results showed that all the n-3 (or omega-3) PUFAs, especially DHA (~50%) and EPA (~100%), were significantly decreased, and the n-6/n-3 ratio (~115%) was significantly increased in the hearts of diabetic rats. The activity of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, which is crucial to very-long-chain and unsaturated FA metabolism (including DHA), was significantly elevated in DM hearts. Additionally, the real-time PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of most peroxisomal beta-oxidation key enzymes were up-regulated in T2DM rat hearts, which might contribute to the reduction of n-3 (or omega-3) PUFAs.
In conclusion, our results indicate that T2DM hearts consume more n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA and EPA, due to exaggerated peroxisomal beta-oxidation.
n-3 PUFA; EPA; DHA; T2DM; FAO; Peroxisomal β-oxidation
The formation and/or maturation of adult organs in vertebrates often takes place during postembryonic development, a period around birth in mammals when thyroid hormone (T3) levels are high. The T3-dependent anuran metamorphosis serves as a model to study postembryonic development. Studies on the remodeling of the intestine during Xenopus (X.) laevis metamorphosis have shown that the development of the adult intestine involves de novo formation of adult stem cells in a process controlled by T3. On the other hand, X. tropicalis, highly related to X. laevis, offers a number of advantages for studying developmental mechanisms, especially at genome-wide level, over X. laevis, largely due to its shorter life cycle and sequenced genome. To establish X. tropicalis intestinal metamorphosis as a model for adult organogenesis, we analyzed the morphological and cytological changes in X. tropicalis intestine during metamorphosis.
We observed that in X. tropicalis, the premetamorphic intestine was made of mainly a monolayer of larval epithelial cells surrounded by little connective tissue except in the single epithelial fold, the typhlosole. During metamorphosis, the larval epithelium degenerates and adult epithelium develops to form a multi-folded structure with elaborate connective tissue and muscles. Interestingly, typhlosole, which is likely critical for adult epithelial development, is present along the entire length of the small intestine in premetamorphic tadpoles, in contrast to X. laevis, where it is present only in the anterior 1/3. T3-treatment induces intestinal remodeling, including the shortening of the intestine and the typhlosole, just like in X. laevis.
Our observations indicate that the intestine undergoes similar metamorphic changes in X. laevis and X. tropicalis, making it possible to use the large amount of information available on X. laevis intestinal metamorphosis and the genome sequence information and genetic advantages of X. tropicalis to dissect the pathways governing adult intestinal development.
During development there is an activity-dependent switch in synaptic NMDA receptor subunit composition from predominantly GluN2B to GluN2A, though the precise role of this switch remains unknown. By deleting GluN2 subunits in single neurons during synaptogenesis, we find both GluN2B and GluN2A suppress AMPA receptor expression, albeit by distinct means. Similar to GluN1, GluN2B deletion increases the number of functional synapses, while GluN2A deletion increases the strength of unitary connections without affecting the number of functional synapses. We propose a model of excitatory synapse maturation in which baseline activation of GluN2B-containing receptors prevents premature synapse maturation until correlated activity allows induction of functional synapses. This activity also triggers the switch to GluN2A which dampens further potentiation. Furthermore, we analyze the subunit composition of synaptic NMDA receptors in CA1 pyramidal cells, provide electrophysiological evidence for a large population of synaptic triheteromeric receptors, and estimate the subunit-dependent open probability.
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the interactions of CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms and several environmental factors and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
In a case-control study of OSCC patients (n = 350) and healthy controls (n = 350), we investigated the roles of polymorphism in the CYP2C19 gene by the use of polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR – RFLP) analysis.
The CYP2C19*3 AG+AA genotype was significantly more prevalent in OSCC patients (10.0% versus 3.43%; P<0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed drinking (OR: 5.603, 95% CI: 3.431–11.112; P = 0.005) and smoking (OR: 4.341, 95% CI: 3.425–10.241; P = 0.001) was the independent risk factor of OSCC respectively, and there were significant interaction between CYP2C19*3 and drinking (OR: 8.747, 95% CI: 6.321–18.122; P = 0.009).
The CYP2C19*3 polymorphism and OSCC were synergistically and significantly associated in Chinese Han patients.
