Norcantharidin (NCTD) has been reported to induce tumor cell apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanism behinds its antitumor effect remains elusive. We have previously shown that TR3 expression is significantly decreased in metastatic melanomas and involved in melanoma cell apoptosis. In this study, we showed that NCTD inhibited melanoma cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose related manner. NCTD induced translocation of TR3 from nucleus to mitochondria where it co-localized with Bcl-2 in melanoma cells. NCTD also increased cytochome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm. These changes were accompanied by increased expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 along with decreased expression of Bcl2 and NF-κB2. The effects of NCTD were inhibited by knockdown of TR3 expression using TR3 specific shRNA in melanoma cells. Furthermore, NCTD significantly decreased tumor volume and improved survival of Tyr::CreER; BRAFCa/+; Ptenlox/lox transgenic mice. Our data indicates that NCTD inhibits melanoma growth by inducing tumor cell apoptosis via activation of a TR3 dependent pathway. These results suggest that NCTD is a potential therapeutic agent for melanoma.
norcantharidin; apoptosis; TR3; melanoma
Erythropoietin (Epo) is widely used clinically to treat anemia associated with various clinical conditions including cancer. Data from several clinical trials suggest significant adverse effect of Epo treatment on cancer patient survival. However, controversy exists whether erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) is functional in cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that EpoR mRNA expression was detectable in 90.1% of 65 melanoma cell lines, and increased copy number of the Epo and EpoR loci occurred in 30% and 24.6% of 130 primary melanomas, respectively. EpoR knockdown in melanoma cells resulted in diminished ERK phosphorylation in response to Epo stimulation, decreased cell proliferation, and increased response to the inhibitory effect of hypoxia and cisplatin in vitro. EpoR knockdown significantly decreased melanoma xenograft size and tumor invasion in vivo. On the contrary, constitutive activation of EpoR activated cell proliferation pathways in melanoma cells and resulted in increased cell proliferation and resistance to hypoxia and cisplatin treatment in vitro. EpoR activation resulted in significantly larger xenografts with increased tumor invasion of surrounding tissue in vivo. Daily administration of recombinant Epo fails to stimulate melanoma growth in vivo, but the treatment increased vascular size in the xenografts. Increased local recurrence after excision of the primary tumors was observed after Epo treatment. Epo induced angiogenesis in Matrigel plug assays, and neutralization of Epo secreted by melanoma cells results in decreased angiogenesis. These data support that EpoR is functional in melanoma and EpoR activation may promote melanoma progression, and suggest that Epo may stimulate angiogenesis and increase survival of melanoma cells under hypoxic condition in vivo.
Erythropoietin; Erythropoietin receptor; melanoma; hypoxia
Fingerlings of estuarine fishes, Tilapia mossambica and Lates calcarifer were exposed to sub-lethal concentration of mercury and chromium (2.8 ppm) for a period of 28 days. When these fish were exposed to metals concentration, severe gills alterations were observed. But the alteration was less in fish T. mossambica when compared to that of L. calcarife. The fish L. calcarifer exposed to mercury plus chromium, showed lifting up of the epithelium, swelling, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, proliferation of chloride cells, but in mercury treatment, lamellar fusions, fused secondary lamella and necrosis were observed, whereas in T. mossambica the gills disintegration of epithelial cells, desquamated epithelium, hemorrhaged and exhibited complete damage of epithelial cells of lamellae. The Na+, K+-ATPase activity of both gills and plasma showed significant reduction throughout the experiment period in both fishes. The enzyme activity was more drastic in the case of plasma. The results are discussed in relation to the significance of the above enzyme as non-specific biomarkers against environmental stress.
Hg and Cr; histopathology; K+-ATPase; Na+; T. mossambica; L. calcarife
HelpAge India has been facilitating community-managed palliative care program in the villages of Tamil Nadu, India.
To evaluate the effect of perceived quality of life in the elderly in the project villages in rural Tamil Nadu.
Materials and Methods:
It was a community-based evaluation study. Considering the mean difference of 0.6, design effect-2, precision-5%, power 80%, and 10% non-response, a sample size of 450 elderly persons (more than 60 years) was adequate. Sample was selected by two-stage cluster sampling. Tamil version of “WHO-Quality of Life-brief questionnaire” was used. Trained interviewers made house-to-house visits and obtained information by personally interviewing the subjects.
