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1.  Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors as well as Attitudes and Perceptions towards Tobacco Control in Northeast China 
Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), the associated factors of current smoking among adults, and their attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 using a self-reported questionnaire. A representative sample of adults aged 18–79 years was collected in the Jilin Province of Northeast China by a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Descriptive data analysis was conducted, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were calculated to enable comparisons between the alleged differences and similarities. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the risk factors associated with current smoking. Results: 21,435 adults responded to the survey (response rate: 84.9%). The overall prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and former smoking or smoking cessation was 39.1% (95% CI: 38.3–39.9), 31.8% (95% CI 31.1–32.6), and 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9–7.7), respectively. The proportion of ETS exposure among adult non-smokers in Jilin Province was 61.1% (95% CI: 60.1–62.1), and 23.1% (95% CI: 22.3–24.0) of the non-smokers reported daily ETS exposure. The proportion of ETS exposure at home was 33.4% (95% CI: 32.5–34.4), but the proportion of ETS exposure at restaurants was lower (6.5%) (95% CI: 6.0–7.1). More than 90% of the participants had positive attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control, but 23.2% (95% CI: 22.5–24.0) of them did not agree with the perception of “smoking is fully quit in public places”, and almost half of the adults (49.5%) (95% CI: 48.7–50.3) did not agree with the perception of “hazards of low-tar cigarettes are equal to general cigarettes”. Conclusions: Smoking and exposure to ETS are prevalent among adults from the Jilin Province of Northeast China. Our findings suggest that tobacco control should be advocated in Northeast China. Anti-smoking campaigns and legislation should be built into the public health curriculum and government policy.
PMCID: PMC4515736  PMID: 26206569
smoking; environmental tobacco smoke; attitude; tobacco control
2.  A Functional Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism in the Proximal Promoter of CD3G Is Associated with Susceptibility for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Chinese Population 
DNA and Cell Biology  2012;31(9):1480-1485.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the most common primary malignancy of the liver with a worldwide increasing incidence. Although the risk factors for HCC are well characterized, the molecular mechanisms responsible for malignant transformation of hepatocytes are not well understood. In this study, a case–control study including 291 HCC patients and 294 healthy controls was conducted to investigate the association between HCC susceptibility and with a 4-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs66465034) in the proximal promoter of CD3G. Logistic regression analysis showed that the heterozygote and the homozygote 4-bp ins/ins confer a significantly increased risk of HCC after controlling for other covariates (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.51, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.27, p=0.040; OR=1.71, 95% C.I. 1.07–2.89, p=0.025, respectively). Carriage of the 4-bp insertion allele was associated with a greatly increased risk of developing the disease (OR=1.30, 95% C.I. 1.02–1.64, p=0.027). Moreover, hepatitis B virus (HBV) stratification analysis showed that the differences between cases and controls were more obvious in HBV-positive than in the HBV-negative population, suggesting a possible role of this polymorphism in the immune regulation during HBV infection. Further, luciferase-based transient transfection assays revealed that rs66465034 can affect promoter activity of CD3G, indicating its possible functional significance. Our data suggested that common genetic polymorphisms in CD3G may influence HCC risk in Chinese population. Considering the relative small sample size, replication in other populations with larger sample size and further functional analysis are required for fully understanding the roles of CD3G polymorphisms in predisposition for HCC.
Not only are viral infections associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, host gene polymorphisms may increase susceptibility. In this study, one of the signaling chains of the T cell receptor, the CD3γ, was shown to be a risk factor in Asians.
PMCID: PMC3429282  PMID: 22731821
3.  Reduction of n-3 PUFAs, specifically DHA and EPA, and enhancement of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in type 2 diabetic rat heart 
There is overwhelming evidence that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly EPA (C20:5n-3) and DHA (C22:6n-3), has cardiovascular protective effects on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but not on healthy people. Because the T2DM heart increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO) to compensate for the diminished utilization of glucose, we hypothesize that T2DM hearts consume more n-3 PUFAs and, therefore, need more n-3 PUFAs. In the present study, we investigated the changes in cardiac n-3 PUFAs and peroxisomal beta-oxidation, which are responsible for the degradation of PUFAs in a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic rat model.
Methods and results
The capillary gas chromatography results showed that all the n-3 (or omega-3) PUFAs, especially DHA (~50%) and EPA (~100%), were significantly decreased, and the n-6/n-3 ratio (~115%) was significantly increased in the hearts of diabetic rats. The activity of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, which is crucial to very-long-chain and unsaturated FA metabolism (including DHA), was significantly elevated in DM hearts. Additionally, the real-time PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of most peroxisomal beta-oxidation key enzymes were up-regulated in T2DM rat hearts, which might contribute to the reduction of n-3 (or omega-3) PUFAs.
In conclusion, our results indicate that T2DM hearts consume more n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA and EPA, due to exaggerated peroxisomal beta-oxidation.
PMCID: PMC3490815  PMID: 23057715
n-3 PUFA; EPA; DHA; T2DM; FAO; Peroxisomal β-oxidation

Results 1-3 (3)