To investigate whether glycation level of apoprotein (apo)A-I is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and plaque progression in patients with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Among 375 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients undergoing quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), 82 patients with nonsignificant stenosis (luminal diameter narrowing <30% [group I]) and 190 patients with significant CAD (luminal diameter stenosis ≥70% [group II]) were included for analysis of apoA-I glycation level and serum activity of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). The control group had 136 healthy subjects. At the 1-year follow-up, angiography and IVUS were repeated mainly in group II patients for plaque progression assessment.
Relative intensity of apoA-I glycation by densitometry was increased, and serum LCAT activity was decreased stepwise across groups control, I, and II. These two measurements were associated with the number of diseased coronary arteries and extent index in group II. During 1-year follow-up, QCA detected 45 patients with plaque progression in 159 subjects, and IVUS found 38 patients with plaque progression in 127 subjects. Baseline relative intensity of apoA-I glycation was significantly increased in patients with plaque progression compared with those without, with values associated with changes in QCA and IVUS measurements. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that baseline relative intensity of apoA-I glycation was an independent determinant of CAD and plaque progression in type 2 diabetic patients.
ApoA-I glycation level is associated with the severity of CAD and coronary artery plaque progression in type 2 diabetic patients.
AIM: To understand the clinicopathological characteristics and treatment selections and improve survival and provide valuable information for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).
METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 5311 liver cancer patients who received resection between October 1999 and December 2003. Of these, 429 (8.1%) patients were diagnosed with ICC, and their clinicopathological, surgical, and survival characteristics were analyzed.
RESULTS: Upper abdominal discomfort or pain (65.0%), no symptoms (12.1%), and hypodynamia (8.2%) were the major causes for medical attention. Laboratory tests showed 198 (46.4%) patients were HBsAg positive, 90 (21.3%) had α-fetoprotein > 20 μg/L, 50 (11.9%) carcinoembryonic antigen > 10 μg/L, and 242 (57.5%) carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) > 37 U/mL. Survival data was available for 329 (76.7%) patients and their mean survival time was 12.4 mo. The overall survival of the patients with R0, R1 resection and punching exploration were 18.3, 6.6 and 5.6 mo, respectively. Additionally, CA19-9 > 37 U/mL was associated with lymph node metastases, but inversely associated with cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis indicated that radical resection, lymph node metastases, macroscopic tumor thrombi and size, and CA19-9 were associated with prognosis.
CONCLUSION: Surgical radical resection is still the most effective means to cure ICC. Certain laboratory tests (such as CA19-9) can effectively predict the survival of the patients with ICC.
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; Diagnosis; Pathology; Surgery; Survival
Objective: In this paper, we review the previous classic research paradigms of a mass casualty incident (MCI) systematically and reflect the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire, in order to outline and develop an improved research paradigm for MCI management. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, China Wanfang, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases for relevant studies. The following key words and medical subject headings were used: ‘mass casualty incident’, ‘MCI’, ‘research method’, ‘Wenchuan’, ‘earthquake’, ‘research paradigm’, ‘science of surge’, ‘surge’, ‘surge capacity’, and ‘vulnerability’. Searches were performed without year or language restriction. After searching the four literature databases using the above listed key words and medical subject headings, related articles containing research paradigms of MCI, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, July 5 bus fire, and science of surge and vulnerability were independently included by two authors. Results: The current progresses on MCI management include new golden hour, damage control philosophy, chain of survival, and three links theory. In addition, there are three evaluation methods (medical severity index (MSI), potential injury creating event (PICE) classification, and disaster severity scale (DSS)), which can dynamically assess the MCI situations and decisions for MCI responses and can be made based on the results of such evaluations. However, the three methods only offer a retrospective evaluation of MCI and thus fail to develop a real-time assessment of MCI responses. Therefore, they cannot be used as practical guidance for decision-making during MCI. Although the theory of surge science has made great improvements, we found that a very important factor has been ignored—vulnerability, based on reflecting on the MCI response to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and July 5 bus fire in Hangzhou. Conclusions: This new paradigm breaks through the limitation of traditional research paradigms and will contribute to the development of a methodology for disaster research.
