Distorted body image may be important risk factors for being underweight and overweight. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between having a distorted body image and being overweight or underweight among normal weight preadolescents in a population-based cohort study in Japan for each sex.
The study participants were 1431 normal weight fourth-grade students (age range: 9–10 years) in Ina town, Japan from 2002 to 2007. The height and weight of each student were measured while they were in the fourth grade (at baseline) and seventh grade (3 years later). Childhood underweight and overweight were defined using the body mass index cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Information regarding the self-perceived weight status of each student at baseline was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Children who were normal weight but perceived themselves as heavy or thin were regarded as having a distorted body images. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) for being overweight or underweight 3 years later among those having a distorted body image at baseline.
Both boys and girls who perceived themselves to be heavy at baseline were at a statistically significantly greater risk of being overweight 3 years later as compared to boys and girls, respectively, who identified as being at a normal weight at baseline (boys: adjusted OR: 4.66, 95 % CI: 1.01–21.48; girls: 3.88, 1.56–9.65). Both boys and girls who perceived oneself to be thin at baseline were at a statistically significantly greater risk of bring underweight 3 years later as compared to boys and girls, respectively, who identified as being at a normal weight at baseline (boys: 5.51, 2.20–13.80; girls: 2.93, 1.40–6.11).
The results of the present study suggest that having a distorted body image in preadolescence is associated with being overweight or underweight in adolescence, among boys and girls, separately. Therefore, education regarding self-perceived weight could be important to help prevent underweight and overweight/obesity among preadolescent boys and girls in Japan.
Distorted body image; Overweight; Underweight; Preadolescents; Japanese
We aimed to examine the relationship between the occurrence of hypo-/hyperglycemia and HbA1c values, as assessed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes.
The study subjects comprised 101 type 1 diabetic patients on basal-bolus insulin therapy, who were put on masked CGM immediately after admission. The subjects were divided into four groups equally by HbA1c values and the 24-h CGM data were compared among the groups.
Groups A to D comprised 24 patients with HbA1c ≤7.2 %, 26 patients with 7.2 % 9.2 %, respectively. The higher the HbA1c values, the significantly higher the 24-h mean glucose levels [median (25–75 percentiles)], with the HbA1c in groups A to D being 133 (114–155), 158 (132–188), 182 (152–206), and 186 (143–215) mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.001). Conversely, the higher the HbA1c values, the significantly shorter the time in hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dL), with the time in groups A to D being 170 (58–341), 78 (0–210), 45 (0–105), and 20 (0–105) min, respectively (P = 0.014); and the higher the HbA1c values, the significantly shorter the time in nocturnal hypoglycemia, with the time in groups A to D being 120 (5–269), 25 (0–120), 0 (0–60), and 0 (0–89) min, respectively (P = 0.019). No significant difference was seen between groups A to D in the standard deviations (SDs) of 24-h glucose values at 53 (40–65), 54 (45–70), 64 (55–76), and 58 (48–80), respectively.
In type 1 diabetic patients, lower HbA1c was not associated with lower SD of 24-h glucose values, but may result in increased hypoglycemia.
Trial Registration Current controlled trials UMIN000019190
Continuous glucose monitoring; CGM; Type 1 diabetes; HbA1c; Hypoglycemia
In our previous study investigating effects of luseogliflozin, a sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, on 24-h glycemic variability by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), luseogliflozin elicited parallel downward shifts in fasting and postprandial glucose levels. However, further review of individual patients’ data revealed that postprandial hyperglycemia was not reduced in some patients, while preprandial glucose was ameliorated in most patients. Therefore, we divided patients into two groups according to their postprandial glucose responses and conducted a post hoc subanalyses to elucidate which factors contributed to the differential effects of luseogliflozin.
Thirty-four Japanese type 2 diabetic patients in our previous randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study with 7-day luseogliflozin administration were divided into postprandial glucose responders (PGR, n = 23, ameliorated peak glucose) and postprandial glucose non-responders (PGNR; n = 11, non-ameliorated peak glucose). Baseline characteristics, variations in CGM-measured 24-h glucose levels, and other pharmacodynamic variabilities were compared.
Baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between groups. Placebo-subtracted peak glucose was significantly lowered in PGR and significantly increased in PGNR (−43.8 and 17.9 mg/dL; both p < 0.05). Luseogliflozin significantly lowered “lowest glucose” (defined as the lowest level measured throughout a 24-h period) similarly in PGR and PGNR (−19.2 and −24.0 mg/dL; both p < 0.05), significantly reduced the mean amplitude of glucose excursions in PGR (−15.50 mg/dL; p < 0.05), and increased the area under the curve for plasma glucagon over 24 h in PGNR (median difference vs. placebo: 240 pg/mL h; p < 0.05). Luseogliflozin increased urinary glucose excretion (UGE) and decreased serum insulin by similar magnitudes in both groups.
