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1.  A dental myth bites the dust – no observable relation between the incidence of dental abscess and the weather and lunar phase: an ecological study 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:21.
Background
Anecdotal reports assert a relationship between weather and lunar activity and the odontogenic abscess (OA) incidence, but this relationship has not been validated. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between oral pain caused by OA and a variety of meteorological parameters and cyclic lunar activity.
Methods
The records of all dental emergency patients treated at the AllDent Zahnzentrum Emergency Unit in Munich, Germany during 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with oral pain who were diagnosed with OA and treated surgically (n = 1211) were included in the analysis. The OA incidence was correlated to daily meteorological data, biosynoptic weather analysis, and cyclic lunar activity.
Results
There was no seasonal variation in the OA incidence. None of the meteorological parameters, lunar phase, or biosynoptic weather class were significantly correlated with the OA incidence, except the mean barometric pressure, which was weakly correlated (rho = -0.204). The OA incidence showed a decreasing trend as barometric pressure increased (p < 0.001). On multiple linear regression, the barometric pressure accounted for approximately 4% of the OA incidence.
Conclusion
There is no evidence supporting a correlation between the incidence of odontogenic abscess and the weather and lunar activities.
doi:10.1186/s12903-015-0001-2
PMCID: PMC4327972
Weather; Meteorological medicine; Biosynoptic; Odontogenic abscess; Tooth-related infection; Moon; Lunar cycle
2.  Enhancement of salivary human neutrophil peptide 1–3 levels by probiotic supplementation 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:19.
Background
Probiotic supplementation can reduce mutans streptococci (MS) numbers. One of its proposed mechanisms is immunomodulation. Salivary human neutrophil peptide 1–3 (HNP1-3) levels have previously been demonstrated to be higher in caries-free than in caries-susceptible children, suggesting their preventive role against caries. We aimed to compare salivary HNP1-3 levels between an intervention group with probiotics and a control group.
Methods
A randomized double-blinded clinical trial was conducted. Sixty schoolchildren were equally allocated to either an intervention or control group. The use of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, has shown to reduce MS numbers in volunteers. In unstimulated whole saliva, HNP1-3 levels were assayed by ELISA, and MS and lactobacilli counts were assayed by colony counting at baseline (T0) and at 3 (T3), 6 (T6), and 12 months (T12). The International Caries Detection and Assessment system was used to assess caries status.
Results
In the intervention group, salivary HNP1-3 levels were significantly greater than those in the control group at T3 and T6 (p < 0.001), whereas MS counts were significantly decreased (p < 0.01). In the intervention group, positive and negative correlations were found between HNP1-3 levels and lactobacilli counts and between MS and lactobacilli counts, respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between enhanced HNP1-3 levels and decreased MS numbers. The caries increment for the pit and fissure surface, but not for the smooth surfaces, was significantly decreased in the intervention group compared with the control group (p = 0.01).
Conclusions
Probiotics can temporarily enhance salivary HNP1-3 levels; however, their action to reduce new pit and fissure caries probably involves microbial interactions.
Trial registration
TCTR20130904001 (registration date: September 04, 2013).
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12903-015-0003-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12903-015-0003-0
PMCID: PMC4327807
Alpha-defensins; Dental caries; Mutans streptococci; Probiotics; Saliva
3.  Inequality in oral health related to early and later life social conditions: a study of elderly in Norway and Sweden 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:20.
Background
A life course perspective recognizes influences of socially patterned exposures on oral health across the life span. This study assessed the influence of early and later life social conditions on tooth loss and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) of people aged 65 and 70 years. Whether social inequalities in oral health changed after the usual age of retirement was also examined. In accordance with “the latent effect life course model”, it was hypothesized that adverse early-life social conditions increase the risk of subsequent tooth loss and impaired OIDP, independent of later-life social conditions.
