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author:("Okita, kohli")
1.  Usefulness of the insulin tolerance test in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving insulin therapy 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction
To establish the validity of the plasma glucose disappearance rate (KITT), derived from an insulin‐tolerance test (ITT), for evaluating the insulin sensitivity of patients with type 2 diabetes after insulin therapy.
Materials and Methods
In the first arm of the study, 19 patients with poorly controlled diabetes were treated with insulin and underwent an ITT and a euglycemic clamp test (clamp‐IR). The relationship between the insulin resistance index, as assessed by both the clamp‐IR and KITT tests, was examined. In the second arm of the study, the relationships between KITT values and various clinical parameters were investigated in 135 patients with poorly controlled diabetes, after achieving glycemic control with insulin.
Results
In study 1, a close correlation between KITT and the average glucose infusion rate during the last 30 min of the standard clamp‐IR test (M‐value) was noted (P < 0.001). In study 2, body mass index (P = 0.0011), waist circumference (P = 0.0004), visceral fat area (P = 0.0011) and the log‐transformed homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance value (P = 0.0003) were negatively correlated with the log‐transformed KITT. High‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0183), low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0121) and adiponectin (P = 0.0384) levels were positively correlated with the log‐transformed KITT.
Conclusions
The ITT is a valid and useful test for evaluating the insulin sensitivity of patients with diabetes, even after treatment with insulin.
doi:10.1111/jdi.12143
PMCID: PMC4020335  PMID: 24843779
Insulin resistance; Insulin therapy; Insulin tolerance test
3.  Weight reduction is associated with improvement of glycemic control in Japanese men, whose hemoglobin A1C is 5.6–6.4%, with visceral fat accumulation, but not without visceral fat accumulation 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction
The aim of the present study was to determine whether weight reduction is associated with improvement of glycemic control in non‐obese and obese subjects with or without visceral fat accumulation, whose hemoglobin A1c (A1C) is 5.6–6.4%.
Materials and Methods
A total of 798 male subjects whose A1C levels were between 5.6% and 6.4% were divided into subgroups based on body mass index (BMI) and/or estimated visceral fat area (eVFA), and were analyzed with respect to the relationships between 1‐year changes in BMI (ΔBMI) and A1C (ΔA1C).
Results
In both the BMI ≥25 and BMI <25 groups, ΔA1C correlated positively with ΔBMI (BMI ≥25 (n = 321): r = 0.236, P < 0.0001; BMI <25 (n = 477): r = 0.095, P = 0.0387) although the r‐value was very small for the latter group. In addition, for the group with eVFA ≥100 cm2 (n = 436), ΔA1C correlated positively with ΔeVFA (r = 0.150, P = 0.0017), but this correlation was not found for the eVFA <100 cm2 group (n = 339, P = 0.3505). Furthermore, ΔA1C positively correlated with ΔBMI for the groups in BMI ≥25 with eVFA >100 cm2 (n = 293, r = 0.256, P < 0.0001) and BMI <25 with eVFA ≥100 cm2 (n = 145, r = 0.250, P = 0.0024), but not for the groups in BMI ≥25 with eVFA <100 cm2 (n = 28, P = 0.6401) nor BMI <25 with eVFA <100 cm2 (n = 332, P = 0.6605).
Conclusions
These results suggest that the assessment of visceral fat, rather than BMI, might be more important in identifying subjects in whom lifestyle intervention aiming at weight reduction could be effective to prevent diabetes. This trial was registered with University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (no. UMIN 000002391).
doi:10.1111/jdi.12084
PMCID: PMC4025102  PMID: 24843695
Glycemic control; Visceral fat accumulation; Weight reduction
4.  Vascular complications and changes in body mass index in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity 
Background
Although many Asian type 2 diabetic patients have been considered to be not obese and have low capacity of insulin secretion, the proportion of obese patients with visceral fat accumulation has increased in recent years. We found previously considerable number of Japanese non-obese subjects (body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2) with visceral fat accumulation and multiple cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the difference in clinical features of type 2 diabetic patients with and without visceral fat accumulation, focusing on vascular complications and changes in BMI.
Methods
We enrolled 88 Japanese hospitalized type 2 diabetic patients. Abdominal obesity represented waist circumference (WC) of ≥85 cm for males and ≥90 cm for females (corresponding to visceral fat area of 100 cm2). Subjects were divided into two groups; with or without abdominal obesity.