Luseogliflozin diminished glucose fluctuations in most patients by lowering peak glucose to a greater extent than lowest glucose. Luseogliflozin may also lower lowest glucose in patients whose peak glucose was not ameliorated despite increasing UGE. The glucagon increase in PGNR might explain its hypoglycemic effect on postprandial glucose.
Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12325-016-0350-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Continuous glucose monitoring; Diabetes; Japan; Luseogliflozin; Post hoc subanalysis; Postprandial hyperglycemia; Randomized controlled trial; Sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Central obesity, based on waist circumference (WC), has more adverse effects on health than general obesity, determined by body mass index. To date, eating quickly has been reported to be risk factors for overweight/obesity among children, adolescents, and adults. In contrast, there are few studies on the relationship between fast eating and central obesity among adolescents, particularly in Japan, where WC is not commonly measured in junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between eating quickly and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), an index of central obesity, among adolescents in Japan.
Study subjects were 2136 seventh-grade school children (12 or 13 years of age) from Ina town junior high schools in Japan, between 2004 and 2009. Measurements of height, weight, and WC were performed, and information about eating habits was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) for WHtR ≥ 0.5.
Eating quickly significantly increased the OR for WHtR ≥ 0.5 in boys (OR: 2.05, 95 % CI: 1.31–3.23) and girls (2.09, 1.15–3.81). When compared with the “not eating quickly and not eating until full” group, the OR for WHtR ≥ 0.5 in the “eating quickly and eating until full” group was 2.67 (95 % CI: 1.50–4.73) in boys and 2.59 (1.17–5.73) in girls, whereas that in the “eating quickly and not eating until full” group or the “not eating quickly and eating until full” group was not statistically significant regardless of sex.
The present study showed that eating quickly was associated with WHtR ≥ 0.5, and “eating quickly and eating until full” had a substantial impact on WHtR ≥ 0.5 among adolescents. This study suggests that modifying fast eating to a slower pace may help prevent central obesity among adolescents.
Eating quickly; Waist-to-height ratio; Adolescents; Eating until full
To follow up Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes for a maximum of 40 years to examine when they transitioned from pediatric care to adult care and to explore whether the attending physician, i.e., pediatrician or internist, was associated with prognosis.
Participants consisted of 1,299 patients who had been diagnosed as having type 1 diabetes at less than 15 years old between 1965 and 1979 identified through two nationwide surveys. Patients were classified as having received either pediatric care or adult care at the age of 15 and 30, and were compared for differences in mortality associated with the attending physician.
The attending physicians were confirmed for a total of 1,093 patients at the age of 15. Of these patients, 43.8% and 40.3% received pediatric care and adult care, respectively. Of the 569 patients receiving pediatric care, 74.2%, 56.6%, 53.4%, and 51.3% continued with pediatric care at 20, 30, 40, and 50 years old, respectively. The attending physicians (pediatrician or internist) at the age of 15 and 30 had no significant impact on their survival (P = 0. 892, 0.411, respectively).
More than half of the patients who had received pediatric care at the age of 15 continued to receive pediatric care even after the age of 30, suggesting that their transition was far from smooth, while the attending physician at the age of both 15 and 30 was not a prognostic factor for mortality. Thus, the timing for transition to adult care in these patients has no relationship with mortality in Japan.
To investigate whether the occurrence of nocturnal asymptomatic hypoglycemia may be predicted based on fasting glucose levels and post-breakfast glucose fluctuations.
Patients and Methods
The study subjects comprised type 1 diabetic patients who underwent CGM assessments and received basal-bolus insulin therapy with long-acting insulin. The subjects were evaluated for I) fasting glucose levels and II) the range of post-breakfast glucose elevation (from fasting glucose levels to postprandial 1- and 2-hour glucose levels). The patients were divided into those with asymptomatic hypoglycemia during nighttime and those without for comparison. Optimal cut-off values were also determined for relevant parameters that could predict nighttime hypoglycemia by using ROC analysis.
