There is a very well known correlation between diabetes and cardiovascular disease but many health care professionals are just concerned with glycemic control, ignoring the paramount importance of controlling other risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of serious cardiovascular diseases. This Position Statement from the Brazilian Diabetes Society was developed to promote increased awareness in relation to six crucial topics dealing with diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Glicemic Control, Cardiovascular Risk Stratification and Screening Coronary Artery Disease, Treatment of Dyslipidemia, Hypertension, Antiplatelet Therapy and Myocardial Revascularization. The issue of what would be the best algorithm for the use of statins in diabetic patients received a special attention and a new Brazilian algorithm was developed by our editorial committee. This document contains 38 recommendations which were classified by their levels of evidence (A, B, C and D). The Editorial Committee included 22 specialists with recognized expertise in diabetes and cardiology.
Diabetes; Glicemic control; Cardiovascular risk stratification; Screening coronary artery disease; Treatment of dyslipidemia; Hypertension; Antiplatelet therapy; Myocardial revascularization
To assess the effectiveness of healthcare team guidance in the implementation of a glycemic control protocol in the non-intensive care unit of a cardiology hospital.
This was a randomized clinical trial comparing 9 months of intensive guidance by a healthcare team on a protocol for diabetes care (Intervention Group, n = 95) with 9 months of standard care (Control Group, n = 87). Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01154413.
The mean age of the patients was 61.7±10 years, and the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 71±23 mmol/mol (8.7±2.1%). The mean capillary glycemia during hospitalization was similar between the groups (9.8±2.9 and 9.1±2.4 mmol/l for the Intervention Group and Control Group, respectively, p = 0.078). The number of hypoglycemic episodes (p = 0.77), hyperglycemic episodes (47 vs. 50 in the Intervention Group and Control Group, p = 0.35, respectively), and the length of stay in the hospital were similar between the groups (p = 0.64). The amount of regular insulin administered was 0 (0–10) IU in the Intervention Group and 28 (7–56) IU in the Control Group (p<0.001), and the amount of NPH insulin administered was similar between the groups (p = 0.16).
While guidance on a glycemic control protocol given by a healthcare team resulted in a modification of the therapeutic strategy, no changes in glycemic control, frequency of episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, or hospitalization duration were observed.
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2; Insulin Treatment; Randomized Controlled Trial; Health Education
Inverse associations between micronutrient intake and cardiovascular outcomes have
been previously shown, but did not focus on diabetic patients.
To systematically review the role of micronutrients in the development/presence of
cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes.
We searched Medline, Embase, and Scopus (January/1949-March/2012) for
observational studies that evaluated micronutrients and cardiovascular outcomes in
patients with diabetes, and then selected and extracted the data (two independent
From the 15 658 studies identified, five were included, comprising three
case-control and two cohorts, with a follow-up of 7-15 years. A meta-analysis was
not performed due to the different antioxidant micronutrients (types and
measurement methods) and outcomes evaluated. The micronutrients assessed were
vitamin C intake in diet and/ or supplementation, chromium and selenium in toenail
samples, and α-tocopherol and zinc in serum levels. Intake of > 300 mg
of vitamin C through supplementation was associated with increased risk of
cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke (RR 1.69-2.37).
High levels of α-tocopherol in serum were associated with 30% lower CAD
risk in another study (HR 0.71; 95%CI 0.53-0.94). Among minerals (zinc, selenium,
and chromium), an inverse association between zinc and CAD was observed; levels
lower than 14.1 μmol/L were associated with an increased risk for CAD (RR 1.70;
The information available on this issue is scarce. Further prospective studies are
needed to elucidate the role of these nutrients in the cardiovascular risk of
patients with diabetes.
Micronutrients; Antioxidants; Risk Factors; Cardiovascular Diseases; Diabetes Mellitus
We evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise training without dietary changes on cardiovascular and metabolic variables and on the expression of glucose transporter Type 4 in rats with metabolic syndrome.
