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1.  The Radioprotective 105/MD-1 Complex Contributes to Diet-Induced Obesity and Adipose Tissue Inflammation 
Diabetes  2012;61(5):1199-1209.
Recent accumulating evidence suggests that innate immunity is associated with obesity-induced chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that a Toll-like receptor (TLR) protein, radioprotective 105 (RP105)/myeloid differentiation protein (MD)-1 complex, contributes to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, and insulin resistance. An HFD dramatically increased RP105 mRNA and protein expression in stromal vascular fraction of epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) in wild-type (WT) mice. RP105 mRNA expression also was significantly increased in the visceral adipose tissue of obese human subjects relative to nonobese subjects. The RP105/MD-1 complex was expressed by most adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). An HFD increased RP105/MD-1 expression on the M1 subset of ATMs that accumulate in eWAT. Macrophages also acquired this characteristic in coculture with 3T3-L1 adipocytes. RP105 knockout (KO) and MD-1 KO mice had less HFD-induced adipose tissue inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance compared with wild-type (WT) and TLR4 KO mice. Finally, the saturated fatty acids, palmitic and stearic acids, are endogenous ligands for TLR4, but they did not activate RP105/MD-1. Thus, the RP105/MD-1 complex is a major mediator of adipose tissue inflammation independent of TLR4 signaling and may represent a novel therapeutic target for obesity-associated metabolic disorders.
doi:10.2337/db11-1182
PMCID: PMC3331758  PMID: 22396206
2.  Telmisartan ameliorates insulin sensitivity by activating the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway in skeletal muscle of obese db/db mice 
Background
Telmisartan is a well-established angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker that improves insulin sensitivity in animal models of obesity and insulin resistance, as well as in humans. Telmisartan has been reported to function as a partial agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, which is also targeted by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase (SIRT1). Here, we investigated the pathways through which telmisartan acts on skeletal muscle, in vitro as well as in vivo.
Methods
Nine-week-old male db/db mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet, with orally administrated either vehicle (carboxymethyl-cellulose, CMC), 5 mg/kg telmisartan, or 5 mg/kg telmisartan and 1 mg/kg GW9662, a selective irreversible antagonist of PPARγ, for 5 weeks. Effects of telmisartan on Sirt1 mRNA, AMPK phosphorylation, and NAD+/NADH ratio were determined in C2C12 cultured myocytes.
Results and discussion
Telmisartan treatment improved insulin sensitivity in obese db/db mice fed a high-fat diet and led to reduction in the size of hypertrophic pancreatic islets in these mice. Moreover, in vitro treatment with telmisartan led to increased expression of Sirt1 mRNA in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells; the increase in Sirt1 mRNA in telmisartan-treated C2C12 myoblasts occurred concomitantly with an increase in AMPK phosphorylation, an increase in NAD+/NADH ratio, and increases in the mRNA levels of PGC1α, FATP1, ACO, and GLUT4.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that telmisartan acts through a PPARγ-independent pathway, but at least partially exerts its effects by acting directly on skeletal muscle AMPK/SIRT1 pathways.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-139
PMCID: PMC3527353  PMID: 23137106
Adiponectin; AMP-activated protein kinase; Obesity; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ; SIRT1
3.  Gender disparities in the association between epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary atherosclerosis: A 3-dimensional cardiac computed tomography imaging study in Japanese subjects 
Background
Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we explored gender disparities in EAT volume (EATV) and its impact on coronary atherosclerosis.
Methods
The study population consisted of 90 consecutive subjects (age: 63 ± 12 years; men: 47, women: 43) who underwent 256-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography. EATV was measured as the sum of cross-sectional epicardial fat area on CT images, from the lower surface of the left pulmonary artery origin to the apex. Subjects were segregated into the CAD group (coronary luminal narrowing > 50%) and non-CAD group.
Results
EATV/body surface area (BSA) was higher among men in the CAD group than in the non-CAD group (62 ± 13 vs. 33 ± 10 cm3/m2, p < 0.0001), but did not differ significantly among women in the 2 groups (49 ± 18 vs. 42 ± 9 cm3/m2, not significant). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that EATV/BSA was the single predictor for >50% coronary luminal narrowing in men (p < 0.0001). Predictors excluded were age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia.
Conclusions
Increased EATV is strongly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in men.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-106
PMCID: PMC3489699  PMID: 22963346
Atherosclerosis; Gender difference; Epicardial adipose tissue; Obesity
4.  Increased Expression of Macrophage-Inducible C-type Lectin in Adipose Tissue of Obese Mice and Humans 
Diabetes  2011;60(3):819-826.
OBJECTIVE
We have provided evidence that saturated fatty acids, which are released from adipocytes via macrophage-induced adipocyte lipolysis, serve as a naturally occurring ligand for the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 complex in macrophages, thereby aggravating obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. The aim of this study was to identify the molecule(s) activated in adipose tissue macrophages in obesity.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We performed a cDNA microarray analysis of coculture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264 macrophages. Cultured adipocytes and macrophages and the adipose tissue of obese mice and humans were used to examine mRNA and protein expression.
RESULTS
We found that macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle; also called Clec4e and Clecsf9), a type II transmembrane C-type lectin, is induced selectively in macrophages during the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages. Treatment with palmitate, a major saturated fatty acid released from 3T3-L1 adipocytes, induced Mincle mRNA expression in macrophages at least partly through the TLR4/nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway. Mincle mRNA expression was increased in parallel with macrophage markers in the adipose tissue of obese mice and humans. The obesity-induced increase in Mincle mRNA expression was markedly attenuated in C3H/HeJ mice with defective TLR4 signaling relative to control C3H/HeN mice. Notably, Mincle mRNA was expressed in bone-marrow cell (BMC)-derived proinflammatory M1 macrophages rather than in BMC-derived anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in vitro.
CONCLUSIONS
Our data suggest that Mincle is induced in adipose tissue macrophages in obesity at least partly through the saturated fatty acid/TLR4/NF-κB pathway, thereby suggesting its pathophysiologic role in obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.
doi:10.2337/db10-0864
PMCID: PMC3046842  PMID: 21282371

Results 1-4 (4)