Results
Hypertension, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases were significantly more in the patients with abdominal obesity. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the non-obese patients (BMI < 25 kg/m2) with abdominal obesity were similar in obese patients (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). The mean BMI of the patients with abdominal obesity was < 25 kg/m2 at 20 years of age, but reached maximum to more than 30 kg/m2 in the course. Furthermore, substantial portion of the type 2 diabetic patients (52% in males and 43% in females) were not obese at 20 year-old (BMI < 25 kg/m2), but developed abdominal obesity by the time of admission.
Conclusion
These results emphasize the need to control multiple risk factors and prevent atherosclerotic disease in patients with abdominal obesity. The significant weight gain after 20 years of age in patients with abdominal obesity stresses the importance of lifestyle modification in younger generation, to prevent potential development of type 2 diabetes and future atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-12-88
PMCID: PMC3698109  PMID: 23773268
Abdominal obesity; Type 2 diabetes; Waist circumference; Visceral fat accumulation; Body mass index; Cardiovascular disease
5.  Dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitors are effective in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with sustained endogenous insulin‐secreting capacity, a higher body mass index and insulin resistance 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction
Recently, dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 (DPP‐4) inhibitors have become available in Japan. It has not yet been clarified what clinical parameters could discriminate DPP‐4 inhibitor‐effective patients from DPP‐4 inhibitor‐ineffective patients.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed 33 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes admitted to Osaka University Hospital for glycemic control. All of the patients were treated with medical nutrition therapy plus insulin therapy to improve fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial glucose below 150 and 200 mg/dL, respectively. After insulin secretion and insulin resistance were evaluated, insulin was replaced by DPP‐4 inhibitors. The efficacy of DPP‐4 inhibitors was determined according to whether glycemic control was maintained at the target levels.
Results
Dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitors were effective in 16 of 33 patients. DPP‐4 inhibitor‐effective patients were younger than DPP‐4 inhibitor‐ineffective patients. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher in DPP‐4 inhibitor‐effective patients. Endogeneous insulin‐secreting capacity, including insulinogenic index (II), fasting plasma C‐peptide (F‐CPR) and C‐peptide index (CPI), was more sustained in DPP‐4 inhibitor‐effective patients than DPP‐4 inhibitor‐ineffective patients. Insulin resistance evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA‐IR) was significantly higher in DPP‐4 inhibitor‐effective patients than DPP‐4 inhibitor‐ineffective patients. In receiver operating characteristic analyses, the cut‐off values for predicting the efficacy of DPP‐4 inhibitors were 0.07 for II, 1.5 ng/mL for F‐CPR, 1.0 for CPI, 23.0 kg/m2 for BMI, 1.3 for HOMA‐IR and 67.5 years for age.
Conclusions
Dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitors were effective in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with sustained endogenous insulin‐secreting capacity, a higher BMI and insulin resistance.
doi:10.1111/jdi.12016
PMCID: PMC4019274  PMID: 24843651
Dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor; Insulin secretion; Type 2 diabetes
6.  A Pilot Investigation of Visceral Fat Adiposity and Gene Expression Profile in Peripheral Blood Cells 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47377.
Evidence suggests that visceral fat accumulation plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome. Excess visceral fat causes local chronic low-grade inflammation and dysregulation of adipocytokines, which contribute in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. These changes may affect the gene expression in peripheral blood cells. This study for the first time examined the association between visceral fat adiposity and gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells. The gene expression profile was analyzed in peripheral blood cells from 28 obese subjects by microarray analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using peripheral blood cells from 57 obese subjects. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 kg/m2 according to the Japanese criteria, and the estimated visceral fat area (eVFA) was measured by abdominal bioelectrical impedance. Analysis of gene expression profile was carried out with Agilent whole human genome 4×44 K oligo-DNA microarray. The expression of several genes related to circadian rhythm, inflammation, and oxidative stress correlated significantly with visceral fat accumulation. Period homolog 1 (PER1) mRNA level in blood cells correlated negatively with visceral fat adiposity. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified eVFA as a significant determinant of PER1 expression. In conclusion, visceral fat adiposity correlated with the expression of genes related to circadian rhythm and inflammation in peripheral blood cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047377
PMCID: PMC3472996  PMID: 23091619
7.  Efficacy of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, on body weight, eating behavior, and glycemic control, in Japanese obese type 2 diabetes 
Background
We recently reported that short-term treatment with liraglutide (20.0 ± 6.4 days) reduced body weight and improved some scales of eating behavior in Japanese type 2 diabetes inpatients. However, it remained uncertain whether such liraglutide-induced improvement is maintained after discharge from the hospital. The aim of the present study was to determine the long-term effects of liraglutide on body weight, glycemic control, and eating behavior in Japanese obese type 2 diabetics.