Methods
Data were obtained from two cohorts studies conducted in Sweden and Norway. The 2007 and 2012 waves of the surveys were used for the present study. Early-life social conditions were measured in terms of gender, education and country of birth, and later-life social conditions were assessed by working status, marital status and size of social network. Logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to analyse the data. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) was used to adjust estimates for missing responses and loss to follow-up.
Results
Early-life social conditions contributed to tooth loss and OIDP in each survey year and both countries independent of later-life social conditions. Lower education correlated positively with tooth loss, but did not influence OIDP. Foreign country of birth correlated positively with oral impacts in Sweden only. Later-life social conditions were the strongest predictors of tooth loss and OIDP across survey years and countries. GEE revealed significant interactions between social network and survey year, and between marital status and survey year on tooth loss.
Conclusion
The results confirmed the latent effect life course model in that early and later life social conditions had independent effects on tooth loss and OIDP among the elderly in Norway and Sweden. Between age 65 and 70, inequalities in tooth loss related to marital status declined, and inequalities related to social network increased.
doi:10.1186/s12903-015-0005-y
PMCID: PMC4328709
Life-course perspective; Ageing; OIDP; Tooth loss; Cohort; Social inequality
4.  Further evidence for causal FAM20A mutations and first case of amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival hyperplasia syndrome in Morocco: a case report 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:14.
Background
Amelogenesis imperfecta represents a group of developmental conditions, clinically and genetically heterogeneous, that affect the structure and clinical appearance of enamel. Amelogenesis imperfecta occurred as an isolated trait or as part of a genetic syndrome. Recently, disease-causing mutations in the FAM20A gene were identified, in families with an autosomal recessive syndrome associating amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis.
Case presentation
We report, the first description of a Moroccan patient with amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis, in whom we performed Sanger sequencing of the entire coding sequence of FAM20A and identified a homozygous mutation in the FAM20A gene (c.34_35delCT), already reported in a family with this syndrome.
Conclusion
Our finding confirms that the mutations of FAM20A gene are causative for amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis and underlines the recurrent character of the c.34_35delCT in two different ethnic groups.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-14
PMCID: PMC4327795  PMID: 25636655
Amelogenesis imperfecta; FAM20A; Gingival hyperplasia
5.  Caries risk assessment in young adults: a 3 year validation of the Cariogram model 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:17.
Background
To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden.
Methods
The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed as sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and compared with a risk assessment scheme used in Public Dental Service.
Results
The drop-outs displayed more risk factors and a significantly higher caries burden at baseline compared with those that remained in the project (p < 0.05). There was a strong association between the Cariogram risk categories and the 3-year caries increment on cavity level but the predictive values were modest. The high or very high caries risk categories yielded high specificities (>90%) but poor sensitivities. The low risk groups displayed higher sensitivities on expense of impaired specificities. No combinations proved clinically useful values according to Yuoden’s index.
Conclusions
Within the limitations of the present study, the computer-based Cariogram did not perform better than a caries risk assessment scheme based on past caries experience and caries progression, over a 3-year period in young adults.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-17
PMCID: PMC4328811  PMID: 25627618
Lactobacilli; Mutans streptococci; Risk factors; Saliva
6.  The influence of normative and subjective oral health status on schoolchildren’s happiness 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:15.
Background
Traditional methods to measure oral health based on clinical standards are limited because they do not consider psychosocial and functional aspects of oral health. It has been recommended that these measures need to be supplemented by data obtained from patients regarding their individual perceptions on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Happiness is a multidimensional construct comprising both emotional and cognitive domains, and has been defined as “the degree to which an individual judges the overall quality of his or her life as a whole favorably”. It has been associated with several health outcomes, including oral health. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and socioeconomic factors on the subjective happiness of Brazilian adolescents.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 on a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil. The data were collected through dental examinations and structured interviews. The participants underwent an evaluation aimed at detecting dental caries, traumatic dental injuries, malocclusion, and gingival bleeding. They also completed the Brazilian versions of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire-short form (CPQ11–14 – ISF: 16) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), which was our outcome variable. Socioeconomic conditions were evaluated through a questionnaire that was completed by the participants’ parents. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the association between the explanatory variables and the outcome. Moreover, a correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the SHS scores and the overall and domain scores of the CPQ11–14 –ISF: 16.