The mean score for perceived physical quality of life in the project area was (10.47 ± 1.80 SD) high than the mean score (10.17 ± 1.82 SD) in the control area (P = 0.013) and the mean score for psychological support (10.13 ± 2.25 SD) in project area was high than the mean score (9.8 ± 2.29 SD) in control area (P = 0.043). There was no effect on domain of social relationship and environment.
In the project villages, the perceived physical quality of life and psychological support among elderly persons was significantly better than the control villages.
Environment; India; Old age; Psychological; Physical; Quality of life; Rural; Social
Aim of the study
This study was made to investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala, (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm (Tejpat) oil (CTO) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats along with evaluation of chemical constituents.
Materials and methods
The GC-MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) analysis of the oil showed 31 constituents of which cinnamaldehyde was found the major component (44.898%). CTO and cinnamaldehyde was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic models. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin, total plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group.
CTO (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg), cinnamaldehyde (20 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28 days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and total plasma cholesterol in test groups as compared to control group. The results of CTO and cinnamaldehyde were found comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. In vitro antioxidant studies on CTO using various models showed significant antioxidant activity. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ induced diabetic rats revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased reduced glutathione (GSH).
Thus the investigation results that CTO has significant antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity.
Cinnamomum tamala; Cinnamaldehyde; Glibenclamide; Hyperglycaemia; Streptozotocin
This study was undergone to evaluate the in-vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tecomella undulata Seem. on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin, 15 minutes after the i.p administration of 110 mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide. The extract has shown significant blood glucose lowering effect in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The blood glucose level, cholesterol, glycogen contents, glycosylated hemoglobin, and antioxidant parameters (Malondialdehyde and Glutathione level) were estimated from the blood plasma by using standard kits to demonstrate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect in treated animals. The data showed that the extract have significant influence on the above biochemical parameters. Thus ethanolic fraction of the plant Tecomella undulata can be used as new candidate for antihyperglycemic and antioxidant.
Tecomella undulata; Streptozotocin; Diabetic rats; Malondialdehyde; Glycosylated hemoglobin
Diabetes may alter renal glucose reabsorption by sodium (Na+)-dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs). Radiolabeled substrates are commonly used for in vitro measurements of SGLT activity in kidney cells. We optimized a method to measure glucose uptake using a fluorescent substrate, 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG).
Uptake buffers for 2-NBDG were the same as for 14C-labeled α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside ([14C]AMG). Cell lysis buffer was optimized for fluorescence of 2-NBDG and Hoechst DNA stain. Uptake was performed on cultures of primary mouse kidney cells (PMKCs), the LLC-PK1 proximal tubule cell line, or COS-7 cells transiently overexpressing mouse SGLT1 or SGLT2 by incubating cells at 37°C in buffer containing 50–200 μM 2-NBDG. Microscopy was performed to visualize uptake in intact cells, while a fluorescence microplate reader was used to measure intracellular concentration of 2-NBDG ([2-NBDG]i) in cell homogenates.
Fluorescent cells were observed in cultures of PMKCs and LLC-PK1 cells exposed to 2-NBDG in the presence or absence of Na+. In LLC-PK1 cells, 2-NBDG transport in the presence of Na+ had a maximum rate of 0.05 nmol/min/μg of DNA. In these cells, Na+-independent uptake of 2-NBDG was blocked with the GLUT inhibitor, cytochalasin B. The Na+-dependent uptake of 2-NBDG decreased in response to co-exposure to the SGLT substrate, AMG, and it could be blocked with the SGLT inhibitor, phlorizin. Immunocytochemistry showed overexpression of SGLT1 and SGLT2 in COS-7 cells, in which, in the presence of Na+, [2-NBDG]i was fivefold higher than in controls.
Glucose transport in cultured kidney cells can be measured with the fluorescence method described in this study.