Thyroid hormone (TH) affects diverse biological processes and can exert its effects through both gene regulation via binding the nuclear TH receptors (TRs) and non-genomic actions via binding to cell surface and cytoplasmic proteins. The critical importance of TH in vertebrate development has long been established, ranging from the formation of human cretins to the blockage of frog metamorphosis due the TH deficiency. How TH affects vertebrate development has been difficult to study in mammals due to the complications associated with the uterus-enclosed mammalian embryos. Anuran metamorphosis offers a unique opportunity to address such an issue. Using Xenopus as a model, we and others have shown that the expression of TRs and their heterodimerization partners RXRs (9-cis retinoic acid receptors) correlates temporally with metamorphosis in different organs in two highly related species, Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. In vivo molecular studies have shown that TR and RXR are bound to the TH response elements (TREs) located in TH-inducible genes in developing tadpoles of both species. More importantly, transgenic studies in Xenopus laevis have demonstrated that TR function is both necessary and sufficient for mediating the metamorphic effects of TH. Thus, the non-genomic effects of TH have little or no roles during metamorphosis and likely during vertebrate development in general.
thyroid hormone receptor; chromatin; histone acetylation; postembryonic development; metamorphosis; Xenopus laevis; Xenopus tropicalis
Organ-specific adult stem cells are critical for the homeostasis of adult organs and organ repair and regeneration. Unfortunately, it has been difficult to investigate the origins of these stem cells and the mechanisms of their development, especially in mammals. Intestinal remodeling during frog metamorphosis offers a unique opportunity for such studies. During the transition from an herbivorous tadpole to a carnivorous frog, the intestine is completely remodeled with the larval epithelial cells undergo apoptotic degeneration and are replaced by adult epithelial cells developed de novo. The entire metamorphic process is under the control of thyroid hormone, making it possible to control the development of the adult intestinal stem cells. We show here that the thyroid hormone receptor-coactivator PRMT1 (protein arginine methyltransferase 1) is upregulated in a small number of larval epithelial cells and that these cells dedifferentiate to become the adult stem cells. More importantly, transgenic overexpression of PRMT1 leads to increase adult stem cells in the intestine and conversely knocking down the expression of endogenous PRMT1 reduces the adult stem cells. In addition, PRMT1 expression pattern during zebrafish and mouse development suggests that PRMT1 plays an evolutionally conserved role in the development of adult intestinal stem cells throughout vertebrates. These findings are not only important for the understanding of organ-specific adult stem cell development but also have important implications in regenerative medicine of the digestive tract.
adult organ-specific stem cell; histone arginine methyltransferase; transcriptional coactivator; thyroid hormone receptor; dedifferentiation
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the mitochondria plays an important role in cellular defense against oxidative damage. Homozygous MnSOD knockout (Sod2−/−) mice are neonatal lethal, indicating the essential role of MnSOD in early development. To investigate the potential cellular abnormalities underlying the aborted development of Sod2−/− mice, we examined the growth of isolated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from Sod2−/− mice. We found that the proliferation of Sod2−/− MEFs was significantly decreased when compared with wild type MEFs despite the absence of morphological differences. The Sod2−/− MEFs produced less cellular ATP, had lower O2 consumption, generated more superoxide, and expressed less Prdx3 protein. Furthermore, the loss of MnSOD dramatically altered several markers involved in cell proliferation and growth, including decreased growth stimulatory function of mTOR signaling and enhanced growth inhibitory function of GSK-3β signaling. Interestingly, the G protein coupled receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) signal transduction was also severely suppressed in Sod2−/− MEFs. Finally, the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, an index of autophagic activity, was increased in Sod2−/− MEFs, consistent with a reduction of mTOR signal transduction. These data demonstrate that MnSOD deficiency results in alterations in several key signaling pathways, which may contribute to the lethal phenotype of Sod2−/− mice.