Methods
Patients with obesity (body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2) and type 2 diabetes were hospitalized at Osaka University Hospital between November 2010 and December 2011. BMI and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were examined on admission, at discharge and at 1, 3, and 6 months after discharge. For the liraglutide group (BMI; 31.3 ± 5.3 kg/m2, n = 29), patients were introduced to liraglutide after correction of hyperglycemic by insulin or oral glucose-lowering drugs and maintained on liraglutide after discharge. Eating behavior was assessed in patients treated with liraglutide using The Guideline For Obesity questionnaire issued by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity, at admission, discharge, 3 and 6 months after discharge. For the insulin group (BMI; 29.1 ± 3.0 kg/m2, n = 28), each patient was treated with insulin during hospitalization and glycemic control maintained by insulin after discharge.
Results
Liraglutide induced significant and persistent weight loss from admission up to 6 months after discharge, while no change in body weight after discharge was noted in the insulin group. Liraglutide produced significant improvements in all major scores of eating behavior questionnaire items and such effect was maintained at 6 months after discharge. Weight loss correlated significantly with the decrease in scores for recognition of weight and constitution, sense of hunger, and eating style.
Conclusion
Liraglutide produced meaningful long-term weight loss and significantly improved eating behavior in obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-107
PMCID: PMC3459720  PMID: 22973968
Liraglutide; Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1); Obesity; Eating behavior; Diabetes; Incretin
8.  Insulin‐secretion capacity in normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes in obese and non‐obese Japanese patients 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction:  Pronounced reduction of insulin secretion in response to a rise in glucose level has been reported in Japanese patients compared with Caucasian patients, but the mean body mass index (BMI) is also lower in Japanese patients. As BMI is a determinant of insulin secretion, we examined insulin‐secretion capacity in obese and non‐obese Japanese patients.
Materials and Methods:  Using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), we estimated the insulin‐secreting capacity in obese (BMI ≥ 25) and non‐obese (BMI < 25) Japanese patients, including 1848 patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 321 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 69 diabetes (DM) patients.
Results:  The insulinogenic index (I.I.), calculated by dividing the increment in serum insulin by the increment in plasma glucose from 0 to 30 min during OGTT, decreased from NGT to IGT and to DM in patients with and without obesity. In patients with NGT, IGT and DM, the I.I. values of obese patients were higher than those of the non‐obese patients. The peak of insulin concentration in OGTT appeared at 60 min in NGT and at 120 min in IGT in both obese and non‐obese patients, but in DM it was observed at 120 min in obese patients and at 60 min in non‐obese patients.
Conclusions:  These results show that early‐phase insulin secretion in obese Japanese patients is higher than in non‐obese patients in all stages of glucose tolerance, and delayed insulin‐secretion capacity is also conserved in obese Japanese patients, even in IGT and DM, which is similar to Caucasian patients. (J Diabetes Invest, doi:10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2011.00180.x, 2011)
doi:10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00180.x
PMCID: PMC4014949  PMID: 24843576
Insulin secretion; Non‐obese Japanese; Obese Japanese
9.  Liraglutide is effective in type 2 diabetic patients with sustained endogenous insulin‐secreting capacity 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction:  Recently, glucagon‐like peptide‐1 (GLP‐1) receptor agonists of liraglutide have become available in Japan. It has not yet been clarified what clinical parameters could discriminate liraglutide‐effective patients from liraglutide‐ineffective patients.
Materials and Methods:  We reviewed 23 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes admitted to Osaka University Hospital for glycemic control. All of the patients were treated with diet plus insulin (or plus oral antidiabetic drugs) to improve fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial glucose below 150 and 200 mg/dL, respectively. After insulin secretion and insulin resistance were evaluated, insulin was replaced by liraglutide. The efficacy of liraglutide was determined according to whether glycemic control was maintained at the target levels.
Results:  Liraglutide was effective in 13 of 23 patients. There were significant differences in the parameters of insulin secretion, including fasting C‐peptide (F‐CPR), C‐peptide index (CPI), insulinogenic index (I.I.) and urine C‐peptide (U‐CPR), between liraglutide‐effective and ‐ineffective patients. The duration of diabetes was significantly shorter in liraglutide‐effective patients than in liraglutide‐ineffective patients. In receiver operating characteristic analyses, the cut‐off value for predicting the efficacy of liraglutide was 0.14 for I.I., 1.1 for CPI, 1.5 ng/mL for F‐CPR, 33.3 μg/day for U‐CPR and 19.5 years for duration of type 2 diabetes.