Epidermal melanocytes play an important role in protecting skin from ultraviolet (UV) rays, and are implicated in a variety of skin diseases. Here, we developed an efficient method for differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into melanocytes. We first generated iPSCs from adult mouse tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs) using retroviral vectors or virus-free piggyBac transposon vectors carrying murine Sox2, Oct3/4, cMyc and Klf4. The TTF-derived iPSC clones exhibited similar morphology and growth properties as mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The iPSCs expressed ES cell markers, displayed characteristic epigenetic changes and formed teratomas with all three germ layers. The iPSCs were used to generate embryoid bodies (EBs) and were then successfully differentiated into melanocytes by treatment with growth factors. The iPSC-derived melanocytes expressed characteristic melanocyte markers and produced melanin pigment. Electron microscopy showed that the melanocytes contained mature melanosomes. We manipulated the conditions used to differentiate iPSCs to melanocytes and discovered that Wnt3a is not required for mouse melanocyte differentiation. This report shows that melanocytes can be readily generated from iPSCs, providing a powerful resource for the in vitro study of melanocyte developmental biology and diseases. By inducing iPSCs without viruses, the possibility of integration mutagenesis is alleviated, providing iPSCs are more compatible for cell replacement therapies.
iPSCs; melanocytes; reprogramming; differentiation
Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in cancer patients is well established. The proposed mechanism of cardiac damage includes generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Exposure of adult rat cardiomyocytes to low levels of DOX for 48 h induced apoptosis. Analysis of protein expression showed a differential regulation of several key proteins including the voltage dependent anion selective channel protein 2 and methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. In comparison, proteomic evaluation of DOX-treated rat heart showed a slightly different set of protein changes that suggests nuclear accumulation of DOX. Using a new solubilization technique, changes in low abundant protein profiles were monitored. Altered protein expression, modification and function related to oxidative stress response may play an important role in DOX cardiotoxicity.
Doxorubicin; cardiomyopathy; proteomics
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare congenital neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by postnatal growth deficiency, typical dysmorphic features, broad thumbs and toes, and mental retardation. Very few cases are reported in literature from developing countries. Diagnosis is often delayed due to non-familiarity with the characteristic features of this syndrome.
To report 11 cases of RSTS and to review the current literature.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
Retrospective study conducted in genetic and metabolic unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India over a period of 3½ years.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
11 patients with diagnosis of RSTS were identified, and their case sheets were reviewed.
Developmental delay was presenting complaint in 10 patients, and seizure in 1 case. 7 patients had microcephaly (head circumference below −3 SD), and a prominent beaked nose was seen in 9 patients. The intelligence quotient (IQ) varied from 22-62 in 7 patients who had mental retardation. The most notable features in hands were broadness, shortening, and flattening of the distal phalanx of thumbs or great toes. Additionally, we also noted webbing of neck, microphthalmia, and pachygyria (on MRI brain) in 1 patient each.
The diagnosis of RSTS is primarily clinical and based on characteristic phenotype that is often combined with a variety of somatic anomalies. An early diagnosis facilitates appropriate genetic counseling and in planning the management.
Beaked nose; broad thumbs; broad toes; dysmorphism; mental retardation
Diabetes mellitus is a potentially morbid condition with high prevalence worldwide thus being a major medical concern. Experimental induction of diabetes mellitus in animal models is essential for the advancement of our knowledge and understanding of the various aspects of its pathogenesis and ultimately finding new therapies and cure. Experimental diabetes mellitus is generally induced in laboratory animals by several methods that include: chemical, surgical and genetic (immunological) manipulations. Most of the experiments in diabetes are carried out in rodents, although some studies are still performed in larger animals. The present review highlights the various methods of inducing diabetes in experimental animals in order to test the newer drugs for their anti-diabetic potential.
Streptozotocin; alloxan; diabetic rats; animal models; diabetes
The aim of our study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of medical and surgical management of urinary tract endometriosis.
Materials and Methods:
Urinary tract endometriosis patients enrolled between Jan 2006 and May 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative datas (mode of presentation, diagnosis, imaging), intraoperative findings (location and size of lesion), postoperative histopathology and follow-up were recorded and results were analyzed and the success rate of different modalities of treatment was calculated.
In our study, of nineteen patients, nine had vesical involvement and ten had ureteric involvement. Among the vesical group, the success rate of transurethral resection followed by injection leuproide was 60% (3/5), while among the partial cystectomy group, the success rate was 100%. Among patients with ureteric involvement, success rate of distal ureterectomy and reimplantation was 100%, laparoscopic ureterolysis with Double J stenting followed by injection leuprolide was 75% while that of Gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRh) analogue alone was 67%.
