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BioFactors (Oxford, England)  2012;39(2):151-163.
Retinoids (vitamin A and its analogs) are highly potent regulators of cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Because of these activities, retinoids have been most extensively studied in the contexts of embryonic development and of proliferative diseases, especially cancer and skin disease. Recently, there has been considerable new research interest focused on gaining understanding of the roles that retinoids and/or retinoid-related proteins may have in the development of metabolic diseases, primarily obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. This review will summarize recent advances that have been made in these areas, focusing on the role of retinoids in modulating adipogenesis, the roles of retinoids and retinoid-related proteins as signaling molecules linking obesity with the development of type II diabetes, the roles of retinoids in pancreatic β-cell biology/insulin secretion, and the actions of retinoids in hepatic steatosis.
PMCID: PMC3620893  PMID: 23281051
2.  Intestinal DGAT1 deficiency reduces postprandial triglyceride and retinyl ester excursions by inhibiting chylomicron secretion and delaying gastric emptying 
Journal of Lipid Research  2012;53(11):2364-2379.
Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 catalyzes the final step of triglyceride (TG) synthesis. We show that acute administration of a DGAT1 inhibitor (DGAT1i) by oral gavage or genetic deletion of intestinal Dgat1 (intestine-Dgat1−/−) markedly reduced postprandial plasma TG and retinyl ester excursions by inhibiting chylomicron secretion in mice. Loss of DGAT1 activity did not affect the efficiency of retinol esterification, but it did reduce TG and retinoid accumulation in the small intestine. In contrast, inhibition of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) reduced chylomicron secretion after oral fat/retinol loads, but with accumulation of dietary TG and retinoids in the small intestine. Lack of intestinal accumulation of TG and retinoids in DGAT1i-treated or intestine-Dgat1−/− mice resulted, in part, from delayed gastric emptying associated with increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. However, neither bypassing the stomach through duodenal oil injection nor inhibiting the receptor for GLP-1 normalized postprandial TG or retinyl esters excursions in the absence of DGAT1 activity. In summary, intestinal DGAT1 inhibition or deficiency acutely delayed gastric emptying and inhibited chylomicron secretion; however, the latter occurred when gastric emptying was normal or when lipid was administered directly into the small intestine. Long-term hepatic retinoid metabolism was not impacted by DGAT1 inhibition.
PMCID: PMC3466005  PMID: 22911105
diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibition; glucagon-like peptide-1; GLP-1 receptor inhibition; lipoproteins; retinol absorption
3.  Cystatin C and asymptomatic coronary artery disease in patients with metabolic syndrome and normal glomerular filtration rate 
All of the components of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been regarded as risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). Early detection of CAD in asymptomatic patients with MetS remains a challenge. Cystatin C,which has been proposed as a novel marker of renal dysfunction,is correlated with mortality in CAD, The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether cystatin C is a potential marker of asymptomatic CAD in MetS patients with normal kidney function.
A total of 211asymptomatic MetS patients without prior history of CAD patients were included in a cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into MetS with asymptomatic CAD (n = 136) and MetS without CAD (n = 75) groups according to coronary angiograph results. Serum cystatin C levels were measured using particle enhanced immunonephelometric assays. We first assessed whether there is an independent association of cystatin C with the presence and severity of asymptomatic CAD. Then, we investigated the association between cystatin C and other biochemical risk factors for atherosclerosis.
Serum cystatin C levels in patients with asymptomatic CAD were significantly higher than those without CAD (P = 0.004). A multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated cystatin C was independently associated with the presence of asymptomatic CAD (OR = 1.326, 95%CI: 1.086-1.619). On receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.622 (95 % CI: 0543–0.701, P = 0.003), and cystatin C showed a moderate predictive value. Furthermore, cystatin C was independently correlated with Gensini score (standardized β = 0.183, P = 0.007), and serum cystatin C levels increased with the increasing of number of disease vessels (P = 0.005). In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, uric acid (UA)(P < 0.001), body mass index (BMI)(P = 0.002), triglyceride(TG)(P = 0.03), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)(P < 0.001), and fibrinogen(P = 0.001) were independently associated with cystatin C.
Serum cystatin C in our study was significantly associated with the presence and severity of asymptomatic CAD in MetS patients with normal kidney function, suggesting that cystatin C is probably more than a marker of glomerular filtration rate.
PMCID: PMC3473246  PMID: 22978689
Cystatin C; Gensini score; Metabolic syndrome; Asymptomatic coronary artery disease
4.  Normal reference value of hemoglobin of middleaged women and altitude. 
AIM: In order to supply a scientific basis for uniting the normal reference value standard of hemoglobin of Chinese middlescent women. METHODS: A research is made about the relationship between the normal reference value of 25,917 examples of hemoglobin of middlescent women and altitude in 268 areas in China, the normal reference values of hemoglobin of middlescent women are determined by the hemoglobincyanide method. RESULTS: The correlation between the normal reference value of hemoglobin of middlescent women and altitude is quite significant (r = 0.827). By using the method of univariate linear regression analysis, one regression equation is inferred. CONCLUSION: If the altitude values are obtained in some areas, the normal reference value of hemoglobin of middlescent women of this area can be reckoned by using the regression equation. Furthermore, depending on the altitude, China can be divided into three districts: Qingzang District, Central District, and Eastern District.
PMCID: PMC2259123  PMID: 15989740

Results 1-4 (4)