Conclusions:  Insulin secretion evaluated by F‐CPR, CPI, I.I., U‐CPR and the duration of type 2 diabetes were useful parameters for predicting the efficacy of liraglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2011.00168.x, 2011)
doi:10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00168.x
PMCID: PMC4014952  PMID: 24843579
Glucagon‐like peptide‐1; Incretin; Type 2 diabetes
10.  Short-term effects of liraglutide on visceral fat adiposity, appetite, and food preference: a pilot study of obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes 
Background
To examine the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, on visceral fat adiposity, appetite, food preference, and biomarkers of cardiovascular system in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods
The study subjects were 20 inpatients with type 2 diabetes treated with liraglutide [age; 61.2 ± 14.0 years, duration of diabetes; 16.9 ± 6.6 years, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c); 9.1 ± 1.2%, body mass index (BMI); 28.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2, mean ± SD]. After improvement in glycemic control by insulin or oral glucose-lowering agents, patients were switched to liraglutide. We assessed the estimated visceral fat area (eVFA) by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis, glycemic control by the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and eating behavior by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity questionnaire.
Results
Treatment with liraglutide (dose range: 0.3 to 0.9 mg/day) for 20.0 ± 6.4 days significantly reduced waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, eVFA. It also significantly improved the scores of eating behavior, food preference and the urge for fat intake and tended to reduce scores for sense of hunger. Liraglutide increased serum C-peptide immunoreactivity and disposition index.
Conclusions
Short-term treatment with liraglutide improved visceral fat adiposity, appetite, food preference and the urge for fat intake in obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-10-109
PMCID: PMC3260096  PMID: 22132774
liraglutide; glucagon-like peptide-1; obesity; eating behavior
11.  Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of association between circulating thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance levels and clinicobiochemical parameters in 1,178 middle-aged Japanese men - the Amagasaki Visceral Fat Study 
Background
Circulating thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance (TBARS) levels, a marker of systemic oxidative stress, are predictive of cardiovascular events. However, they has not been evaluated in Japanese, especially with regard to the factors that contribute to the changes in circulating TBARS levels. We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between circulating TBARS levels and various clinicobiochemical parameters in middle-aged men.
Methods
In this population-based study (The Amagasaki Visceral Fat Study), 1,178 Japanese male urban workers who had undergone health check-ups in 2006, 2007 and 2008 and were not on medications for metabolic disorders during the follow-up period, were enrolled. Serum TBARS levels were measured by the method of Yagi. The estimated visceral fat area (eVFA) by bioelectrical impedance was measured annually. After health check-ups, subjects received health education with lifestyle modification by medical personnel.
Results
The number of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hyperglycemia, low HDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia, hyper-LDL-C and impaired renal function) augmented with the increases in log-eVFA (p < 0.0001) and log-TBARS (p < 0.0001). The combination of TBARS and eVFA had a multiplicative effect on risk factor accumulation (F value = 79.1, p = 0.0065). Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified log-eVFA, as well as age, log-body mass index (BMI), LDL-C, log-adiponectin, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and uric acid as significant determinants of log-TBARS. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified one-year changes in eVFA as well as BMI, γ-GTP and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as significant determinants of one-year change in TBARS, and biennial changes in eVFA as well as BMI and γ-GTP, eGFR as significant determinants of biennial change in TBARS.
Conclusions
The present study showed a significant cross-sectional and longitudinal correlation between TBARS and eVFA, as well as BMI and γ- GTP, eGFR. Visceral fat reduction may independently associate with the improvement in systemic ROS in middle-aged Japanese men.
Trial Registration
The Amagasaki Visceral Fat Study UMIN000002391.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-82
PMCID: PMC3286396  PMID: 22108213
visceral fat accumulation; systemic reactive oxidative stress; visceral fat reduction
12.  Predictors of deterioration of glucose tolerance and effects of lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing visceral fat in normal glucose tolerance subjects with abdominal obesity 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction:  The aim of the present study was to determine the predictors of deterioration of glucose tolerance in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and abdominal obesity, and whether a lifestyle intervention to reduce visceral fat is effective in these individuals.
Materials and Methods:  The study subjects were 251 individuals who had abdominal obesity with certain risk factors (hypertension, high fasting plasma glucose (FPG), elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia) and underwent oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 2004 and 2005.