Results
A total of 1,134 children were evaluated. Unadjusted analyses showed that happiness was associated with socioeconomic indicators, the use of dental services, clinical status, and scores on the OHRQoL measure. After adjustment, household overcrowding (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98), dental caries (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99), malocclusion (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-0.99), and the severity associated with the CPQ11-14 (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.97) still showed a significant association with lower levels of the mean SHS score.
Conclusions
Happiness is influenced by oral conditions, socioeconomic status, and OHRQoL.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-15
PMCID: PMC4320443  PMID: 25616978
Happiness; Child; Oral health; Quality of life
7.  Clinical directors’ views of centralisation and commissioning of cleft services in the UK 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:12.
Background
To determine the views of Clinical Directors working in the United Kingdom (U.K.) Cleft Service with regard to centralisation, commissioning and impact on cleft service provision.
Methods
In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 11 Clinical Directors representing regional cleft services. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, a coding frame was developed by two researchers and transcripts were coded using a thematic, ‘interpretive’ approach.
Results
Clinical Directors perceived the commissioning of cleft services in the U.K. to be dependent upon historical agreements and individual negotiation despite service centralisation. Furthermore, Clinical Directors perceived unfairness in the commissioning and funding of cleft services and reported inconsistencies in funding models and service costs that have implications for delivering an equitable cleft service with an effective Multidisciplinary Team.
Conclusions
National Health Service (NHS) commissioning bodies can learn lessons from the centralisation of cleft care. Clinical Directors’ accounts of their relationships with specialist commissioning bodies and their perspectives of funding cleft services may serve to increase parity and improve the commissioning of cleft services in the U.K.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-12
PMCID: PMC4320534  PMID: 25608950
Specialist services; Centralisation; Commissioning; Clinical directors
8.  Gaps in smiles and services: a cross-sectional study of dental caries in refugee-background children 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:10.
Background
Refugees are reported to experience high rates of dental disease, although there are limited data on refugee children. The aim of this study was to report on oral health in refugee-background children in Australia, and to assess their follow-up at dental services.
Methods
Cross-sectional study of opportunistic oral health screening and subsequent dental service use in refugee-background children attending a refugee health clinic in Victoria, Australia, between November 2006 – November 2010.
Results
350 patients (0 – 18 years, mean age 8 years 7 months) had oral health screening; 241 (68.9%) were born overseas, (176 Africa, 65 other countries) and 109 (31.1%) were born in Australia to African-background families. Parents were concerned about oral health in 65/341 (19.1%) children, with specific concern about caries in only 9/341 (2.6%). On assessment, 155/336 (46.1%) had visible caries and 178/345 (51.6%) had caries experience (dmft/DMFT > 0). Where parents were concerned about caries, they were likely to be present (positive predictive value = 100%), however absence of parent concern about caries was not reassuring (negative predictive value = 56.1%).
Compared to Australian-born children of African background; African-born children were more likely to be referred for further dental care (adjusted PR 1.33, 95% CI [1.02 – 1.73]), although there was no statistically significant difference in caries prevalence. African-born children were less likely to have caries compared to other overseas-born children (adjusted PR 0.73, 95% CI [0.58 – 0.93]). Overall 187/344 (54.4%) children were referred for further dental care; 91/124 (73.4%) attended any dental appointment. Attendance rates were 90% with a phone reminder system for appointments, attendance reduced when this system lapsed.