64 patients (mean HbA1c 8.7 ± 1.8%) were available for analysis. Nocturnal asymptomatic hypoglycemia occurred in 23 patients (35.9%). Fasting glucose levels (I) were significantly lower in those with hypoglycemia than those without (118 ± 35 mg/dL vs. 179 ± 65 mg/dL; P < 0.001). The range of post-breakfast glucose elevation (II) was significantly greater in those with hypoglycemia than in those without (postprandial 1-h, P = 0.003; postprandial 2-h, P = 0.005). The cut-off values determined for relevant factors were as follows: (I) fasting glucose level < 135 mg/dL (sensitivity 0.73/specificity 0.83/AUC 0.79, P < 0.001); and (II) 1-h postprandial elevation > 54 mg/dL (0.65/0.61/0.71, P = 0.006), 2-h postprandial elevation > 78 mg/dL (0.65/0.73/0.71, P = 0.005).
Nocturnal asymptomatic hypoglycemia was associated with increases in post-breakfast glucose levels in type 1 diabetes. Study findings also suggest that fasting glucose levels and the range of post-breakfast glucose elevation could help predict the occurrence of nocturnal asymptomatic hypoglycemia.
Distorted body image plays a significant role in the development of obesity, eating problems, and eating disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between distorted body image and lifestyle among Japanese adolescent boys and girls.
Subjects were 1731 seventh graders (age 12–13 years) from the Ina-town’s junior high schools, Japan, from 2005–2009. The height and weight of each subject were measured. Childhood underweight, overweight, and obesity were defined using the body mass index cutoff points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Information regarding the self-perceived weight status and lifestyles (exercise, snacking after dinner, breakfast, wakeup time, bedtime) of each subject was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Self-perceived weight status was categorized into three groups (thin, normal, or heavy), and compared with the subjects’ actual weight status. Body image perception was categorized into the following three groups: an underestimated own weight status group (underestimated group), a correct own weight status group (correct group) and an overestimated own weight status group (overestimated group).
The proportion of boys in the underestimated group was higher than that of girls, while the opposite was true for the overestimated group (P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in lifestyle between the underestimated group and the correct group regardless of sex. In contrast, there were statistically significant differences between the overestimated group and the correct group in the lifestyle factors of exercise among boys and snacking after dinner among girls. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) in boys who exercised daily significantly decreased (OR: 0.35, 95 % CI: 0.16–0.77), while a significantly increased OR was observed in girls who snacked after dinner (OR: 1.53, 95 % CI: 1.07–2.19).
Adolescent boys tended to underestimate their body weight, whereas adolescent girls were likely to overestimate their body weight. Furthermore, lifestyle factors associated with distorted body image differed by sex, with exercise affecting body image perception among boys and snacking after dinner affecting body image perception among girls. Thus, lifestyle may lead to distorted body image among adolescents.
Distorted body image; Lifestyle; Adolescent; Sex; Japanese
We investigated the prevalence and trends of underweight and overweight/obesity in a population-based sample of Japanese schoolchildren from 2003 to 2012, defined by body mass index (BMI) and percentage overweight (POW).
Subjects comprised fourth and seventh graders from the town of Ina, Japan, from 2003 to 2012. The height and weight of each subject were measured. Children were classified as underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese using two criteria: BMI cutoff points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force and cutoffs based on POW in Japan.
Data from 4367 fourth graders and 3724 seventh graders were analyzed. The prevalence of underweight and overweight as defined by POW criteria were lower than those based on BMI criteria. There was a decrease in the prevalence of overweight among fourth-grade boys and girls and seventh-grade girls according to BMI; this decrease was also observed when POW criteria were used for the definition of overweight.
The prevalence and trends of both underweight and overweight as defined by POW were underestimated among Japanese schoolchildren compared to those determined using BMI. The results of this study also suggest that trends in underweight and overweight/obesity using POW criteria are similar to those based on BMI criteria among schoolchildren in Japan.
body mass index; percentage overweight; schoolchildren; secular trends; Japanese
An association between anthropometric measurements, including waist circumference (WC), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels has been reported among adults. However, studies conducted among population-based elementary schoolchildren to date have been limited, especially in Japan, where the measurement of WC and blood collection are not usually performed in the annual health examination at elementary schools. The present study investigated the association between anthropometric measurements and ALT levels among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan.
Subjects were fourth-grade schoolchildren (aged 9 or 10) from the town of Ina in Saitama Prefecture, Japan during 2004–2009. The height, weight, and WC of each subject were measured, and blood samples were drawn to measure ALT levels. Childhood overweight or obesity was defined according to the age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI), WC, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)) and ALT levels were calculated.
