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1.  Synthetic Chalcones with Potent Antioxidant Ability on H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells 
Chalcone derivatives (E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one and (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (Compounds 1 and 2) have been demonstrated to be potent anti-inflammatory agents in our previous study. In light of the relationship of intracellular mechanisms between anti-inflammatories and antioxidants, we further designed and synthesized a series of chalcone derivatives based on 1 and 2, to explore their antioxidant efficacy. The majority of the derivatives exhibited strong protective effects on PC12 (PC12 rat pheochromocytoma) cells exposed to H2O2, and all compounds were nontoxic. A preliminary structure-activity relationship was proposed. Compounds 1 and 1d ((E)-2-methoxy-4-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl) phenyl acrylate) exerted the action in a good dose-dependent manner. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis showed that 1 and 1d significantly improve the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent antioxidant genes g-Glutamylcysteine Ligase Catalytic Subunit (GCLC) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and their corresponding proteins (γ-glutamyl cysteine synthase (γ-GCS) and HO-1) in PC12 cells. Inhibition of GCLC and HO-1 by specific inhibitors, l-buthionine-S-sulfoximine (BSO) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), respectively, partially reduce the protective effect of 1 and 1d. These data present a series of novel chalcone analogs, especially compounds 1 and 1d, as candidates for treating oxidative stress-related disease by activating the Nrf2-antioxidant responsive element (ARE) pathway.
doi:10.3390/ijms151018525
PMCID: PMC4227230  PMID: 25318055
chalcone derivatives; antioxidant; PC12 cells; Nrf2-ARE pathway; GCLC; HO-1
2.  POTENT REGULATORS OF METABOLISM 
BioFactors (Oxford, England)  2012;39(2):151-163.
Retinoids (vitamin A and its analogs) are highly potent regulators of cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Because of these activities, retinoids have been most extensively studied in the contexts of embryonic development and of proliferative diseases, especially cancer and skin disease. Recently, there has been considerable new research interest focused on gaining understanding of the roles that retinoids and/or retinoid-related proteins may have in the development of metabolic diseases, primarily obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. This review will summarize recent advances that have been made in these areas, focusing on the role of retinoids in modulating adipogenesis, the roles of retinoids and retinoid-related proteins as signaling molecules linking obesity with the development of type II diabetes, the roles of retinoids in pancreatic β-cell biology/insulin secretion, and the actions of retinoids in hepatic steatosis.
doi:10.1002/biof.1056
PMCID: PMC3620893  PMID: 23281051
3.  Intestinal DGAT1 deficiency reduces postprandial triglyceride and retinyl ester excursions by inhibiting chylomicron secretion and delaying gastric emptying 
Journal of Lipid Research  2012;53(11):2364-2379.
Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 catalyzes the final step of triglyceride (TG) synthesis. We show that acute administration of a DGAT1 inhibitor (DGAT1i) by oral gavage or genetic deletion of intestinal Dgat1 (intestine-Dgat1−/−) markedly reduced postprandial plasma TG and retinyl ester excursions by inhibiting chylomicron secretion in mice. Loss of DGAT1 activity did not affect the efficiency of retinol esterification, but it did reduce TG and retinoid accumulation in the small intestine. In contrast, inhibition of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) reduced chylomicron secretion after oral fat/retinol loads, but with accumulation of dietary TG and retinoids in the small intestine. Lack of intestinal accumulation of TG and retinoids in DGAT1i-treated or intestine-Dgat1−/− mice resulted, in part, from delayed gastric emptying associated with increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. However, neither bypassing the stomach through duodenal oil injection nor inhibiting the receptor for GLP-1 normalized postprandial TG or retinyl esters excursions in the absence of DGAT1 activity. In summary, intestinal DGAT1 inhibition or deficiency acutely delayed gastric emptying and inhibited chylomicron secretion; however, the latter occurred when gastric emptying was normal or when lipid was administered directly into the small intestine. Long-term hepatic retinoid metabolism was not impacted by DGAT1 inhibition.
doi:10.1194/jlr.M029041
PMCID: PMC3466005  PMID: 22911105
diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibition; glucagon-like peptide-1; GLP-1 receptor inhibition; lipoproteins; retinol absorption
4.  Cystatin C and asymptomatic coronary artery disease in patients with metabolic syndrome and normal glomerular filtration rate 
Background
All of the components of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been regarded as risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). Early detection of CAD in asymptomatic patients with MetS remains a challenge. Cystatin C,which has been proposed as a novel marker of renal dysfunction,is correlated with mortality in CAD, The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether cystatin C is a potential marker of asymptomatic CAD in MetS patients with normal kidney function.
Methods
A total of 211asymptomatic MetS patients without prior history of CAD patients were included in a cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into MetS with asymptomatic CAD (n = 136) and MetS without CAD (n = 75) groups according to coronary angiograph results. Serum cystatin C levels were measured using particle enhanced immunonephelometric assays. We first assessed whether there is an independent association of cystatin C with the presence and severity of asymptomatic CAD. Then, we investigated the association between cystatin C and other biochemical risk factors for atherosclerosis.
Results
Serum cystatin C levels in patients with asymptomatic CAD were significantly higher than those without CAD (P = 0.004). A multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated cystatin C was independently associated with the presence of asymptomatic CAD (OR = 1.326, 95%CI: 1.086-1.619). On receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.622 (95 % CI: 0543–0.701, P = 0.003), and cystatin C showed a moderate predictive value. Furthermore, cystatin C was independently correlated with Gensini score (standardized β = 0.183, P = 0.007), and serum cystatin C levels increased with the increasing of number of disease vessels (P = 0.005). In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, uric acid (UA)(P < 0.001), body mass index (BMI)(P = 0.002), triglyceride(TG)(P = 0.03), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)(P < 0.001), and fibrinogen(P = 0.001) were independently associated with cystatin C.
