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1.  The INITIATOR Study: Pilot Data on Real-World Clinical and Economic Outcomes in US Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Initiating Injectable Therapy 
Advances in Therapy  2013;30(12):1128-1140.
Introduction
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) progression often results in treatment intensification with injectable therapy to maintain glycemic control. Using pilot data from the Initiation of New Injectable Treatment Introduced after Anti-diabetic Therapy with Oral-only Regimens study, real-world treatment patterns among T2DM patients initiating injectable therapy with insulin glargine or liraglutide were assessed.
Methods
This was a retrospective analysis of claims from the OptumInsight™ (OI; January 1, 2010 to July 30, 2010) and HealthCore® (HC; January 1, 2010 to June 1, 2010) health insurance databases. Baseline characteristics, health care resource utilization, and costs were compared between adults with T2DM initiating injectable therapy with insulin glargine pen versus liraglutide. Follow-up outcomes, including glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C), hypoglycemia, health care utilization, and costs, were assessed.
Results
At baseline, almost one in three liraglutide patients (OI, n = 363; HC, n = 521) had A1C <7.0%, while insulin glargine patients (OI, n = 498; HC, n = 1,188) had poorer health status, higher A1C (insulin glargine: 9.8% and 9.1% versus liraglutide: 7.9% and 7.7%, OI and HC, respectively, both P < 0.001), and were less likely to be obese (insulin glargine: 10.8% and 9.2% versus liraglutide: 17.4% and 18.8%, OI and HC, respectively, both P < 0.01). The percentage of patients experiencing a hypoglycemic event was numerically higher for insulin pen use for both cohorts (OI 4.4% versus 3.0%; HC 6.2% versus 2.3%). During follow-up, in the insulin glargine cohort, annualized diabetes-related costs remained unchanged ($8,344 versus $7,749 OI, and $7,094 versus $7,731 HC), despite a significant increase in pharmacy costs, due to non-significant decreases in medical costs, while the liraglutide cohort had a significant increase in annualized diabetes-related costs ($4,510 versus $7,731 OI, and $4,136 versus $7,111 HC; both P < 0.001) due to a non-significant increase in medical costs coupled with a significant increase in pharmacy costs.
Conclusion
These descriptive data identified differences in demographic and baseline clinical characteristics among patients initiating injectable therapies. The different health care utilization and cost patterns warrant further cost-effectiveness analysis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12325-013-0074-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12325-013-0074-8
PMCID: PMC3898354  PMID: 24293131
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Health care costs; Injectable treatment; Treatment initiation
2.  Using observational data to inform the design of a prospective effectiveness study for a novel insulin delivery device 
Objective
To inform the design and assess the feasibility of a prospective effectiveness study evaluating an insulin delivery device for patients with diabetes mellitus to be conducted within the membership of a large US commercial insurer.
Methods
Providers who issued ≥1 insulin prescription between January 1, 2011 and September 30, 2011 were selected from administrative claims contained in the HealthCore Integrated Research DatabaseSM. Adult diabetes patients with visits to these providers were identified. Providers were dichotomized into high- (HVPs) and low-volume providers (LVPs) based on median number of diabetes patients per provider.
Results
We identified 15,349 HVPs and 15,313 LVPs (median number of patients = 14). Most HVPs were located in the Midwest (6,291 [41.0%]) and South (5,092 [33.2%]), while LVPs were evenly distributed across regions. Over 80% (12,769) of HVPs practiced family or internal medicine; 6.4% (989) were endocrinologists. HVPs prescribed insulin to an average of 25% of patients. Patients of HVPs (522,527) had similar characteristics as patients of LVPs (80,669), except for geographical dispersion, which followed that of providers. Approximately 65% of patients were aged 21–64 years and 97% had type 2 diabetes. Among patients with ≥1 available HbA1C result during 2011 (103,992), 48.3% (50,193) had an average HbA1C ≥7.0%. Among patients initiating insulin, 79.6% (22,205) had an average HbA1C ≥7.0%.
Conclusion
The observed provider and patient populations support the feasibility of the prospective study. Sampling of patients from HVPs is efficient while minimizing bias as patient characteristics are similar to those from LVPs. The study also highlights unmet needs for improved glycemic control since approximately half of patients with diabetes are not on goal.
doi:10.2147/CEOR.S46896
PMCID: PMC3789841  PMID: 24098085
diabetes mellitus; claims analysis; prospective study design; insulin delivery
3.  The impact of serum lipids on risk for microangiopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Background
Few large-scale, real-world studies have assessed the relative associations of lipid fractions with diabetic microvascular events. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association of the lipid profile components, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) with microvascular complications (MVCs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.
Methods
This observational cohort study queried the HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRDSM) for newly-diagnosed (Index Date) 18-64-year-old patients with diabetes mellitus between 01/01/2005-06/30/2010. Inclusion required ≥12 months pre-index continuous health plan eligibility and ≥1 pre-index lipid profile result. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and prior MVCs were excluded. Incident complications were defined as the earliest occurrence of diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and/or nephropathy post-index. Cox proportional models and Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves were used to evaluate associations among variables.
Results
Of the patients (N = 72,267), 50.05 % achieved HDL-C, 64.28 % LDL-C, 59.82 % TG, and 56.79 % non-HDL-C American Diabetes Association goals at baseline. During follow-up (mean, 21.74 months), there were 5.21 microvascular events per 1,000 patient-months. A 1-mg/dL increase in HDL-C was associated with 1 % decrease in any MVC risk (P < .0001), but for LDL-C, TG, and non-HDL-C, 1-mg/dL increase resulted in increases of 0.2 % (P < .0001), 0.1 % (P < 0.001) and 0.3 % (P < 0.001) in MVC risk. Patients achieving HDL-C goals had a 11 % lower risk of MVC versus non-achievers (RR 0.895, [95 % CI, 0.852-0.941], P < .0001). Similarly, TG goal attainment was associated with a lowered risk for any MVC (RR 0.849, [95 % CI, 0.808-0.892], P < .0001). Evaluation of KM survival curves demonstrated no significant difference in the risk of MVCs between patients achieving vs. not achieving LDL-C goals, but did demonstrate a difference in MVC risk between patients achieving vs. not achieving non-HDL-C goals.
Conclusion
This study demonstrates significant independent associations among lipid fractions and risk for microangiopathy. These findings suggest that attaining established ADA goals for HDL-C, TG, and non-HDL-C may reduce risk for microvascular events among patients with diabetes.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-109
PMCID: PMC3473235  PMID: 22978715
Lipid subfractions; ADA treatment goals; Diabetes; Microvascular complications; Retinopathy; Neuropathy; Nephropathy

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