One should have a high index of suspicion with irritative voiding symptoms with or without hematuria, with negative urine culture, in all premenopausal women to diagnose urinary tract endometriosis. Partial cystectomy is a better alternative to transurethral resection followed by GnRh analogue in vesical endometriosis. Approach to the ureter must be individualised depending upon the severity of disease and dilatation of the upper tract to maximise the preservation of renal function.
Laparoscopic ureterolysis; partial cystectomy; reimplantation; transurethral resection; ureteric endometriosis; vesical endometriosis
Baroreflex failure results in wide excursions of blood pressure and heart rate. We report two cases that developed severe postoperative hypertension after radical neck dissection. Carotid sinus denervation during neck dissection may be the cause of the reflex hypertension once general anesthesia-induced vasodilatation has ended.
Blood pressure; baroreceptors; complication; carotid sinus; denervation; hypertension; neck dissection
Tumors occurring in the infratemporal region present a surgical challenge and access osteotomies of the facial skeleton is the answer to access these deeply situated, inaccessible tumors of the head and neck. Various approaches have been devised for their better exposure and it is our expertise as maxillofacial surgeons to provide surgical access by transmaxillary, transzygomatic and transmandibular approaches. We followed this concept in our institute and report here two case reports. The first is a 45-year-old female who presented with right facial pain and temporal swelling due to schwannoma in the right infratemporal region extending into middle cranial fossa. This was jointly treated by a team of neurosurgeons, maxillofacial surgeons and ENT surgeons by right temporal craniotomy, right transmandibular and transzygomatic approach. The second is a rare tumor occurring in a 26-year-old male with the chief complaint of right frontal headache and diplopia. The tumor was excised via access through the zygomatic arch and lateral orbital wall; diagnosed later as Rosai Dorfmans disease. No recurrence was seen at follow-up period of 2 years. These approaches help to reduce the surgical morbidity. Thus, oral and maxillofacial surgeons form a vital role in the multidisciplinary approach to provide access to difficult anatomic locations.
Access osteotomy; infratemporal; Rosai Dorfmans disease; schwannoma
Traditionally, circumcision wounds are closed by absorbable sutures. However, certain alternative methods are also being utilized to overcome the shortcomings of the conventionally used method for circumcision wound closuring. In the current study, the use of tissue glue ((iso amyl 2-cyanoacrylate) has been compared with traditional suturing for the approximation of circumcision wounds. In our study, both the methods were found to be comparable with significantly less time consumed in glue group.
The purpose of the present study has been to compare directly cyanoacrylate as a better alternative to conventional suture material in terms of cosmetic result, time consumed and incidence of infection (comparative study).
Materials and Methods:
The results of all the patients seen in outpatient department for circumcision were included in this study. The study was conducted from Aug 2009 to May 2010. The tissue glue (iso amyl 2-cyanoacrylate) was compared to sutures as a method of wound approximation in circumcision.
Tissue glue group has been observed to have less wound inflammation, bleeding or hematoma rate and was cosmetically superior as compared to suture group; however, none of these findings could reach statistically significant level. The mean time taken for circumcision was 14.2 min (SD 2.42), when tissue glue was used for wound approximation. However, it was 24.4 min (SD 5.06) in case of the use of sutures. This difference was found as highly significant (P value < 0.001). However, regarding postoperative pain no significant reduction was observed when glue was used.
This study showed that the use of tissue glue in comparison to sutures is having the following advantages:
Cosmetically superiorLess time consuming
All other parameters measured were nearly the same and statically insignificant.
Cyanoacrylate; sutureless circumcision; tissue glue
To compare the psychopathology between depressed patients with low religiosity and those with high religiosity and to correlate the level of religiosity with the psychopathology in the psychiatric clinic of a general hospital in Chandigarh, North India.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty depressed patients with low religiosity and 30 patients with high religiosity were assessed on the Religiosity Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Suicidal Intent Questionnaire.
In the patients with depression, hopelessness and suicidal intent correlated negatively with the level of religiosity.
In depressed patients, hopelessness and suicidal intent are inversely related to the level of religiosity.