MnSOD; oxidative stress; ROS; signal transduction
In the amphibian intestine during metamorphosis, stem cells appear and generate the adult absorptive epithelium, analogous to the mammalian one, under the control of thyroid hormone (TH). We have previously shown that the adult stem cells originate from differentiated larval epithelial cells in the Xenopus laevis intestine. To clarify whether TH signaling in the epithelium alone is sufficient for inducing the stem cells, we have now performed tissue recombinant culture experiments, using transgenic X. laevis tadpoles that express a dominant positive TH receptor (dpTR) under a control of heat shock promoter. Wild-type (Wt) or dpTR transgenic (Tg) larval epithelium (Ep) was isolated from the tadpole intestine, recombined with homologous or heterologous non-epithelial tissues (non-Ep), and then cultivated in the absence of TH with daily heat shocks to induce transgenic dpTR expression. Adult epithelial progenitor cells expressing sonic hedgehog became detectable on day 5 in both the recombinant intestine of Tg Ep and Tg non-Ep (Tg/Tg) and that of Tg Ep and Wt non-Ep (Tg/Wt). However, in Tg/Wt intestine, they did not express other stem cell markers such as Musashi-1 and never generated the adult epithelium expressing a marker for absorptive epithelial cells. Our results indicate that, while it is unclear why some larval epithelial cells dedifferentiate into adult progenitor/stem cells, TR-mediated gene expression in the surrounding tissues other than the epithelium is required for them to develop into adult stem cells, suggesting the importance of TH-inducible epithelial-connective tissue interactions in establishment of the stem cell niche in the amphibian intestine.
thyroid hormone receptor; transgenic frog; organ culture; tissue interaction; intestinal remodeling
During amphibian metamorphosis, the larval tissues/organs rapidly degenerate to adapt from the aquatic to the terrestrial life. At the cellular level, a large quantity of apoptosis occurs in a spatiotemporally-regulated fashion in different organs to ensure timely removal of larval organs/tissues and the development of adult ones for the survival of the individuals. Thus, amphibian metamorphosis provides us a good opportunity to understand the mechanisms regulating apoptosis. To investigate this process at the molecular level, a number of thyroid hormone (TH) response genes have been isolated from several organs of Xenopus laevis tadpoles and their expression and functional analyses are now in progress using modern molecular and genetic technologies. In this review, we will first summarize when and where apoptosis occurs in typical larva-specific and larval-to-adult remodeling amphibian organs to highlight that the timing of apoptosis is different in different tissues/organs, even though all are induced by the same circulating TH. Next, to discuss how TH spatiotemporally regulates the apoptosis, we will focus on apoptosis of the X. laevis small intestine, one of the best characterized remodeling organs. Functional studies of TH response genes using transgenic frogs and culture techniques have shown that apoptosis of larval epithelial cells can be induced by TH either cell-autonomously or indirectly through interactions with extracellular matrix (ECM) components of the underlying basal lamina. Here, we propose that multiple intra- and extracellular apoptotic pathways are coordinately controlled by TH to ensure massive but well-organized apoptosis, which is essential for the proper progression of amphibian metamorphosis.
Amphibian metamorphosis; Apoptosis; Thyroid hormone; Organ remodeling; Cell-ECM interactions
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a superfamily of Zn2+-dependent proteases that are capable of cleaving the proteinaceous component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is a critical medium for cell-cell interactions and can also directly signal cells through cell surface ECM receptors, such as integrins. In addition, many growth factors and signaling molecules are stored in the ECM. Thus, ECM remodeling and/or degradation by MMPs are expected to affect cell fate and behavior during many developmental and pathological processes. Numerous studies have shown that the expression of MMP mRNAs and proteins associates tightly with diverse developmental and pathological processes such as tumor metastasis and mammary gland In vivo involution. evidence to support the roles of MMPs in these processes has been much harder to get. Here we will review some of our studies on the MMP11 or stromelysin-3 during the thyroid hormone-dependent amphibian metamorphosis, a process that resembles the so-called postembryonic development in mammals (from a few months before to several months after birth in humans when organ growth and maturation take place). Our investigations demonstrate that stromelysin-3 controls apoptosis in different tissues via at least two distinct mechanisms.