Twenty male spontaneously hypertensive rats received monosodium glutamate during the neonatal period. The animals were allocated to the following groups: MS (sedentary metabolic syndrome), MS-T (trained on a treadmill for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week for 10 weeks), H (sedentary spontaneously hypertensive rats) and H-T (trained spontaneously hypertensive rats). The Lee index, blood pressure (tail-cuff system), insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test) and functional capacity were evaluated before and after 10 weeks of training. Glucose transporter Type 4 expression was analyzed using Western blotting. The data were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p<0.05).
At baseline, the MS rats exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and increased Lee index compared with the H rats. Training decreased the body weight and Lee index of the MS rats (MS-T vs. MS), but not of the H rats (H-T vs. H). There were no differences in food intake between the groups. At the end of the experiments, the systolic blood pressure was lower in the two trained groups than in their sedentary controls. Whole-body insulin sensitivity increased in the trained groups. Glucose transporter Type 4 content increased in the heart, white adipose tissue and gastrocnemius muscle of the trained groups relative to their respective untrained groups.
In conclusion, the present study shows that an isolated aerobic exercise training intervention is an efficient means of improving several components of metabolic syndrome, that is, training reduces obesity and hypertension and increases insulin sensitivity.
Metabolic Syndrome X; Glucose Transporter Type 4; Obesity; Exercise Training
Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a group of risk factors that directly contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance seems to have a fundamental role in the genesis of this syndrome. Over the past years to the present day, basic and translational research has used small animal models to explore the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and to develop novel therapies that might slow the progression of this prevalent condition. In this paper we discuss the animal models used for the study of metabolic syndrome, with particular focus on cardiovascular changes, since they are the main cause of death associated with the condition in humans.
The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in a rodent obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate injections during the first seven days of life.
The animals were assigned to control (control, n = 10) and monosodium glutamate (monosodium glutamate, n = 13) groups. Thirty-three weeks after birth, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for arterial pressure measurements, drug administration, and blood sampling. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated according to the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusion, respectively. Sympathetic and vagal effects were determined by administering methylatropine and propranolol.
Body weight, Lee index, and epididymal white adipose tissue values were higher in the monosodium glutamate group in comparison to the control group. The monosodium glutamate-treated rats displayed insulin resistance, as shown by a reduced glucose/insulin index (-62.5%), an increased area under the curve of total insulin secretion during glucose overload (39.3%), and basal hyperinsulinemia. The mean arterial pressure values were higher in the monosodium glutamate rats, whereas heart rate variability (>7 times), bradycardic responses (>4 times), and vagal (∼38%) and sympathetic effects (∼36%) were reduced as compared to the control group.
Our results suggest that obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment impairs cardiac autonomic function and most likely contributes to increased arterial pressure and insulin resistance.
Monosodium Glutamate; Obesity; Insulin Resistance; Arterial Pressure; Autonomic Function
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treadmill training on nociceptive sensitivity and immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of diabetic rats.
Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic and trained diabetic. Treadmill training was performed for 8 weeks. The blood glucose concentrations and body weight were evaluated 48 h after diabetes induction and every 30 days thereafter. The nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using the tail-flick apparatus. The animals were then transcardially perfused, and the spinal cords were post-fixed, cryoprotected and sectioned in a cryostat. Immunohistochemistry for calcitonin gene-related peptide analysis was performed on the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.
The nociceptive sensitivity analysis revealed that, compared with the control and trained diabetic animals, the latency to tail deflection on the apparatus was longer for the diabetic animals. Optical densitometry demonstrated decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in diabetic animals, which was reversed by treadmill training.
We concluded that treadmill training can alleviate nociceptive hypoalgesia and reverse decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of diabetic animals without pharmacological treatment.