Mass casualty incident; Surge; Vulnerability; Earthquake; Fire incident
MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, including those involving electrical remodeling in atrial fibrillation (AF). Recently, KCNN3, the gene that encodes the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3), was found to be strongly associated with AF.
This study sought to evaluate the changes in atrial myocardial microRNAs in patients with permanent AF and to determine the role of microRNA on the regulation of cardiac SK3 expression.
Atrial tissue obtained during cardiac surgery from patients (4 sinus rhythm and 4 permanent AF) was analyzed by microRNA arrays. Potential targets of microRNAs were predicted by software programs. The effects of specific microRNAs on target gene expression were evaluated in HL-1 cells from a continuously proliferating mouse hyperplastic atrial cardiomyocyte cell line. Interactions between microRNAs and targets were further evaluated by luciferase reporter assay and by Argonaute pull-down assay.
Twenty one microRNAs showed significant, greater than two-fold changes in AF. miR-499 was upregulated by 2.33 fold (P<0.01) in AF atria, whereas SK3 protein expression was down-regulated by 46% (P<0.05). Transfection of miR-499 mimic in HL-1 cells resulted in the downregulation of SK3 protein expression, while that of miR-499 inhibitor upregulated SK3 expression. Binding of miR-499 to the 3′UTR of KCNN3 was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay and by the enhanced presence of SK3 mRNA in Argonaute pulled-down microRNA-induced silencing complexes (mRISC) after transfection with miR-499.
Atrial miRNA-499 is significantly upregulated in AF, leading to SK3 downregulation and possibly contributing to the electrical remodeling in AF.
atrial fibrillation; microRNA; SK3 channel; electrical remodeling; small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel
Objective: We are aimed to investigate whether right ventricular mid-septal pacing (RVMSP) is superior to conventional right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) in improving clinical functional capacity and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) for patients with high-degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately depressed left ventricle (LV) function. Methods: Ninety-two patients with high-degree atrio-ventricular block and moderately reduced LVEF (ranging from 35% to 50%) were randomly allocated to RVMSP (n=45) and RVAP (n=47). New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, echocardiographic LVEF, and distance during a 6-min walk test (6MWT) were determined at 18 months after pacemaker implantation. Serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: Compared with baseline, NYHA functional class remained unchanged at 18 months, distance during 6MWT (485 m vs. 517 m) and LVEF (36.7% vs. 41.8%) were increased, but BNP levels were reduced (2352 pg/ml vs. 710 pg/ml) in the RVMSP group compared with those in the RVAP group, especially in patients with LVEF 35%–40% (for all comparisons, P<0.05). However, clinical function capacity and LV function measurements were not significantly changed in patients with RVAP, despite the pacing measurements being similar in both groups, such as R-wave amplitude and capture threshold. Conclusions: RVMSP provides a better clinical utility, compared with RVAP, in patients with high-degree atrioventricular block and moderately depressed LV function whose LVEF levels ranged from 35% to 40%.
Mid-septal pacing; Apical pacing; Impaired heart function
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-regulated secretion of inflammatory cytokines in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is regarded as an important step in the progression of atherosclerosis; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in oxLDL-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in SMCs both in vivo and in vitro. We found that the levels of TLR4, interleukin 1-β (IL1-β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression were increased in the SMCs of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with femoral artery stenosis. In cultured primary arterial SMCs from wild type mice, oxLDL caused dose- and time-dependent increase in the expression levels of TLR4 and cytokines. These effects were significantly weakened in arterial SMCs derived from TLR4 knockout mice (TLR4−/−). Moreover, the secretion of inflammatory cytokines was blocked by TLR4-specific antibodies in primary SMCs. Ox-LDL induced activation of p38 and NFκB was also inhibited in TLR4−/− primary SMCs or when treated with TLR4-specific antibodies. These results demonstrated that TLR4 is a crucial mediator in oxLDL-induced inflammatory cytokine expression and secretion, and p38 and NFκB activation.