Data from 2499 subjects (1293 boys and 1206 girls) were analyzed. BMI, WC, and WHtR were significantly positively correlated with ALT levels; the correlation coefficient of ALT levels with WHtR was higher than that with BMI and WC in boys and girls. In the analysis stratified by physique (non-overweight/obesity, overweight, or obesity), all anthropometric measurements were significantly positively correlated with ALT levels among boys, while only WHtR was significantly positively correlated with ALT levels among girls. Moreover, the correlation coefficient of ALT levels with WHtR was more pronounced than that with BMI and WC in the non-overweight/obesity group, in the overweight group, and in the obesity group for each sex.
The present study showed that WHtR was more closely associated with ALT levels than BMI and WC. Furthermore, only WHtR was significantly positively associated with ALT levels regardless of sex and physique. This study suggests that it is more useful to monitor WHtR than BMI and WC as a surrogate for ALT levels among population-based elementary schoolchildren.
Waist-to-height ratio; Alanine aminotransferase; Schoolchildren; Population-based epidemiological study
This study evaluated the effect of empagliflozin on postprandial glucose (PPG) and 24-hour glucose variability in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Patients (N = 60; baseline mean [SD] HbA1c 7.91 [0.80]%; body mass index 24.3 [3.2] kg/m2) were randomized to receive empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 20), empagliflozin 25 mg (n = 19) or placebo (n = 21) once daily as monotherapy for 28 days. A meal tolerance test and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for 24 hours were performed at baseline and on days 1 and 28. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in area under the glucose concentration-time curve 3 hours after breakfast (AUC1–4h for PPG) at day 28.
Adjusted mean (95%) differences versus placebo in changes from baseline in AUC1-4h for PPG at day 1 were −97.1 (−126.5, −67.8) mg · h/dl with empagliflozin 10 mg and −91.6 (−120.4, −62.8) mg · h/dl with empagliflozin 25 mg (both p < 0.001 versus placebo) and at day 28 were −85.5 (−126.0, −45.0) mg · h/dl with empagliflozin 10 mg and −104.9 (−144.8, −65.0) mg · h/dl with empagliflozin 25 mg (both p < 0.001 versus placebo). Adjusted mean (95% CI) differences versus placebo in change from baseline in 24-hour mean glucose (CGM) at day 1 were −20.8 (−27.0, −14.7) mg/dl with empagliflozin 10 mg and −23.9 (−30.0, −17.9) mg/dl with empagliflozin 25 mg (both p < 0.001 versus placebo) and at day 28 were −24.5 (−35.4, −13.6) mg/dl with empagliflozin 10 mg and −31.7 (−42.5,-20.9) mg/dl with empagliflozin 25 mg (both p < 0.001 versus placebo). Changes from baseline in mean amplitude of glucose excursions (MAGE; CGM) were not significantly different with either empagliflozin dose versus placebo at either timepoint. Curves of mean glucose (CGM) did not change between baseline and day 1 or 28 with placebo, but shifted downward with empagliflozin. Percentage of time with glucose ≥70 to <180 mg/dl increased from 52.0% at baseline to 77.0% at day 28 with empagliflozin 10 mg and from 55.0% to 81.1% with empagliflozin 25 mg, without increasing time spent with hypoglycemia.
Empagliflozin for 28 days reduced PPG from the first day and improved daily blood glucose control in Japanese patients with T2DM.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12933-014-0169-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
SGLT2 inhibitor; Continuous glucose monitoring; CGM
The effect of hemodialysis on the plasma glucose profile and liraglutide level after liraglutide injection was investigated in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Either 0.6 mg or 0.9 mg liraglutide was subcutaneously administered daily to 10 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with ESRD. Hemodialysis was conducted on days 1 and 3. Plasma liraglutide and glucose concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a continuous glucose monitoring system, respectively. The safety profile of liraglutide was also assessed. Hemodialysis had no effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of liraglutide in patients with diabetes and ESRD; the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), tmax, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), and CL/f were unaltered. Similarly, hemodialysis did not affect the mean or minimum glucose levels, AUC, or duration of hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dL) and hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dL) following liraglutide administration. However, significant increases in mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) and standard deviation (SD) as markers of glucose fluctuation, and the maximum glucose level were observed during hemodialysis. No adverse events, including hypoglycemia, were observed after liraglutide injection, either off-hemodialysis (day 2) or on-hemodialysis (day 3). Liraglutide was well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes and ESRD undergoing hemodialysis. The present results suggested that hemodialysis did not affect the pharmacokinetic profile of liraglutide or most glycemic indices, with the exception of MAGE, SD, and the maximum glucose level. These results suggested that it may be possible to use liraglutide during hemodialysis for diabetes with ESRD, without dose adjustment.
Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000010159
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors including alogliptin are categorised as a newer class of oral hypoglycaemic, antidiabetic drugs to suppress the degradation of incretin hormones ((glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)) by DPP-4. We have scheduled a large-scale, multicentre, prospective, observational study (Japan-Based clinical ReseArch Network for Diabetes Registry: J-BRAND Registry) to construct an extensive database over a long-term clinical course in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs) and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of alogliptin in Japanese population.
Methods and analysis
20 000 patients with type 2 diabetes will be registered into two groups of 10 000 each: group A patients will be treated with alogliptin, while group B patients will be treated with non-DPP-4 inhibitor OHA(s). Approximately 300 institutions nationwide will enrol and assign eligible patients equally to either group. Each patient's data will be collected every 6 months for a 3-year period, during which time treatment with OHA(s) may be changed or discontinued, as per package insert for each OHA. Primary end points are safety variables to be compared between the two groups and their subgroups, with respect to hypoglycaemia, pancreatitis, skin disorders, infections and cancer. Secondary end points are efficacy variables including from-baseline changes of A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and urinary albumin, which will be compared between groups/subgroups. New onset and progression of microangiopathy will also be evaluated against OHA(s). Overall, the J-BRAND Registry will evaluate the safety and efficacy of antidiabetic OHA(s) including alogliptin, based on a large-scale database.
Ethics and dissemination
This study will be conducted with the highest respect for individual participants according to this protocol, the Declaration of Helsinki, the Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Research (Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, 2008) and relevant laws/regulations. The present study will construct a valuable database of patients with type 2 diabetes treated with OHA(s) including alogliptin.
Trial registration number
type 2 diabetes; DPP-4 inhibitor; alogliptin; observational study
There are a limited number of studies regarding the association between abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes (high, medium, and low molecular weight adiponectins) among population-based elementary school children, especially in Japan, where blood collection is not usually performed during annual health examinations of school children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes among population-based elementary school children in Japan.
Subjects were all the fourth-grade school children (9 or 10 years of age) in the town of Ina during 2005–2008 (N = 1675). The height, weight, percent body fat, and waist circumference (WC) of each subject were measured. Blood samples were drawn from subjects to measure adiponectin isoform values. Childhood abdominal obesity was defined as “a waist-to-height ratio greater than or equal to 0.5” or “a WC greater than or equal to 75 cm”. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the logistic regression model were used to analyze the association between abdominal obesity and each adiponectin isoform value.
Data from 1654 subjects (846 boys and 808 girls) were analyzed. Adiponectin complexes were lower in the abdominal obesity group than in the non-abdominal obesity group regardless of sex. Abdominal obesity significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for each adiponectin isoform level less than or equal to the median value in boys; the OR (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 2.50 (1.59-3.92) for high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-adn), 2.47 (1.57-3.88) for medium molecular weight adiponectin (MMW-adn), and 1.75 (1.13-2.70) for low molecular weight adiponectin (LMW-adn). In girls, the OR (95% CI) was 1.95 (1.18-3.21) for HMW-adn, 1.40 (0.86-2.28) for MMW-adn, and 1.06 (0.65-1.70) for LMW-adn.
Abdominal obesity was associated with lower adiponectin complexes and the influence of abdominal obesity varied by adiponectin isoform. Furthermore, the impact of abdominal obesity was larger in boys than in girls. The present study results suggest that prevention of abdominal obesity could contribute to the prevention of lower adiponectin levels, especially in boys.
Abdominal obesity; Serum adiponectin complexes; School children; Population-based epidemiological study
This study compares mortality from type 1 diabetes in Japan and Finland and examines the effects of sex, age at diagnosis, and calendar time period of diagnosis on mortality.
Research Design and Methods
Patients with type 1 diabetes from Japan (n = 1,408) and Finland (n = 5,126), diagnosed from 1965 through 1979, at age <18 years, were followed until 1994. Mortality was estimated with and without adjustment for that of the general population to assess absolute and relative mortality using Cox proportional hazard models.
Overall mortality rates in Japan and Finland were 607 (95% CI 510–718) and 352 (315–393), respectively, per 100,000 person-years; standardized mortality ratios were 12.9 (10.8–15.3) and 3.7 (3.3–4.1), respectively. Absolute mortality was higher for men than for women in Finland, but relative mortality was higher for women than for men in both cohorts. Absolute mortality was higher in both cohorts among those whose diabetes was diagnosed during puberty, but relative mortality did not show any significant difference by age at diagnosis in either cohort. In Japan, both absolute and relative mortality were higher among those whose diagnosis was in the 1960s rather than the 1970s.