Hypoalgesia; Tail-Flick Test; Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Content; Dorsal Horn of Spinal Cord; Diabetic Neuropathy
Metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance, which is closely related to GLUT4 content in insulin-sensitive tissues. Thus, we evaluated the GLUT4 expression, insulin resistance and inflammation, characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, in an experimental model.
Spontaneously hypertensive neonate rats (18/group) were treated with monosodium glutamate (MetS) during 9 days, and compared with Wistar-Kyoto (C) and saline-treated SHR (H). Blood pressure (BP) and lipid levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), TNF-α and adiponectin were evaluated. GLUT4 protein was analysed in the heart, white adipose tissue and gastrocnemius. Studies were performed at 3 (3-mo), 6 (6-mo) and 9 (9-mo) months of age.
MetS rats were more insulin resistant (p<0.001, all ages) and had higher BP (3-mo: p<0.001, 6-mo: p = 0.001, 9-mo: p = 0.015) as compared to C. At 6 months, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α were higher (p<0.001, all comparisons) in MetS rats vs H, but adiponectin was lower in MetS at 9 months (MetS: 32 ± 2, H: 42 ± 2, C: 45 ± 2 pg/mL; p<0.001). GLUT4 protein was reduced in MetS as compared to C rats at 3, 6 and 9-mo, respectively (Heart: 54%, 50% and 57%; Gastrocnemius: 37%, 56% and 50%; Adipose tissue: 69%, 61% and 69%).
MSG-treated SHR presented all metabolic syndrome characteristics, as well as reduced GLUT4 content, which must play a key role in the impaired glycemic homeostasis of the metabolic syndrome.
Monosodium glutamate; Spontaneously hypertensive rats; Glucose transporter 4
Although clinical diabetes mellitus is obviously a high risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI), in experimental studies disagreement exists about the sensitivity to ischemic injury of an infarcted myocardium. Recently, our group demonstrated that diabetic animals presented better cardiac function recovery and cellular resistance to ischemic injury than nondiabetics. In the present study, we evaluated the chronic effects of MI on left ventricular (LV) and autonomic functions in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats.
Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control (C, n = 15), diabetes (D, n = 16), MI (I, n = 21), and diabetes + MI (DI, n = 30). MI was induced 15 days after diabetes (STZ) induction. Ninety days after MI, LV and autonomic functions were evaluated (8 animals each group). Left ventricular homogenates were analyzed by Western blotting to evaluate the expression of calcium handling proteins.
MI area was similar in infarcted groups (~43%). Ejection fraction and +dP/dt were reduced in I compared with DI. End-diastolic pressure was additionally increased in I compared with DI. Compared with DI, I had increased Na+-Ca2+ exchange and phospholamban expression (164%) and decreased phosphorylated phospholamban at serine16 (65%) and threonine17 (70%) expression. Nevertheless, diabetic groups had greater autonomic dysfunction, observed by baroreflex sensitivity and pulse interval variability reductions. Consequently, the mortality rate was increased in DI compared with I, D, and C groups.
LV dysfunction in diabetic animals was attenuated after 90 days of myocardial infarction and was associated with a better profile of calcium handling proteins. However, this positive adaptation was not able to reduce the mortality rate of DI animals, suggesting that autonomic dysfunction is associated with increased mortality in this group. Therefore, it is possible that the better cardiac function has been transitory, and the autonomic dysfunction, more prominent in diabetic group, may lead, in the future, to the cardiovascular damage.
We investigated the effects of treadmill training (10 weeks) on hindlimb motor function and nerve morphometric parameters in diabetic rats submitted to sciatic nerve crush.
MATERIALS AND METHOD:
Wistar rats (n = 64) were divided into the following groups: non-diabetic; trained non-diabetic; non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; trained non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; diabetic; trained diabetic; diabetic with sciatic nerve crush or trained diabetic with sciatic nerve crush. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (50 mg/kg, iv). Hindlimb motor function was evaluated weekly by assessing sciatic functional indices, and the proximal and distal portions of the sciatic nerve were used for morphometric analysis.