Conclusions
Oral health is an important public health issue in refugee-background children, despite low levels of parent concern and very few parent reported caries. Routine direct oral health assessment is important in refugee-background children and co-ordinated health systems may help improve their attendance at dental services.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-10
PMCID: PMC4324800  PMID: 25608733
Caries; Children; Dental services; Oral health; Refugee
9.  Provision of specific dental procedures by general dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network: questionnaire findings 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:11.
Background
Objectives were to: (1) determine whether and how often general dentists (GDs) provide specific dental procedures; and (2) test the hypothesis that provision is associated with key dentist, practice, and patient characteristics.
Methods
GDs (n = 2,367) in the United States National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed an Enrollment Questionnaire that included: (1) dentist; (2) practice; and (3) patient characteristics, and how commonly they provide each of 10 dental procedures. We determined how commonly procedures were provided and tested the hypothesis that provision was substantively related to the three sets of characteristics.
Results
Two procedure categories were classified as “uncommon” (orthodontics, periodontal surgery), three were “common” (molar endodontics; implants; non-surgical periodontics), and five were “very common” (restorative; esthetic procedures; extractions; removable prosthetics; non-molar endodontics). Dentist, practice, and patient characteristics were substantively related to procedure provision; several characteristics seemed to have pervasive effects, such as dentist gender, training after dental school, full-time/part-time status, private practice vs. institutional practice, presence of a specialist in the same practice, and insurance status of patients.
Conclusions
As a group, GDs provide a comprehensive range of procedures. However, provision by individual dentists is substantively related to certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics. A large number and broad range of factors seem to influence which procedures GDs provide. This may have implications for how GDs respond to the ever-changing landscape of dental care utilization, patient population demography, scope of practice, delivery models and GDs’ evolving role in primary care.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-11) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-11
PMCID: PMC4324862  PMID: 25608862
Dentist practice patterns; Practice-based research; Dentistry; Health services research
10.  Pocket depth and bleeding on probing and their associations with dental, lifestyle, socioeconomic and blood variables: a cross-sectional, multicenter feasibility study of the German National Cohort 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:7.
Background
To investigate the periodontal disease status in a multi-center cross-sectional study in Germany. Associations of dental, socio-economic, blood and biomedical variables with periodontal outcome parameters were evaluated.
Methods
From 4 different centers N = 311 persons were included, drawn randomly from the registration offices. Maximal pocket depth (PD) was used as primary indicator for periodontitis. It was classified as: no/mild ≤3 mm, moderate 4-5 mm, severe ≥6 mm. Associations between socioeconomic (household income, education), lifestyle, and biomedical factors and PD or bleeding on probing (BOP) per site (“Yes”/”No”) was analyzed with logistic regression analysis.
Results
Mean age of subjects was 46.4 (range 20–77) years. A significantly higher risk of deeper pockets for smokers (OR = 2.4, current vs. never smoker) or persons with higher BMI (OR = 1.6, BMI increase by 5) was found. Severity of periodontitis was significantly associated with caries lesions (p = 0.01), bridges (p < .0001), crowns (p < .0001), leukocytes (p = 0.04), HbA1c (p < .0001) and MCV (p = 0.04). PD was positively correlated with BOP. No significant associations with BOP were found in regression analysis.
Conclusions
Earlier findings for BMI and smoking with severity of PD were confirmed. Dental variables might be influenced by potential confounding factors e.g. dental hygiene. For blood parameters interactions with unknown systemic diseases may exist.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-7
PMCID: PMC4324664  PMID: 25604448
Periodontitis; Dental examination; BMI; Laboratory parameters; Bleeding on probing; German National Cohort
11.  The Dental Health of primary school children living in fluoridated, pre-fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities in New South Wales, Australia 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:9.
Background
The Local Government Area of Gosford implemented a water fluoridation scheme in 2008. Therefore the opportunity was taken to record the dental health of primary school children aged 5–7 years prior to the fluoridation and compare the results with other communities in NSW with different access to fluoridated water. The aim was to compare the oral health of New South Wales (Australia)s 5–7 year olds living in fluoridated, and non- fluoridated communities. One of the areas was due to implement water fluoridation and is termed the pre-fluoridation site.