Depression; hopelessness; religiosity; suicidal intent
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived drug use stigma, acquiescence response bias, and HIV injection risk behaviors among current injection drug users in Chennai, India.
The sample consists of 851 males in Chennai, India who reported having injected drugs in the last month and were recruited through street outreach.
Results indicate a strong and consistent positive association between drug use stigma and HIV injection drug use risk behaviors. This association held across the injection behaviors of frequency of sharing needles, cookers, cotton filters, rinse water, prefilled syringes and common drug solutions, even after controlling for acquiescence response bias, frequency of injection, and HIV/HCV serostatus.
These findings suggest that future HIV prevention and harm reduction programs for injection drug users and service providers should address drug use stigma.
stigma; HIV; HCV; acquiescence response bias; risk behavior; India; injection drug use
Splenic artery aneurysms are the most common visceral aneurysm occuring predominantly in females. They are usually asymptomatic, and the symptomatic presentation includes chronic abdominal pain of varied severity or an acute rupture with hypotension. Splenic artery aneurysm causing extrahepatic portal hypertension is very rare and is due to splenic vein thrombosis that develops secondary to compression by the aneurysm. We report one such rare presentation of splenic artery aneurysms in a pregnant female with the features of EHPVO (variceal bleed, hypersplenism) treated by splenectomy along with excision of the aneurysm.
Very few studies have evaluated the neurocognitive functions of patients with persistent delusional disorder.
To study the neurocognitive profile of patients with delusional disorder and compare it with those of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and healthy control subjects.
Materials and Methods:
Attention concentration, executive functions, memory, and IQ were assessed in 20 patients with delusional disorder and were compared with 20 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. All three groups were matched on age, sex, and level of education. The two patient groups were also matched on duration of illness.
In general, patients with delusional disorder performed worst than healthy controls and patients with paranoid schizophrenia performed in between the other two groups. Compared with healthy controls, both patients with delusional disorder and patients with paranoid schizophrenia were significantly impaired on different tests of attention and visual learning and memory. Compared with patients with paranoid schizophrenia, patients with delusional disorder had more impairment different tests of attention, visual learning and memory, verbal working memory, and executive functions.
Patients with delusional disorder exhibit cognitive dysfunctions that are very similar to schizophrenia, but are more severe in intensity. The resemblance of cognitive profiles suggests that the two disorders may have similar etiological basis.
Cognitive deficits; delusional disorder; schizophrenia
Peptic ulcer is a global health problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion which occurs due to due to an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors.
The present study was carried out with methanolic extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica Linn. to evaluate its antiulcer potential on ibuprofen, alcohol and pyloric ligation induced gastric lesions.
Materials and Methods:
Doses of 100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract wre administered orally to rats of different groups. Ranitidine at a dose of 50 mg/kg was used as a standard drug for these gastric ulcer models. The gastric content was collected and the volume was measured. The ulceration index was determined by examining the inner lining of each stomach. Furthermore, the effect was assessed by free acidity, pepsin activity, total carbohydrate (TC), protein content (PK).
The result showed that the methanolic extract of seed coats of Tamarindus indica significantly reduce the total volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity of gastric secretion (P < 0.01) in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model as is comparable with the standard drug ranitidine. There was also a significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.01) as compared to control group.
The methanolic extracts of seed coat of Tamarindus indica can be used as a new source of antiulcer agent in animals.
Peptic ulcer; ranitidine; Tamarindus indica; ulcer index
In this study, we demonstrate that we can isolate stem cells (SCs) with neural crest characteristics from the bulge area of cultured human hair follicles (HFs). These SCs can proliferate in situ and form spheroid structures attached to the bulge area of HFs, and they express immature neural crest cell markers but not differentiation markers. An expression profiling study showed that they share a similar gene expression pattern with murine skin immature neural crest cells. These human SCs are label-retaining cells and are capable of self-renewal through asymmetric cell division in vitro. They exhibit clonal multipotency that can give rise to myogenic, melanocytic, and neuronal cell lineages after in vitro clonal single cell culture. In addition, these SCs show differentiation potential toward mesenchymal lineages, and they can be differentiated into adipocyte, chondrocyte, and osteocyte lineages. Neuronal differentiation of these cells induces global gene expression changes with a significantly increased expression of neuron-associated genes. Differentiated neuronal cells can persist in mouse brain and retain neuronal differentiation markers. The presence of SCs with neural crest characteristics in HFs may offer new opportunities for the use of these cells in regenerative medicine.