At 13 weeks post-injury, the distal nerve portion of all injured groups and the proximal nerve portion of the diabetic with sciatic nerve crush group presented altered morphometric parameters such as decreased myelinated fiber diameter (∼7.4±0.3µm vs ∼4.8±0.2µm), axonal diameter (∼5±0.2µm vs ∼3.5±0.1µm) and myelin sheath thickness (∼1.2±0.07µm vs ∼0.65±0.07µm) and an increase in the percentage of area occupied by endoneurium (∼28±3% vs ∼60±3%). In addition, in the non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush group the proximal nerve portion showed a decreased myelinated fiber diameter (7.4±0.3µm vs 5.8±0.3µm) and myelin sheath thickness (1.29±0.08µm vs 0.92±0.08µm). The non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush, trained non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush, diabetic with sciatic nerve crush and trained diabetic with sciatic nerve crush groups showed normal sciatic functional index from the 4th, 4th, 9th and 7th week post-injury, respectively. Morphometric alterations in the proximal nerve portion of the diabetic with sciatic nerve crush and non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush groups were either prevented or reverted to values similar to the non-diabetic group by treadmill training.
Diabetic condition promoted delay in sciatic nerve regeneration. Treadmill training is able to accelerate hindlimb motor function recovery in diabetic injured rats and prevent or revert morphometric alterations in proximal nerve portions in non-diabetic and diabetic injured rats.
Diabetes; Sciatic nerve crush; Motor function; Nerve morphometry; Treadmill training
Endothelium-dependent dilation is improved in insulin-treated diabetic patients, but this effect is probably due to improved glycemic control. The objective of the present study was to compare endothelium-dependent dilation in patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes who are or are not using insulin as part of their therapy.
We studied 27 patients with type 2 diabetes (11 women, 60.3 years ± 6 years, with HbA1c < 7% and no nephropathy), including 16 patients treated with anti-diabetic agents (No-Ins, 8 women) and 11 patients treated with insulin alone or in combination with anti-diabetic agents (Ins, 3 women). Endothelial function was evaluated by the dorsal hand vein technique, which measures changes in vein diameter in response to phenylephrine, acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent vasodilation) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent vasodilation).
Age, systolic blood pressure (No-Ins: 129.4 mmHg ± 11.8 mmHg, Ins: 134.8 mmHg ± 12.0 mmHg; P = 0.257), HbA1c, lipids and urinary albumin excretion rate [No-Ins: 9 mg/24 h (0-14.1 mg/24 h) vs. Ins: 10.6 mg/24 h (7.5-14.4 mg/24 h), P = 0.398] were similar between groups. There was no difference between endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the No-Ins group (59.3% ± 26.5%) vs. the Ins group (54.0% ± 16.3%; P = 0.526). Endothelium-independent vasodilation was also similar between the No-Ins (113.7% ± 35.3%) and Ins groups (111.9% ± 28.5%; P = 0.888).
Subcutaneous insulin therapy does not interfere with venous endothelial function in type 2 diabetes when glycemic and blood pressure control are stable.
Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Diabetes complications; Vascular diseases; Vascular endothelium; Insulin
Insulin-resistance is associated with cardiovascular disease but it is not used as a marker for disease in clinical practice.
To study the association between the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride/HDLc ratio (TG/HDLc) with the presence of coronary artery disease in patients submitted to cardiac catheterization.
In a cross-sectional study, 131 patients (57.0 ± 10 years-old, 51.5% men) underwent clinical, laboratory and angiographic evaluation and were classified as No CAD (absence of coronary artery disease) or CAD (stenosis of more than 30% in at least one major coronary artery).