Methods
Pupils in the first year of Public and Catholic Schools in three areas of NSW were recruited. Class lists were used to draw a sample of approximately 900 per area. This number allowed for a non-response rate of up to 30 per cent and would give a sample sufficient numbers to allow statistical inferences to be drawn. Children whose parents consented received a dental examination and the clinical data was collected on mark sense cards.
Results
In the 3 areas the proportion of children who received a dental examination varied; 77.5% (n = 825) for the fluoridated area, 80.1% (n = 781) for the pre-fluoridated area and 55.3% (n = 523) for the non-fluoridated area. The mean dmft was 1.40 for the fluoridated area, 2.02 for the pre-fluoridated area and 2.09 for the non-fluoridated area. These differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01). Differences were also noted in the proportion of children who were caries free, 62.6% fluoridated area, 50.8% for the pre-fluoride area and 48.6% for the non-fluoride location.
Conclusion
The children living in the well-established fluoridated area had less dental caries and a higher proportion free from disease when compared with the other two areas which were not fluoridated. Fluoridation demonstrated a clear benefit in terms of better oral health for young children.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-9
PMCID: PMC4324770  PMID: 25604625
Water fluoridation; Dental caries; Children; Australia
12.  Prevalence and association of self-reported anxiety, pain, and oral parafunctional habits with temporomandibular disorders in Japanese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional survey 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:8.
Background
Associations between temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and psychological variables, pain conditions, and daily activities have been reported more commonly in middle-aged individuals than in children. However, to determine factor-specific preventive programs for TMD, it is important to evaluate the associations between multiple factors and TMD symptoms during childhood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between TMD symptoms and other orofacial pain conditions, daily activities, and trait anxiety in a population-based cross-sectional survey of Japanese children and adolescents.
Methods
A total of 1,415 subjects (11–15 years old) self-reported their TMD symptoms, headache, neck pain, and toothache, and completed questionnaire scales that assessed 15 daily activities. Trait anxiety was assessed using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-Trait (STAIC-T) scale. Subjects were dichotomized into a TMD group or control group, based on whether they reported at least 1 TMD symptom: the TMD group (≥1 TMD symptom, n = 182) and the control group (no TMD symptoms, n = 1,233). Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results
The prevalence rates for headache and neck pain were significantly higher in the TMD group than in the control group (44.0% vs. 24.7% and 54.4% vs. 30.0%, respectively; both P < 0.001). The odds ratios for TMD symptoms in subjects with neck pain and frequent diurnal clenching were 2.08 (P < 0.001) and 3.69 (P = 0.011), respectively. Moreover, high STAIC-T scores were weakly associated with TMD symptoms.
Conclusions
In this young Japanese population, TMD symptoms were associated with other orofacial pain conditions, particularly neck pain, although they were only weakly associated with trait anxiety. Diurnal clenching was strongly associated with TMD symptoms. Health professionals should carefully consider these factors when developing appropriate management strategies for TMD in children and adolescents.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-8
PMCID: PMC4324877  PMID: 25604542
Temporomandibular disorders; Adolescents; Orofacial pain; Anxiety; Clenching
13.  Individual and contextual factors related to dental caries in underprivileged Brazilian adolescents 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:6.
Background
Investigate the individual and contextual variables related to caries in underprivileged adolescents, and the disparity in distribution of the disease.