The Fontan procedure is an intervention that helps to correct single ventricle physiology. There are many known long-term complications of 'Fontan physiology'. However, the occurrence of renal abscess in such patients has not yet been reported in the literature. The first generation of adults has now undergone the procedure and it is necessary to be aware of the long-term outcomes and complications associated with it.
We report the case of a 22-year-old South Indian man who had developed a staphylococcal renal abscess against a background of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, nine years after Fontan surgery. He presented to our hospital with a high-grade fever of 25-days duration but with no other symptoms. Physical examination identified costovertebral angle tenderness and pedal edema. An ultrasound scan revealed a mass in his left kidney. The results of a computed tomography scan were consistent with a renal abscess. Despite treatment with the appropriate parenteral antibiotics, there was no change in the size of the abscess and a left nephrectomy was performed as a curative procedure.
The learning points here are manifold. It is important to be aware of the possibility of renal abscess in a post-procedural patient. The early diagnosis of a septic focus in the kidneymay help to prevent the rare outcome of nephrectomy.
Systems biological approach of molecular connectivity map has reached to a great interest to understand the gene functional similarities between the diseases. In this study, we developed a computational framework to build molecular connectivity maps by integrating mutated and differentially expressed genes of neurological and psychiatric diseases to determine its relationship with aging.
The systematic large-scale analyses of 124 human diseases create three classes of molecular connectivity maps. First, molecular interaction of disease protein network generates 3632 proteins with 6172 interactions, which determines the common genes/proteins between diseases. Second, Disease-disease network includes 4845 positively scored disease-disease relationships. The comparison of these disease-disease pairs with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) classification tree suggests 25% of the disease-disease pairs were in same disease area. The remaining can be a novel disease-disease relationship based on gene/protein similarity. Inclusion of aging genes set showed 79 neurological and 20 psychiatric diseases have the strong association with aging. Third and lastly, a curated disease biomarker network was created by relating the proteins/genes in specific disease contexts, such analysis showed 73 markers for 24 diseases. Further, the overall quality of the results was achieved by a series of statistical methods, to avoid insignificant data in biological networks.
This study improves the understanding of the complex interactions that occur between neurological and psychiatric diseases with aging, which lead to determine the diagnostic markers. Also, the disease-disease association results could be helpful to determine the symptom relationships between neurological and psychiatric diseases. Together, our study presents many research opportunities in post-genomic biomarkers development.
Studies on clinical features of catatonia in the Indian population are few in number.
To study the phenomenology, clinical profile and treatment response of subjects admitted to the psychiatry inpatient with catatonia.
Materials and Methods:
Detailed treatment records of all the inpatients were scanned for the period January 2004 to December 2008. Patients with catatonia (diagnosed as two symptoms as per the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating scale) were included.
During the study period, 1056 subjects were admitted in the inpatient unit, of which 51 (4.8% of the total admissions) had catatonic features and had been rated on the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating scale. The mean age of the sample was 30.02 years (SD=14.6; range 13-69), with an almost equal gender ratio. Most of the patients presenting with catatonia were diagnosed as having psychotic disorders (40; 74.8%), of which the most common diagnosis was schizophrenia (27; 52.9%) of the catatonic subtype (20; 39.2%). Three subjects with primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder had comorbid depression. Other diagnoses included mood disorders (7; 13.72%) and organic brain syndromes (04; 7.9%). According to the Bush Francis Rating scale, the common signs and symptoms exhibited by the subjects were mutism (94.1%), followed by immobility/stupor (78.5%), staring (78.4%), negativism (74.5%), rigidity (63%) and posturing/catalepsy (61.8%). All the patients were initially treated with lorazepam. Electroconvulsive therapy was required in most cases (42; 82.35%).
The common symptoms of catatonia are mutism, immobility/stupor, staring, posturing, negativism and rigidity. The most common underlying psychiatric diagnosis was schizophrenia.
Catatonia; ECT; lorazepam; phenomenology