This study aimed to identify major proteins in the pathogenesis of coronary artery in-stent restenosis (ISR) in diabetic minipigs with sirolimus-eluting stenting, and to investigate the roles of key candidate molecules, particularly ADAM10, in human arterial smooth muscle cells (HASMCs).
Methods and Results
The stents were implanted in the coronary arteries of 15 diabetic and 26 non-diabetic minipigs, and angiography was repeated at six months. The intima of one vascular segment with significant ISR and one with non-ISR in diabetic minipigs were isolated and cultured in conditioned medium (CM). The CM was analyzed by LC-MS/MS to uncover proteins whose levels were significantly increased (≥1.5-fold) in ISR than in non-ISR tissues. After literature searching, we focused on the identified proteins, whose biological functions were most potentially related to ISR pathophysiology. Among them, ADAM10 was significantly increased in diabetic and non-diabetic ISR tissues as compared with non-ISR controls. In cell experiments, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of ADAM10 promoted growth and migration of HASMCs. The effects of ADAM10 were more remarkable in high-glucose culture than in low-glucose culture. Using shRNA and an inhibitor of γ-secretase (GSI), we found that the influences of ADAM10 were in part mediated by Notch1 and notch 3 pathway, which up-regulated Notch downstream genes and enhanced nuclear translocation of the small intracellular component of Notch1 and Notch3.
This study has identified significantly increased expression of ADAM10 in the ISR versus non-ISR segment in diabetic minipigs and implicates ADAM10 in the enhanced neointimal formation observed in diabetes after vascular injury.
We investigated whether serum glycated albumin (GA) levels are related to coronary collateralization in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic total occlusion.
Blood levels of GA and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were determined in 317 diabetic and 117 non-diabetic patients with stable angina and angiographic total occlusion of at least one major coronary artery. The degree of collaterals supplying the distal aspect of a total occlusion from the contra-lateral vessel was graded as low (Rentrop score of 0 or 1) or high collateralization (Rentrop score of 2 or 3).
For diabetic patients, GA (21.2 ± 6.5% vs. 18.7 ± 5.6%, P < 0.001) but not HbA1c levels (7.0 ± 1.1% vs. 6.8 ± 1.3%, P = 0.27) was significantly elevated in low collateralization than in high collateralization group, and correlated inversely with Rentrop score (Spearmen’s r = -0.28, P < 0.001; Spearmen’s r = -0.10, P = 0.09, respectively). There was a trend towards a larger area under the curve of GA compared with that of HbA1c for detecting the presence of low collateralization (0.64 vs. 0.58, P = 0.15). In non-diabetic patients, both GA and HbA1c levels did not significantly differ regardless the status of coronary collateralization. In multivariable analysis, female gender, age > 65 years, smoke, non-hypertension, duration of diabetes > 10 years, metabolic syndrome, eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73 m2, and GA > 18.3% were independently determinants for low collateralization in diabetic patients.
Increased GA levels in serum are associated with impaired collateral growth in type 2 diabetic patients with stable angina and chronic total occlusion.
Glycated albumin; Coronary collateralization; Diabetes
Objective: Coronary collateral circulation is an alternative source of blood supply to myocardium in the presence of advanced coronary artery disease. We sought to determine which clinical and angiographic variables are associated with collateral development in patients with stable angina and chronic total coronary occlusion. Methods: Demographic variables, biochemical measurements, and angiographic findings were collected from 478 patients with stable angina and chronic total coronary occlusion. The presence and extent of collaterals supplying the distal aspect of a total coronary occlusion from the contra-lateral vessel were graded from 0 to 3 according to the Rentrop scoring system. Results: Low (Rentrop score of 0 or 1) and high (Rentrop score of 2 or 3) coronary collateralizations were detected in 186 and 292 patients, respectively. Despite similar age, cigarette smoking, and medical treatment, patients with low collateralization were female in a higher proportion and less hypertensive, and had higher rates of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia than those with high collateralization (for all comparisons, P<0.05). In addition, patients with low collateralization exhibited more single-vessel disease, less right coronary artery occlusion, more impaired renal function, and higher serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) compared with those with high collateralization. Multivariate analysis revealed that age of ≥65 years, female gender, diabetes, no history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, moderate to severe renal dysfunction, single-vessel disease, and elevated hsCRP levels were independently associated with low coronary collateralization. Conclusions: Coronary collateralization was reduced in almost 40% of stable angina patients with chronic total occlusion, which was related to clinical and angiographic factors. The impact of coronary collateralization on outcomes after revascularization needs further investigation.