Methods
Cross-sectional analytical study, conducted in the city of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, in 2012. The probabilistic sample was composed of 1,179 adolescents from 15–19 years of age, randomly selected from 21 state schools and 34 Primary Health Units – Family Health (PHU-FH). The dependent variables studied were number of decayed teeth and caries experience (DMFT). The independent variables were classified into individual (clinical, sociodemographic, psychosocial, self-perception, impact on oral health, access to services, and quality of life) and contextual (social exclusion index, total number of residents in suburb, literacy rate, and the following variables given in percentages: residences in the home ownership category, provision of domestic sewerage, trash collection, families with income of over 1 minimum wage per month, and families without monthly income) variables. The multilevel regression model was estimated by the PROC GLIMMIX (Generalized Linear Models-Mixed) procedure, considering the individual variables as Level 1 and the contextual variables of the suburbs as Level 2. Adjustment of the model was evaluated by -2 Res Log Likelihood with α = 0.05.
Results
As regards the individual variables, adolescents who declared having a prison inmate in the Family and resided in homes with a larger number of persons, showed a higher number of decayed teeth. There were a larger number of decayed teeth, a higher DMFT value, and worse self-perception as regards the health of their teeth and mouth. Other variables, such as being of the female gender, age and time since last visit to the dentist were related to the DMFT index. As regards the contextual variables, the DMFT was lower in suburbs with greater access to domestic sewage, and the number of decayed teeth was higher in suburbs with the worst social exclusion indices.
Conclusion
Individual and contextual variables were associated with the presence of caries and DMFT index in underprivileged adolescents, indicating that they must be taken into consideration in the formulation of policies directed towards oral health promotion and prevention activities in this group.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-6
PMCID: PMC4320574  PMID: 25604304
Dental caries; Risk assessment; Social vulnerability; Adolescent behavior
14.  Survival of dental implants in patients with oral cancer treated by surgery and radiotherapy: a retrospective study 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:5.
Background
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the survival of dental implants placed after ablative surgery, in patients affected by oral cancer treated with or without radiotherapy.
Methods
We collected data for 34 subjects (22 females, 12 males; mean age: 51 ± 19) with malignant oral tumors who had been treated with ablative surgery and received dental implant rehabilitation between 2007 and 2012. Postoperative radiation therapy (less than 50 Gy) was delivered before implant placement in 12 patients. A total of 144 titanium implants were placed, at a minimum interval of 12 months, in irradiated and non-irradiated residual bone.
Results
Implant loss was dependent on the position and location of the implants (P = 0.05–0.1). Moreover, implant survival was dependent on whether the patient had received radiotherapy. This result was highly statistically significant (P < 0.01). Whether the implant was loaded is another highly significant (P < 0.01) factor determining survival. We observed significantly better outcomes when the implant was not loaded until at least 6 months after placement.
Conclusions
Although the retrospective design of this study could be affected by selection and information biases, we conclude that a delayed loading protocol will give the best chance of implant osseointegration, stability and, ultimately, effective dental rehabilitation.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-5
PMCID: PMC4324417  PMID: 25599761
Dental implants; Osseointegration; Radiation
15.  Role of extracytoplasmic function sigma factors in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:4.
Background
Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as a major pathogen in the development and progression of chronic periodontitis. P. gingivalis biofilm formation in the subgingival crevice plays an important role in the ability of the bacteria to tolerate stress signals outside the cytoplasmic membrane. Some bacteria use a distinct subfamily of sigma factors to regulate their extracytoplasmic functions (the ECF subfamily). The objective of this study was to determine if P. gingivalis ECF sigma factors affect P. gingivalis biofilm formation.
Methods
To elucidate the role of ECF sigma factors in P. gingivalis, chromosomal mutants carrying a disruption of each ECF sigma factor-encoding gene were constructed. Bacterial growth curves were measured by determining the turbidity of bacterial cultures. The quantity of biofilm growing on plates was evaluated by crystal violet staining.
Results
Comparison of the growth curves of wild-type P. gingivalis strain 33277 and the ECF mutants indicated that the growth rate of the mutants was slightly lower than that of the wild-type strain. The PGN_0274- and PGN_1740-defective mutants had increased biofilm formation compared with the wild-type (p < 0.001); however, the other ECF sigma factor mutants or the complemented strains did not enhance biofilm formation.