Mortality from type 1 diabetes was higher in Japan compared with Finland. The increased risk of death from type 1 diabetes seems to vary by sex, age at diagnosis, and calendar time period of diagnosis. Further investigation, especially on cause-specific mortality, is warranted in the two countries.
To investigate a 24-hour glycemic variation in drug-naïve, type 2 diabetic patients by using CGM.
A total of 30 inpatients with type 2 diabetes were included in the study to analyze the 24-hour CGM data.
The patients’ median age was 58 years old (interquartile range: 42–66 years), and their median HbA1c value was 7.6 (6.7–8.8)%. The median time to postprandial peak glucose levels(Peak Time) for each meal was 70–85 minutes, with the range of postprandial glucose increases(Increase Range) for each meal being 83–109 mg/dL. There was a significant positive correlation between the HbA1c values and Increases Range, Peak Time observed after breakfast and dinner, respectively. When the patients were stratified by a median HbA1c value of 7.6% into 2 groups, Increases Range and Peak Time, after breakfast, were shown to be significantly higher in the high-HbA1c group (H) than in the low-HbA1c (L) group. When the subjects were divided into four groups according to HbA1c levels:1 (<7.0%, n = 8), 2 (7.0–7.9%, n = 8), 3 (8.0–8.9%, n = 8), and 4 (≥9%, n = 6), the average glucose level, pre-meal glucose level and postprandial peak glucose level increased steadily from group 1 to 4 in a stepwise manner.
In drug-naïve, Japanese type 2 diabetic patients, the Peak Time and the Increase Range were maximal after dinner. It was shown that the greater the HbA1c values, the longer Peak time and the higher Increase Range after breakfast and dinner. The average glucose level, pre meal glucose level and postprandial peak glucose level increased steadily as HbA1c level increased.
Objectives. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors and overweight among population-based adolescents in Japan. Methods. Study subjects comprised adolescents in the seventh grade (age range, 12–13 years) from Ina, a town in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, between 1999 and 2008. The height and weight of the subjects were measured, and information concerning eating behaviors (eating speed and eating until full) was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Results. Among boys (n = 1586), fast eating speed significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for overweight when compared with medium eating speed, regardless of eating until full or not; moreover, a more marked increase in the OR was observed among boys eating until full (OR: 2.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.76–4.38) than among those not eating until full (2.43, 1.41–4.20). Among girls (n = 1542), fast eating speed led to a significant increase in the OR in those eating until full; however, no significant increases were observed in the OR in those eating quickly and not until full. Conclusions. Among adolescents, fast eating speed was associated with overweight; furthermore, the combination of both fast eating speed and eating until full may have a significant effect on overweight.
Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is one of the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between LDL-C and body mass index (BMI) in population-based Japanese schoolchildren.
The subjects comprised all fourth graders and seventh graders in Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, during 2002-2009. Information about each subject’s age, sex, and family history of hypercholesterolemia was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The body height, weight, and LDL-C were measured for each child. LDL-C was measured using the direct method. According to the LDL-C criteria of the Japan Atherosclerosis Society, LDL-C level was categorized into three subgroups: acceptable, < 110 mg/dL; borderline, 110-139 mg/dL; and high, ≥ 140 mg/dL. Children with either borderline or high LDL-C level were considered to have high-normal LDL-C (HLDL-C).
Data from a total of 5869 subjects were analyzed. A higher BMI category was associated with a higher prevalence of HLDL-C regardless of sex or grade level (P < 0.05). When compared with the <50th percentile BMI category, the odds ratio (OR) for HLDL-C was statistically significant in the 75th to 84th percentile category of fourth-grade boys (OR: 1.95, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.28-2.97), the 85th to 94th percentile of fourth-grade girls (2.52, 1.74-3.64), and the 85th to 94th percentile of seventh-grade boys (2.04, 1.31-3.20) and girls (1.90, 1.24-2.91).
A statistically significant association between LDL-C levels and BMI was observed in Japanese school children.
Serum low-density lipoprotein; Body mass index; Schoolchildren
We aimed to examine associations among serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels, 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D (1,25OHD) levels, vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms, and renal function based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes.
In a cross-sectional study of 410 patients, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage assessed by eGFR was compared with 25OHD, 1,25OHD, and VDR FokI (rs10735810) polymorphisms by an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for the following confounders: disease duration, calendar month, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers or statins, and serum calcium, phosphate, and intact parathyroid hormone levels.