Prevalence of coronary artery disease was 56.7%. HOMA-IR and TG/HDLc index were higher in the CAD vs No CAD group, respectively: HOMA-IR: 3.19 (1.70-5.62) vs. 2.33 (1.44-4.06), p = 0.015 and TG/HDLc: 3.20 (2.38-5.59) vs. 2.80 (1.98-4.59) p = 0.045) - median (p25-75). After a ROC curve analysis, cut-off values were selected based on the best positive predictive value for each variable: HOMA-IR = 6.0, TG/HDLc = 8.5 and [HOMA-IR×TG/HDLc] = 28. Positive predictive value for coronary artery disease for HOMA-IR>6.0 was 82.6%, for TG/HDLc>8.5 was 85.7% and for [HOMA-IR×TG/HDLc]>28 was 88.0%. Adjusted relative risk (age, gender, diabetes, body mass index, systolic blood pressure) for the presence of coronary artery disease was: for HOMA-IR>6.0, 1.47 (95.CI: 1.06-2.04, p = 0.027), for TG/HDLc>8.5, 1.46 (95% CI:1.07-1.98), p = 0.015) and for [HOMA-IR × TG/HDLc] >28, 1.64 (95%CI: 1.28-2.09), p < 0.001).
Increased HOMA-IR, TG/HDLc and their product are positively associated with angiographic coronary artery disease, and may be useful for risk stratification as a high-specificity test for coronary artery disease.
The evaluation of endothelial function has been performed in the arterial bed, but recently evaluation within the venous system has also been explored. Endothelial function studies employ different drugs that act as endothelium-dependent vasodilatory response inductors.
The aim of this study is to compare the endothelium-dependent venous vasodilator response mediated by either acetylcholine or bradykinin in healthy volunteers.
METHODS AND RESULTS
Changes in vein diameter after phenylephrine-induced venoconstriction were measured to compare venodilation induced by acetylcholine or bradykinin (linear variable differential transformer dorsal hand vein technique). We studied 23 healthy volunteers; 31% were male, and the subject had a mean age of 33 ± 8 years and a mean body mass index of 23 ± 2 kg/m2. The maximum endothelium-dependent venodilation was similar for both drugs (p = 0.13), as well as the mean responses for each dose of both drugs (r = 0.96). The maximum responses to acetylcholine and bradykinin also had good agreement.
There were no differences between acetylcholine and bradykinin as venodilators in this endothelial venous function investigation.
Endothelium; Vascular; Veins; Acetylcholine; Bradykinin
The association between TGF-β1 levels and long-term major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is controversial. No study specifically addressed patients with CAD and diabetes mellitus (DM). The association between TGF-β1 levels and long-term major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is controversial. No study specifically addressed patients with CAD and diabetes mellitus (DM).
Patients (n = 135, 30–80 years) referred for coronary angiography were submitted to clinical and laboratory evaluation, and the coronary angiograms were evaluated by two operators blinded to clinical characteristics. CAD was defined as the presence of a 70% stenosis in one major coronary artery, and DM was characterized as a fasting glycemia > 126 mg/dl or known diabetics (personal history of diabetes or previous use of anti-hyperglycemic drugs or insulin). Based on these criteria, study patients were classified into four groups: no DM and no CAD (controls, C n = 61), DM without CAD (D n = 23), CAD without DM (C-CAD n = 28), and CAD with DM (D-CAD n = 23). Baseline differences between the 4 groups were evaluated by the χ2 test for trend (categorical variables) and by ANOVA (continuous variables, post-hoc Tukey). Patients were then followed-up during two years for the occurrence of MACE (cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction or myocardial revascularization). The association of candidate variables with the occurrence of 2-year MACE was assessed by univariate analysis.