Stable angina; Coronary collateral circulation; Risk factors; Angiography; Chronic total coronary occlusion
This study sought to ascertain the relationship of 9p21 locus with: 1) angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) burden; and 2) myocardial infarction (MI) in individuals with underlying CAD.
Chromosome 9p21 variants have been robustly associated with coronary heart disease, but questions remain on the mechanism of risk, specifically whether the locus contributes to coronary atheroma burden or plaque instability.
We established a collaboration of 21 studies consisting of 33,673 subjects with information on both CAD (clinical or angiographic) and MI status along with 9p21 genotype. Tabular data are provided for each cohort on the presence and burden of angiographic CAD, MI cases with underlying CAD, and the diabetic status of all subjects.
We first confirmed an association between 9p21 and CAD with angiographically defined cases and control subjects (pooled odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 to 1.43). Among subjects with angiographic CAD (n = 20,987), random-effects model identified an association with multivessel CAD, compared with those with single-vessel disease (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.17)/copy of risk allele). Genotypic models showed an OR of 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.26 for heterozygous carrier and OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.39 for homozygous carrier. Finally, there was no significant association between 9p21 and prevalent MI when both cases (n = 17,791) and control subjects (n = 15,882) had underlying CAD (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.03)/risk allele.
The 9p21 locus shows convincing association with greater burden of CAD but not with MI in the presence of underlying CAD. This adds further weight to the hypothesis that 9p21 locus primarily mediates an atherosclerotic phenotype.
9p21; angiography; coronary artery disease; meta-analysis; myocardial infarction; single nucleotide polymorphism
To determine the postshock activation patterns with both successful and failed shocks in a canine model of ventricular fibrillation, and whether piniacidil, an early after-depolarization (EAD) inhibitor, altered the defibrillation threshold (DFT) and postshock activation patterns.
In 6 beagles, a basket catheter with 64 unipolar electrodes was placed in the LV for global endocardial mapping, a monophasic action potential catheter was inserted into the LV apex, and a catheter with the negative electrode in the right ventricle and the positive electrode in the superior vena cava was inserted for defibrillation. The DFT, 90% action potential duration (APD90) and activation recovery interval (ARI) were evaluated before and after pinacidil administration (loading dosage 0.5 mg/kg and maintenance dosage 0.5 mg·kg-1·h-1, iv). Electrical heterogeneities were defined with the dispersion of ARI. After successful and failed shocks with near-DFT strength, the earliest postshock activation patterns (focal or nonfocal endocardial activation), interval and location were detected.
Pinacidil significantly decreased APD90 (from 178±16 ms to 168±18 ms) and ARI from (152±10 ms to 143±10 ms) at pacing cycle length of 300 ms. The drug significantly increased VF activation rate (from 10.0±1.9 Hz to 10.8±2.0 Hz). The drug did not affect the dispersion of ARI, neither it changed DFT (baseline: 480±110 V; pinacidil: 425±55 V, P>0.05). The earliest postshock activation arose locally on the LV apical endocardium before and after the drug treatment. Pinacidil significantly prolonged the postshock cycle length of cycles 2 to 5 for the successful episodes but not for the failed episodes.
Pinacidil increases the postshock cycle length suggesting that EAD may play a role in postshock activation, while it fails to alter DFT suggesting that EAD produced by shock does not determine a defibrillation success or failure.
pinacidil; heart; ventricular fibrillation; early after-depolarization (EAD); defibrillation threshold; postshock activation
Non-enzymatic glycation increases hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and reduces oxygen delivery to tissues by altering the structure and function of hemoglobin.