Conclusions
Serum cystatin C in our study was significantly associated with the presence and severity of asymptomatic CAD in MetS patients with normal kidney function, suggesting that cystatin C is probably more than a marker of glomerular filtration rate.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-108
PMCID: PMC3473246  PMID: 22978689
Cystatin C; Gensini score; Metabolic syndrome; Asymptomatic coronary artery disease
5.  De novo combination therapy with lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil in chronic hepatitis B patients 
AIM: To investigate the appropriate time for combination therapy in HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with decompensated cirrhosis.
METHODS: Thirty HBeAg positive CHB patients with decompensated cirrhosis were enrolled in the study. All of the patients were given 48 wk combination therapy with lamivudine (LAM) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV). Briefly, 10 patients were given the de novo combination therapy with LAM and ADV, whereas the other 20 patients received ADV in addition to LAM after hepatitis B virus (HBV) genetic mutation.
RESULTS: Serum alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin were both improved in the two groups at 4, 12, 24 and 48 wk after treatment. Serum albumin was also improved at 24 and 48 wk after combination therapy in both groups. The serum HBV DNA level was still detectable in every patient in the two groups at 4 and 12 wk after combination treatment. However, in the de novo combination group, serum HBV DNA levels in 4 (40%) and 9 (90%) patients was decreased to below 1×103 copies/mL at 24 and 48 wk after the combination treatment, respectively. In parallel, serum HBV DNA levels in 2 (20%) and 8 (40%) patients in the add-on combination group became undetectable at 24 and 48 wk after combination treatment, respectively. Furthermore, 6 (60%) patients in the de novo combination group achieved HBeAg seroconversion after 48 wk treatment, whereas only 4 (20%) patients in the add-on combination group achieved seroconversion. Child-Pugh score of patients in the de novo combination group was better than that of patients in the add-on combination group after 48 wk treatment. Moreover, patients in the de novo combination group had a significantly decreased serum creatinine level and elevated red blood cell counts.
CONCLUSION: De novo combination therapy with LAM and ADV was better than add-on combination therapy in terms of Child-Pugh score, virus inhibition and renal function.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i43.4804
PMCID: PMC3229630  PMID: 22147982
Hepatitis B; Chronic; Cirrhosis; Decompen-sated; De novo combination; Lamivudine; Adefovir di-pivoxil
6.  Identification of target genes of transcription factor activator protein 2 gamma in breast cancer cells 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:279.
Background
Activator protein 2 gamma (AP-2γ) is a member of the transcription factor activator protein-2 (AP-2) family, which is developmentally regulated and plays a role in human neoplasia. AP-2γ has been found to be overexpressed in most breast cancers, and have a dual role to inhibit tumor initiation and promote tumor progression afterwards during mammary tumorigensis.
Methods
To identify the gene targets that mediate its effects, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to isolate AP-2γ binding sites on genomic DNA from human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-453.
Results
20 novel DNA fragments proximal to potential AP-2γ targets were obtained. They are categorized into functional groups of carcinogenesis, metabolism and others. A combination of sequence analysis, reporter gene assays, quantitative real-time PCR, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays and immunoblot analysis further confirmed the four AP-2γ target genes in carcinogenesis group: ErbB2, CDH2, HPSE and IGSF11. Our results were consistent with the previous reports that ErbB2 was the target gene of AP-2γ. Decreased expression and overexpression of AP-2γ in human breast cancer cells significantly altered the expression of these four genes, indicating that AP-2γ directly regulates them.
Conclusion
This suggested that AP-2γ can coordinate the expression of a network of genes, involving in carcinogenesis, especially in breast cancer. They could serve as therapeutic targets against breast cancers in the future.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-279
PMCID: PMC3224728  PMID: 19671168
7.  Bis(2,3-dimethyl­butane-2,3-diamine)nickel(II) dinitrate monohydrate 
In the title compound, [Ni(C6H16N2)2](NO3)2·H2O, the bis­(2,3-dimethyl­butane-2,3-diamine)nickel(II) complex cation possesses a relatively undistorted square-planar geometry about the Ni atom, which lies on an inversion centre and is coordinated by four N atoms from two symmetry-related 2,3-diamino-2,3-dimethyl­butane (tmen) ligands. The amine groups are N—H⋯O hydrogen bonded to the nitrate anions, which are, in turn, linked by inter­stitial water mol­ecules lying on a twofold axis. The infinite zigzag chains thus formed along [001] are further connected to each other by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds towards the water mol­ecules, forming layers of two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded arrays.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809011702
PMCID: PMC2977546  PMID: 21583732
8.  Normal reference value of hemoglobin of middleaged women and altitude. 
AIM: In order to supply a scientific basis for uniting the normal reference value standard of hemoglobin of Chinese middlescent women. METHODS: A research is made about the relationship between the normal reference value of 25,917 examples of hemoglobin of middlescent women and altitude in 268 areas in China, the normal reference values of hemoglobin of middlescent women are determined by the hemoglobincyanide method. RESULTS: The correlation between the normal reference value of hemoglobin of middlescent women and altitude is quite significant (r = 0.827). By using the method of univariate linear regression analysis, one regression equation is inferred. CONCLUSION: If the altitude values are obtained in some areas, the normal reference value of hemoglobin of middlescent women of this area can be reckoned by using the regression equation. Furthermore, depending on the altitude, China can be divided into three districts: Qingzang District, Central District, and Eastern District.
PMCID: PMC2259123  PMID: 15989740

Results 1-8 (8)