The mean age was 58.2 ± 0.9 years, and 51% were men. Patients with CAD had a higher mean age (p = 0.011) and a higher percentage were male (p = 0.040). There were no significant baseline differences between the 4 groups regarding hypertension, smoking status, blood pressure levels, lipid levels or inflammatory markers. TGF-β1 was similar between patients with or without CAD or DM (35.1 ×/÷ 1.3, 33.6 ×/÷ 1.6, 33.9 ×/÷ 1.4 and 31.8 ×/÷ 1.4 ng/ml in C, D, C-CAD and D-CAD, respectively, p = 0.547). In the 2-year follow-ip, independent predictors of 2-year MACE were age (p = 0.007), C-reactive protein (p = 0.048) and systolic blood pressure (p = 0.008), but not TGF-β1.
Serum TGF-β1 was not associated with CAD or MACE occurrence in patients with or without DM.
To evaluate the effects of aerobic (AER) or aerobic plus resistance exercise (COMB) sessions on glucose levels and glucose variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we assessed conventional and non-conventional methods to analyze glucose variability derived from multiple measurements performed with continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS).
Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes (56±2 years) wore a CGMS during 3 days. Participants randomly performed AER and COMB sessions, both in the morning (24 h after CGMS placement), and at least 7 days apart. Glucose variability was evaluated by glucose standard deviation, glucose variance, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), and glucose coefficient of variation (conventional methods) as well as by spectral and symbolic analysis (non-conventional methods).
Baseline fasting glycemia was 139±05 mg/dL and HbA1c 7.9±0.7%. Glucose levels decreased immediately after AER and COMB protocols by ∼16%, which was sustained for approximately 3 hours. Comparing the two exercise modalities, responses over a 24-h period after the sessions were similar for glucose levels, glucose variance and glucose coefficient of variation. In the symbolic analysis, increases in 0 V pattern (COMB, 67.0±7.1 vs. 76.0±6.3, P = 0.003) and decreases in 1 V pattern (COMB, 29.1±5.3 vs. 21.5±5.1, P = 0.004) were observed only after the COMB session.
Both AER and COMB exercise modalities reduce glucose levels similarly for a short period of time. The use of non-conventional analysis indicates reduction of glucose variability after a single session of combined exercises.
Aerobic training, aerobic-resistance training and glucose profile (CGMS) in type 2 diabetes (CGMS exercise). ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00887094.
The effects of renal denervation on cardiovascular reflexes and markers of nephropathy in diabetic-hypertensive rats have not yet been explored.
Aim: To evaluate the effects of renal denervation on nephropathy development mechanisms (blood pressure, cardiovascular autonomic changes, renal GLUT2) in diabetic-hypertensive rats. Forty-one male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) ~250 g were injected with STZ or not; 30 days later, surgical renal denervation (RD) or sham procedure was performed; 15 days later, glycemia and albuminuria (ELISA) were evaluated. Catheters were implanted into the femoral artery to evaluate arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate variability (spectral analysis) one day later in conscious animals. Animals were killed, kidneys removed, and cortical renal GLUT2 quantified (Western blotting).
Higher glycemia (p < 0.05) and lower mean AP were observed in diabetics vs. nondiabetics (p < 0.05). Heart rate was higher in renal-denervated hypertensive and lower in diabetic-hypertensive rats (384.8 ± 37, 431.3 ± 36, 316.2 ± 5, 363.8 ± 12 bpm in SHR, RD-SHR, STZ-SHR and RD-STZ-SHR, respectively). Heart rate variability was higher in renal-denervated diabetic-hypertensive rats (55.75 ± 25.21, 73.40 ± 53.30, 148.4 ± 93 in RD-SHR, STZ-SHR- and RD-STZ-SHR, respectively, p < 0.05), as well as the LF component of AP variability (1.62 ± 0.9, 2.12 ± 0.9, 7.38 ± 6.5 in RD-SHR, STZ-SHR and RD-STZ-SHR, respectively, p < 0.05). GLUT2 renal content was higher in all groups vs. SHR.
Renal denervation in diabetic-hypertensive rats improved previously reduced heart rate variability. The GLUT2 equally overexpressed by diabetes and renal denervation may represent a maximal derangement effect of each condition.