1,25OHD levels, rather than 25OHD levels, showed seasonal oscillations; peak levels were seen from May to October and the lowest levels were seen from December to February. These findings were evident in patients with CKD stage 3∼5 but not stage 1∼2. eGFR was in direct proportion to both 25OHD and 1,25OHD levels (P<0.0001), but it had stronger linearity with 1,25OHD (r = 0.73) than 25OHD (r = 0.22) levels. Using multivariate analysis, 1,25OHD levels (P<0.001), but not 25OHD levels, were negatively associated with CKD stage. Although FokI polymorphisms by themselves showed no significant associations with CKD stage, a significant interaction between 1,25OHD and FokITT was observed (P = 0.008). The positive association between 1,25OHD and eGFR was steeper in FokICT and CC polymorphisms (r = 0.74) than FokITT polymorphisms (r = 0.65).
These results suggest that higher 1,25OHD levels may be associated with better CKD stages in patients with type 2 diabetes and that this association was modified by FokI polymorphisms.
Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan.
Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years) in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight.
Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001).
Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.
Sibling; Birth-order; Childhood overweight; Public health
Studies about the relationship between high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-adn) and anthropometric variables among population-based elementary schoolchildren have been too limited, especially in Japan, where blood collection is not usually performed in the annual health examination at elementary schools. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between HMW-adn and anthropometric variables (body mass index [BMI], percent body fat [%BF], waist circumference [WC], and waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]) among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan.
Subjects comprised all fourth-grade schoolchildren (9 or 10 years of age) in the town of Ina, Saitama Prefecture, Japan during 2005–2008 (N = 1675). After excluding 21 subjects because of refusal to participate or incomplete data, data from a total of 1654 subjects (846 boys and 808 girls) were analyzed. The height, weight, %BF, and WC of each subject were measured, while blood samples were drawn from the subjects to measure adiponectin levels (HMW-adn and total adiponectin). Childhood obesity was determined according to the age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between adiponectin levels and anthropometric variables were calculated for each sex.
The anthropometric variables were negatively correlated with HMW-adn in both boys and girls. Correlation coefficients of HMW-adn with anthropometric variables in the obesity group were consistently higher than those in the non-obesity group among both boys and girls. In addition, only WHtR was significantly correlated with HMW-adn regardless of sex and physique (obesity or non-obesity); the correlation coefficient was -0.386 among boys and -0.543 among girls in the obesity group, while it was -0.124 among boys and -0.081 among girls in the non-obesity group.
HMW-adn was negatively correlated with anthropometric variables, while the correlation coefficients of HMW-adn with anthropometric variables in the obesity group were consistently higher than those in the non-obesity group. Moreover, only WHtR was significantly associated with HMW-adn regardless of sex and physique. The results of this study suggested that it is useful to monitor WHtR as a surrogate for HMW-adn among elementary school students, especially obese children.
High-molecular-weight adiponectin; Anthropometric variable; Obesity; Waist-to-height ratio; Children
No previous studies have compared the DPP-4 inhibitors vildagliptin and sitagliptin in terms of blood glucose levels using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and cardiovascular parameters.
Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly allocated to groups who received vildagliptin then sitagliptin, or vice versa. Patients were hospitalized at 1 month after starting each drug, and CGM was used to determine: 1) mean (± standard deviation) 24-hour blood glucose level, 2) mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), 3) fasting blood glucose level, 4) highest postprandial blood glucose level and time, 5) increase in blood glucose level after each meal, 6) area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose level ≥180 mg/dL within 3 hours after each meal, and 7) area over the curve (AOC) for daily blood glucose level <70 mg/dL. Plasma glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glycoalbumin (GA), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5AG), immunoreactive insulin (IRI), C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and urinary CPR levels, were measured.
The mean 24-hour blood glucose level was significantly lower in patients taking vildagliptin than sitagliptin (142.1 ± 35.5 vs. 153.2 ± 37.0 mg/dL; p = 0.012). In patients taking vildagliptin, MAGE was significantly lower (110.5 ± 33.5 vs. 129.4 ± 45.1 mg/dL; p = 0.040), the highest blood glucose level after supper was significantly lower (206.1 ± 40.2 vs. 223.2 ± 43.5 mg/dL; p = 0.015), the AUC (≥180 mg/dL) within 3 h was significantly lower after breakfast (484.3 vs. 897.9 mg/min/dL; p = 0.025), and urinary CPR level was significantly higher (97.0 ± 41.6 vs. 85.2 ± 39.9 μg/day; p = 0.008) than in patients taking sitagliptin. There were no significant differences in plasma HbA1c, GA, 1,5AG, IRI, CPR, BNP, or PAI-1 levels between patients taking vildagliptin and sitagliptin.