We investigated whether an elevated blood concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) could induce falsely high pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO2) in type 2 diabetic patients during mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy.
Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) were determined with simultaneous monitoring of SpO2 in 261 type 2 diabetic patients during ventilation or oxygen inhalation.
Blood concentration of HbA1c was >7% in 114 patients and ≤ 7% in 147 patients. Both SaO2 (96.2 ± 2.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 95.7-96.7% vs. 95.1 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.7-95.6%) and SpO2 (98.0 ± 2.6%, 95% CI 97.6-98.5% vs. 95.3 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.9-95.8%) were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c >7% than in those with HbA1c ≤ 7% (Data are mean ± SD, all p < 0.01), but PO2 did not significantly differ between the two groups. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a significant bias between SpO2 and SaO2 (1.83 ±0.55%, 95% CI 1.73% -1.94%) and limits of agreement (0.76% and 2.92%) in patients with HbA1c >7%. The differences between SpO2 and SaO2 correlated closely with blood HbA1c levels (Pearson’s r = 0.307, p < 0.01).
Elevated blood HbA1c levels lead to an overestimation of SaO2 by SpO2, suggesting that arterial blood gas analysis may be needed for type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control during the treatment of hypoxemia.
Glycohemoglobin A1c; Diabetes mellitus; Arterial blood gas analysis; Pulse oxygen saturation
Objective: Early detection of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is clinically important with respect to blood pressure control, prevention of renal insufficiency, and even improving survival. We investigated whether the presence of significant ARAS (luminal diameter narrowing ≥70%) could be predicted using a logistic regression model before coronary angiography/intervention. Methods: Initially, we developed a logistic regression model for detecting significant ARAS based upon clinical and angiographic features and biochemical measurements in a cohort of 1 813 patients undergoing transfemoral coronary and renal angiography. This model was then prospectively applied to an additional 495 patients who received transradial renal angiography to ascertain its predictive accuracy for the presence of significant ARAS. Results: Multivariate regression analysis revealed that older age (≥65 years), resistant hypertension, type 2 diabetes, creatinine clearance (Ccr) ≤60 ml/min, and multivessel coronary disease were independent predictors for significant ARAS. A logistic regression model for detecting ARAS by incorporating conventional risk factors and multivessel coronary disease was generated as: P/(1−P)=exp(−2.618+1.112[age≥65 years]+1.891[resistant hypertension]+0.453[type 2 diabetes]+0.587[Ccr≤60 ml/min]+2.254[multivessel coronary disease]). When this regression model was prospectively applied to the additional 495 patients undergoing transradial coronary and renal angiography, significant ARAS could be detected with a sensitivity of 81.2%, specificity of 88.9%, and positive and negative predictive accuracies of 53.8% and 96.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The logistic regression model generated in this study may be useful for screening for significant ARAS in patients undergoing transradial coronary angiography/intervention.
Renal artery stenosis; Transradial coronary angiography; Resistant hypertension
Objective: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) exert inflammatory and oxidative stress insults to produce diabetic nephropathy mainly through the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). This study aimed to assess the effect of atorvastatin on diabetic nephropathy via soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and RAGE expressions in the rat kidney. Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups based on the presence or absence of streptozotocin-induced diabetes with or without atorvastatin treatment (10 mg/kg for 24 weeks). Serum sRAGE and glycated albumin (GA) levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and improved bromocresol purple methods. Renal AGEs, RAGE, endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE), and sRAGE were determined with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Results: Mesangial expansion and microalbuminuria were aggravated in diabetic rats, and improved with atorvastatin treatment. Serum sRAGE levels were lower in diabetic than in normal rats. After atorvastatin treatment, serum and renal sRAGE levels were up-regulated, while renal RAGE expression was decreased in diabetic rats, associated with a reduction in accumulation of AGEs, though renal esRAGE mRNA expression was not significantly increased. Conclusions: Atorvastatin exerted a beneficial effect on diabetic nephropathy with reduced AGE accumulation, down-regulating RAGE expression and up-regulating sRAGE in the kidney.
Receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE); Endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE); Soluble RAGE (sRAGE); Diabetic nephropathy; Atorvastatin
Advanced glycation products (AGEs), as endogenous inflammatory mediator, compromise the physiological function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs have a potential role in cell replacement therapy in acute myocardial infarction and ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, mechanisms of AGEs on MSCs are still not unveiled.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), genes regulation, cell proliferation and migration have been detected by AGE-BSA stimulated MSCs.
We found that in vitro stimulation with AGE-BSA induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibited dose-dependently proliferation and migration of MSCs. Microarray and molecular biological assessment displayed an increased expression and secretion of Ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl4 and Il1b in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These chemokines/cytokines of equivalent concentration to those in conditioned medium exerted an inhibitory effect on MSC proliferation and migration after stimulation for 24 h. Transient elevation of phospho-p38 in MSCs upon AGE-BSA stimulation was blocked with p38 inhibitor.
The study indicates that AGE-BSA induces production of chemokines/cytokines in a dose- and time-dependent manner via activation of ROS-p38 mediated pathway. These chemokines/cytokines exert an inhibitory effect on MSC growth and migration, suggesting an amplified dysfunction of MSCs by AGEs.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major vascular complication of diabetes mellitus and reveals high mortality. Up to 30% of diabetic patients with myocardial ischemia remain asymptomatic and are associated with worse prognosis compared to non-diabetic counterpart, which warrants routine screening for CAD in diabetic population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of serum glycated albumin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in predicting the presence of CAD in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Three hundred and twenty-four patients with type 2 diabetes were divided into two groups based on presence (CAD group, n = 241) or absence (control group, n = 83) of angiographically-documented CAD (lumen diameter narrowing ≥70%). Serum levels of glycated albumin and hs-CRP as well as serum concentrations of glucose, lipids, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid were measured in both groups. Predictors of CAD were determined using multivariate logistic regression model and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
Serum glycated albumin and hs-CRP levels were significantly increased in diabetic patients with CAD. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that male gender, age, serum levels of glycated albumin, hs-CRP, creatinine and lipoprotein (a) were independent predictors for CAD. Areas under the curve of glycated albumin and hs-CRP and for regression model were 0.654 (95%CI 0.579–0.730, P < 0.001), 0.721 (95%CI 0.658–0.785, P < 0.001) and 0.824 (95% CI 0.768–0.879, P < 0.001), respectively. The optimal values of cut-off point were 18.7% (sensitivity 67.9%, specificity 60.0%) for glycated albumin and 5.2 mg/l (sensitivity 72.2%, specificity 60.0%) for hs-CRP to predict CAD. Logistic regression model was defined as: P/(1-P) = EXP(-1.5 + 1.265 gender + 0.812 age + 1.24 glycated albumin + 0.953 hs-CRP + 0.902 lipoprotein(a) + 1.918 creatinine). The optimal probability value for predicting CAD in type 2 diabetic patients was 0.648 (sensitivity 82.3%, specificity 68.6%).
Serum glycated albumin and hs-CRP levels were significantly elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD. The logistic regression model incorporating with glycated albumin, hs-CRP and other major risk factors of atherosclerosis may be useful for screening CAD in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that results in extensive yield losses to wheat and barley. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing plasmid pRP22-GFP was constructed for monitoring the colonization of two biocontrol agents, Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116, on the spikes of barley and their effect on suppression of FHB. Survival and colonization of the Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116 strains on spikes of barley were observed by tracking the bacterial transformants with GFP expression. Our field study revealed that plasmid pRP22-GFP was stably maintained in the bacterial strains without selective pressure. The retrieved GFP-tagged strains showed that the bacterial population fluctuation accorded with that of the rain events. Furthermore, both biocontrol strains gave significant protection against FHB on spikes of barley in fields. The greater suppression of barley FHB disease was resulted from the treatment of barley spikes with biocontrol agents before inoculation with F. graminearum.
GFP; Survival; Brevibacillus brevis and Bacillus subtilis; Spikes; Barley; Biocontrol