Matrix metalloproteinase; stromelysin-3; metamorphosis; Xenopus laevis; tumor invasion; apoptosis
Thyroid hormone (T3) is important for adult organ function and vertebrate development. Amphibian metamorphosis is totally dependent on T3 and offers a unique opportunity to study how T3 controls postembryonic development in vertebrates. Earlier studies have demonstrated that TR mediates the metamorphic effects of T3 in Xenopus laevis. Liganded TR recruits histone modifying coactivator complexes to target genes during metamorphosis. This leads to nucleosomal removal and histone modifications, including methylation of histone H3 lysine (K) 79, in the promoter regions, and the activation of T3-inducible genes.
We show that Dot1L, the only histone methyltransferase capable of methylating H3K79, is directly regulated by TR via binding to a T3 response element in the promoter region during metamorphosis in Xenopus tropicalis, a highly related species of Xenopus laevis. We further show that Dot1L expression in both the intestine and tail correlates with the transformation of the organs.
Our findings suggest that TR activates Dot1L, which in turn participates in metamorphosis through a positive feedback to enhance H3K79 methylation and gene activation by liganded TR.
Dot1L; Intestinal stem cell development; Thyroid hormone receptor; Metamorphosis; Xenopus laevis and tropicalis; Histone methylation
Staphylococcus aureus is the major cause of hospital-acquired and community-acquired pneumonia. Host defense to S.aureus infection is largely mediated by the innate immune system. γδ T cells play an important role in innate immunity to many infectious diseases. However, less is known about the role of these cells during S.aureus-induced pneumonia. In this study, we examined the response and the role of γδ T cells to pulmonary S.aureus infection.
Mice infected with S. aureus intranasally showed rapid γδ T cells accumulation in the lung. Deficiency of γδ T cells led to attenuated bacterial clearance and less tissue damage in lung compared with WT mice. Moreover, TCR-δ−/− mice exhibited impaired neutrophil recruitment and reduced cytokine production at the site of infection. The γδ T cells in response to pulmonary S. aureus infection mainly secreted IL-17 and γδ T cells deficiency reduced IL-17 production, which might regulate the production of neutrophil-inducing cytokine/chemokine in the S. aureus-infected lungs.
Accumulation of γδ T cells in the lungs to S. aureus infection is beneficial for bacteria clearance and also contributes to the tissue damage. These cells were the primary source of IL-17, which might influence the recruitment of neutrophils at the early stage of infection.
Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (S-ALCL) is a rare disease with a highly variable prognosis and no standard chemotherapy regimen. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been reported as an important prognostic factor correlated with S-ALCL in many but not all studies. In our study, we retrospectively analyzed 92 patients with S-ALCL from the Peking University Lymphoma Center for clinical and molecular prognostic factors to make clear the role of ALK and other prognostic factors in Han Chinese S-ALCL.
The majority of Chinese S-ALCL patients were young male patients (median age 26, male/female ratio 1.7) and the median age was younger than previous reports regardless of ALK expression status. The only statistically significant different clinical characteristic in S-ALCL between ALK positive (ALK+) and ALK negative (ALK-) was age, with a younger median age of 22 for ALK+ compared with 30 for ALK-. However, when pediatric patients (≤18) were excluded, there was no age difference between ALK+ and ALK-. The groups did not differ in the proportion of males, those with clinical stage III/IV (49 vs 51%) or those with extranodal disease (53 vs 59%). Of 73 evaluable patients, the 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 60% and 47%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that three factors: advanced stage III/IV, lack of expression of ALK, and high Ki-67 expression, were associated with treatment failure in patients with S-ALCL. However, ALK expression correlated with improved survival only in patients younger than 14 years, while not in adult patients. In multivariate analysis, only clinical stage was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Expressions of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) and B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2) correlated with the expression of ALK, but they did not have prognostic significance. High Ki-67 expression was also a poor prognostic factor.
Our results show that ALK expression alone is not sufficient to determine the outcome of ALCL and other prognostic factors must be considered. Clinical stage is an independent prognostic factor. Ki-67 expression is a promising prognostic factor.
Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma; Prognosis; Anaplastic lymphoma kinase; Ki-67; BCL-2; WT1
In a previous study, we reported that a deficiency in MnSOD activity (approximately 80% reduction) targeted to type IIB skeletal muscle fibers was sufficient to elevate oxidative stress and to reduce muscle function in young adult mice (TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice). In the present study, we used TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice to examine the effect of elevated oxidative stress on mitochondrial function and to test the hypothesis that elevated oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial function over the lifespan of the TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice would be sufficient to accelerate muscle atrophy associated with aging. We found that mitochondrial function is reduced in both young and old TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice, when compared with control mice. Complex II activity is reduced by 47% in young and by ~90% in old TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice, associated with reduced levels of the catalytic subunits for complex II, SDHA and SDHB. Complex II-linked mitochondrial respiration is reduced by approximately 70% in young TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice. Complex II-linked mitochondrial ATP production is reduced by 39% in young and was found to be almost completely absent in old TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice. Furthermore, in old TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice, aconitase activity is almost completely abolished; mitochondrial superoxide release remains greater than 2-fold elevated; and oxidative damage (measured as F2 isoprostanes) is increased by 30% relative to age-matched controls. These data show that despite elevated skeletal muscle-specific mitochondrial oxidative stress, oxidative damage and complex II-linked mitochondrial dysfunction, age-related muscle atrophy was not accelerated in old TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice, suggesting mitochondrial oxidative stress may not be causal for age-related muscle atrophy.
Frog metamorphosis is totally dependent on thyroid hormone (T3) and mimics the postembryonic period around birth in mammals. It is an excellent model to study the molecular basis of postembryonic development in vertebrate. We and others have shown that many, if not all, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which cleave proteins of the extracellular matrix as well as other substrates, are induced by T3 and important for metamorphosis. MMP activity can be inhibited by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs). There are 4 TIMPs in vertebrates and their roles in postembryonic development are poorly studied.
We analyzed the TIMP2 genes in Xenopus laevis and the highly related species Xenopus tropicalis and discovered that TIMP2 is a single copy gene in Xenopus tropicalis as in mammals but is duplicated in Xenopus laevis. Furthermore, the TIMP2 locus in Xenopus tropicalis genome is different from that in human, suggesting an evolutionary reorganization of the locus. More importantly, we found that the duplicated TIMP2 genes were similarly regulated in the developing limb, remodeling intestine, resorbing tail during metamorphosis. Unexpectedly, like its MMP target genes, the TIMP2 genes were upregulated by T3 during both natural and T3-induced metamorphosis.
Our results indicate that TIMP2 is highly conserved among vertebrates and that the TIMP2 locus underwent a chromosomal reorganization during evolution. Furthermore, the unexpected upregulation of TIMP2 genes during metamorphosis suggests that proper balance of MMP activity is important for metamorphosis.
Two research groups led by Dr T.C. Wu of Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions and Dr P. Liu of National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, respectively, have won the 2011 Ming K Jeang Award for Excellence in Cell & Bioscience.
Interleukin-17F (IL-17F), produced by Th17 cells and other immune cells, is a member of IL-17 cytokine family with highest homology to IL-17A. IL-17F has been shown to have multiple functions in inflammatory responses. While IL-17A plays important roles in cancer development, the function of IL-17F in tumorigenesis has not yet been elucidated. In the current study, we found that IL-17F is expressed in normal human colonic epithelial cells, but this expression is greatly decreased in colon cancer tissues. To examine the roles of IL-17F in colon cancer, we have used IL-17F over-expressing colon cancer cell lines and IL-17F-deficient mice. Our data showed decreased tumor growth of IL-17F-transfected HCT116 cells comparing to mock transfectants when transplanted in nude mice. Conversely, there were increased colonic tumor numbers and tumor areas in Il-17f−/− mice than those from wild-type controls after colon cancer induction. These results indicate that IL-17F plays an inhibitory role in colon tumorigenesis in vivo. In IL-17F over-expressing tumors, there was no significant change in leukocyte infiltration; instead, we found decreased VEGF levels and CD31+ cells. While the VEGF levels were increased in the colon tissues of Il-17f−/− mice with colon cancer. Together, our findings demonstrate a protective role for IL-17F in colon cancer development, possibly via inhibiting tumor angiogenesis.
A novel, cancer-fighting function was recently discovered for Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2).