CGM showed that mean 24-h blood glucose, MAGE, highest blood glucose level after supper, and hyperglycemia after breakfast were significantly lower in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking vildagliptin than those taking sitagliptin. There were no significant differences in BNP and PAI-1 levels between patients taking vildagliptin and sitagliptin.
Vildagliptin; Sitagliptin; Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM); Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP); Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)
This study investigated the relationship between eating behavior and childhood overweight among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Data was collected from fourth graders (9 or 10 years of age) from Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, and lifestyle, including eating behaviors (eating until full and chewing thoroughly), was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, and height and weight were measured directly. Overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 4027 subjects (2079 boys and 1948 girls) were analyzed. Chewing thoroughly was associated with a significantly decreased odds ratio (OR) for being overweight, whereas eating until full significantly increased the OR for being overweight (OR: 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.94) among boys. However, eating until full was not associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight among the group that reported chewing thoroughly, whereas it was associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight (2.02, 1.38–2.94) among boys who did not chew thoroughly. In conclusion, eating until full or not chewing thoroughly was associated with being overweight among elementary schoolchildren. Results of this study suggest that chewing thoroughly may be an avenue to explore childhood overweight prevention efforts.
eating behavior; overweight; children; eating until full; chewing
Although the ADA/EASD/IDF International Expert Committee recommends using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to define diabetes, the relation between HbA1c and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been thoroughly investigated. We analyzed this relation using clinical data on Japanese individuals with hypercholesterolemia.
In the large-scale MEGA Study 7832 patients aged 40 to 70 years old with mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia without CVD were randomized to diet alone or diet plus pravastatin and followed for >5 years. In the present subanalysis of that study a total of 4002 patients with baseline and follow-up HbA1c data were stratified according to having an average HbA1c during the first year of follow-up <6.0%, 6.0%-<6.5%, or ≥6.5% and their subsequent 5-year incidence rates of CVD compared according to sex, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and treatment arm.
Overall, risk of CVD was significantly 2.4 times higher in individuals with HbA1c ≥6.5% versus <6.0%. A similar relation was noted in men and women (hazard ratio [HR], 2.1; p <0.01 and HR, 3.0; p <0.01, respectively) and was regardless of treatment arm (diet alone group: HR, 2.2; p <0.001; diet plus pravastatin group: HR, 1.8; p = 0.02). Spline curves showed a continuous risk increase according to HbA1c level in all subpopulations studied.
In hypercholesterolemic individuals the risk of CVD increases linearly with HbA1c level. This significant contribution by elevated HbA1c to increased CVD is independent of pravastatin therapy, and thus requires appropriate HbA1c management in addition to lipids reduction.
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); cardiovascular disease (CVD); hypercholesterolemia; HMG CoA reductase inhibitor; pravastatin, MEGA Study
Although the prevalences of obesity and hypertension (HT) are increasing in children, there have been few epidemiological studies of HT in Japanese children. We evaluated the prevalences of HT and high-normal blood pressure (HNBP), and examined the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI), in Japanese children.
The subjects of this study were 2420 children living in the town of Ina, Saitama Prefecture, Japan during the period from 2006 through 2008. Body height, weight, and BP were measured. HT and HNBP were defined according to the HT criteria for Japanese children. Children with HNBP or HT were defined as having high blood pressure (HBP).
The prevalences of HBP were 15.9% and 15.8% in fourth-grade boys and girls, respectively, and 11.1% and 10.8% in seventh-grade boys and girls, respectively. Irrespective of sex or grade level, a higher BMI was associated with a higher prevalence of HBP (P < 0.001). When compared with the <50th percentile BMI category, the crude odds ratios (ORs) were statistically significant for the 75th to 84th percentile category in fourth-grade boys (OR: 4.54, 95% CI: 2.36–8.76), the ≥95th percentile in fourth-grade girls (13.29, 5.93–29.77), the 85th to 94th percentile (3.16, 1.46–6.84) in seventh-grade boys, and the ≥95th percentile (7.96, 3.18–19.93) in seventh-grade girls.
BMI was associated with HBP in Japanese school children. In addition, some children in the lower BMI categories also had HBP.
high blood pressure; children; BMI; hypertensive family history
Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%BF) or waist circumference (WC) has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren.
Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex.
Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese), with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique.
BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese schoolchildren. The correlations could be influenced by obesity as well as by gender. Accordingly, it is essential to consider gender and obesity when using BMI as a surrogate for %BF and WC for epidemiological use.