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author:("Lian, kdoqi")
1.  Age-Related Alterations in the Metabolic Profile in the Hippocampus of the Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone 8: A Spontaneous Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model 
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder, produces a progressive decline in cognitive function. The metabolic mechanism of AD has emerged in recent years. In this study, we used multivariate analyses of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements to determine that learning and retention-related metabolic profiles are altered during aging in the hippocampus of the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8). Alterations in 17 metabolites were detected in mature and aged mice compared to young mice (13 decreased and 4 increased metabolites), including metabolites related to dysfunctional lipid metabolism (significantly increased cholesterol, oleic acid, and phosphoglyceride levels), decreased amino acid (alanine, serine, glycine, aspartic acid, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid), and energy-related metabolite levels (malic acid, butanedioic acid, fumaric acid, and citric acid), and other altered metabolites (increased N-acetyl-aspartic acid and decreased pyroglutamic acid, urea, and lactic acid) in the hippocampus. All of these alterations indicated that the metabolic mechanisms of age-related cognitive impairment in SAMP8 mice were related to multiple pathways and networks. Lipid metabolism, especially cholesterol metabolism, appears to play a distinct role in the hippocampus in AD.
doi:10.3233/JAD-131463
PMCID: PMC4532290  PMID: 24284365
Aging; Alzheimer's disease; cholesterol; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; hippocampus; metabolic profiles
2.  Reduction of n-3 PUFAs, specifically DHA and EPA, and enhancement of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in type 2 diabetic rat heart 
Background
There is overwhelming evidence that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly EPA (C20:5n-3) and DHA (C22:6n-3), has cardiovascular protective effects on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but not on healthy people. Because the T2DM heart increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO) to compensate for the diminished utilization of glucose, we hypothesize that T2DM hearts consume more n-3 PUFAs and, therefore, need more n-3 PUFAs. In the present study, we investigated the changes in cardiac n-3 PUFAs and peroxisomal beta-oxidation, which are responsible for the degradation of PUFAs in a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic rat model.
Methods and results
The capillary gas chromatography results showed that all the n-3 (or omega-3) PUFAs, especially DHA (~50%) and EPA (~100%), were significantly decreased, and the n-6/n-3 ratio (~115%) was significantly increased in the hearts of diabetic rats. The activity of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, which is crucial to very-long-chain and unsaturated FA metabolism (including DHA), was significantly elevated in DM hearts. Additionally, the real-time PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of most peroxisomal beta-oxidation key enzymes were up-regulated in T2DM rat hearts, which might contribute to the reduction of n-3 (or omega-3) PUFAs.
Conclusion
In conclusion, our results indicate that T2DM hearts consume more n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA and EPA, due to exaggerated peroxisomal beta-oxidation.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-126
PMCID: PMC3490815  PMID: 23057715
n-3 PUFA; EPA; DHA; T2DM; FAO; Peroxisomal ╬▓-oxidation

Results 1-2 (2)