Results:  Using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, we found that PG at 0 min, 60 min, and area under the curve (AUC) of glucose from 0 to 120 min (AUC [glucose0–120]) in OGTT were significant predictors of deterioration of glucose tolerance, with optimal cut‐off values of 95 mg/dL, 158 mg/dL and 271 mg h/dL, respectively. Although the rate of deterioration of glucose tolerance didn’t decrease with reductions in visceral fat area (VFA) over the 1‐year period in subjects with NGT, the rate tended to decrease with reductions in VFA in high‐risk NGT subjects (PG at 0 min > 95 or at 60 min > 158, or AUC [glucose0–120] > 271).
Conclusions:  These results suggest that reduction of visceral fat over 1 year might not be beneficial in all subjects with NGT, but is beneficial in high‐risk NGT. We propose that individuals with values of the aforementioned predictors higher than the cut‐off levels, even those with NGT, should receive a lifestyle intervention program aimed at reducing visceral fat to prevent deterioration of glucose tolerance. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2010.00080.x, 2011)
doi:10.1111/j.2040-1124.2010.00080.x
PMCID: PMC4014922  PMID: 24843487
Normal glucose tolerance; Abdominal obesity; Deterioration of glucose tolerance
13.  Insulin tolerance test predicts the effectiveness of insulin sensitizers in japanese type 2 diabetic patients 
Diabetes Therapy  2011;1(2):121-130.
Introduction
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of the insulin tolerance test (ITT) in predicting the effectiveness of insulin sensitizers in type 2 diabetic patients.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 360 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes admitted to Osaka University Hospital, Japan. In 163 of these hospitalized patients, insulin resistance was evaluated by the ITT after their blood glucose level was ameliorated. We then analyzed the association between their clinical characteristics and their glycemic control 6 months after discharge.
Results
The rate constant for plasma glucose disappearance, KITT, was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and visceral fat area (VFA). The median value of KITT was 1.56 (%/min). In the KITT > 1.56 group (n=81), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) significantly increased in both patients treated with insulin sensitizers (n=10) and patients not treated with insulin sensitizers (n=71). In the KITT ≤1.56 group (n=82), HbA1c significantly increased in patients not treated with insulin sensitizers (n=60); however, it was maintained well in the patients treated with insulin sensitizers (n=22). When the patients were divided and analyzed according to the median values of BMI, WC, or VFA, the glycemic control change was not different between the two groups with insulin sensitizers for each parameter.
Conclusion
Insulin sensitizers were effective in type 2 diabetic patients with high insulin resistance estimated by the ITT. The ITT could be useful to predict the effectiveness of insulin sensitizers.
doi:10.1007/s13300-010-0011-7
PMCID: PMC3138481  PMID: 22127749
insulin resistance; insulin sensitizer; insulin tolerance test; type 2 diabetes
14.  Insulin tolerance test predicts the effectiveness of insulin sensitizers in japanese type 2 diabetic patients 
Diabetes Therapy  2011;1(2):121-130.
Introduction
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of the insulin tolerance test (ITT) in predicting the effectiveness of insulin sensitizers in type 2 diabetic patients.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 360 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes admitted to Osaka University Hospital, Japan. In 163 of these hospitalized patients, insulin resistance was evaluated by the ITT after their blood glucose level was ameliorated. We then analyzed the association between their clinical characteristics and their glycemic control 6 months after discharge.
Results
The rate constant for plasma glucose disappearance, KITT, was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and visceral fat area (VFA). The median value of KITT was 1.56 (%/min). In the KITT > 1.56 group (n=81), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) significantly increased in both patients treated with insulin sensitizers (n=10) and patients not treated with insulin sensitizers (n=71). In the KITT ≤1.56 group (n=82), HbA1c significantly increased in patients not treated with insulin sensitizers (n=60); however, it was maintained well in the patients treated with insulin sensitizers (n=22). When the patients were divided and analyzed according to the median values of BMI, WC, or VFA, the glycemic control change was not different between the two groups with insulin sensitizers for each parameter.
Conclusion
Insulin sensitizers were effective in type 2 diabetic patients with high insulin resistance estimated by the ITT. The ITT could be useful to predict the effectiveness of insulin sensitizers.
doi:10.1007/s13300-010-0011-7
PMCID: PMC3138481  PMID: 22127749
insulin resistance; insulin sensitizer; insulin tolerance test; type 2 diabetes

Results 1-14 (14)