Conclusion
These results suggest that PGN_0274 and PGN_1740 play a key role in biofilm formation by P. gingivalis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-4
PMCID: PMC4324044  PMID: 25596817
Extracytoplasmic function sigma factor; Biofilm; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Periodontal disease
16.  Issues arising following a referral and subsequent wait for extraction under general anaesthetic: impact on children 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:3.
Background
Untreated caries in young children can result in a referral for extraction in hospital under general anaesthetic (GA). This study aims to explore the impact of caries during the ensuing wait for GA on children resident in the North West of England.
Methods
The study involved 456 respondents referred to six hospitals in the Northwest of England. Over a two-month period each of these children/ families completed a questionnaire and gave permission to access their referral and consultation notes.
Results
Children (6.78 years old: 1.50 to 16.42) had on average five teeth extracted (ranging from one to a full clearance, with all teeth removed). Sixty seven per cent of parents reported their child had been in pain, 26% reported schools days being missed and 38% having sleepless nights. The average time from referral to operation was 137 days. Results indicated that children could be in discomfort during their wait, as pain was experienced, on average, 14 days before the operation. Wait time significantly predicated the number of sleepless nights b = .004, t(340) = 2.276, p = .023.
Conclusions
It is clear that pain, sleepless nights and missed school are a feature during a wait for dental GA and can be exacerbated by an extended wait. These data support the need for not only effective prevention of caries within primary care to reduce wait times and experience of GA but also effective management of pain and infection during a prolonged wait for treatment.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-3
PMCID: PMC4324052  PMID: 25595299
Caries; Children; Pain; Impact; General anaesthetic
17.  The midwifery initiated oral health-dental service protocol: an intervention to improve oral health outcomes for pregnant women 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:2.
Background
Evidence is emerging that women’s poor oral health and health practices during pregnancy are associated with poor oral health in their children and potentially an increased risk of pre-term or low-birth weight infants.
Methods/Design
The Midwifery Initiated Oral Health-Dental Service (MIOH-DS) trial is a three arm multicentre randomised controlled trial which will recruit women from three metropolitan hospitals aimed at improving women’s oral health and service access and indirectly reducing perinatal morbidity. All three arms of the trial will deliver oral health promotion material, although a midwife oral assessment and referral to private/public/health fund dental services pathway (Intervention Group 1) and the midwife oral assessment and referral to local free public dental services pathway (Intervention Group 2) will be compared to the control group of oral health promotional material only. Midwives will undergo specific oral health education and competency testing to undertake this novel intervention.
Discussion
This efficacy trial will promote a new partnership between midwives and dentists focused on enhancing the oral health of women and their infants. Should the intervention be found effective, this intervention, with existing on-line educational program for midwives, can be easily transferred into practice for large metropolitan health services within and beyond Australia. Further cost-benefit analysis is proposed to inform national health policy.
Trial registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001271897.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-2
PMCID: PMC4324677  PMID: 25588410
Oral health; Pregnancy; Midwives; Antenatal care; Dental
18.  Impact of removable dentures on oral health-related quality of life among elderly adults in Taiwan 
BMC Oral Health  2015;15:1.
Background
Although the use of removable dentures can improve oral function and esthetics for elderly people, compared to those who do not wear removable dentures, those wearing removable dentures could have worse oral health related-quality of life (OHRQoL). Additional information is required to assess which factors related to denture wearing influence the OHRQoL of elderly individuals. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between denture wearing and OHRQoL in a sample of elderly individuals in Taiwan.
Methods
The study population included 277 elderly people wearing removable dentures (mean age = 76.0 years). Using face-to-face interviews, we collected data on the participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, dental care service usage (regular dental checkups, treatment during toothache, dental visits in the last year), and factors related to denture wearing (perceived oral pain, perceived loose denture, perceived oral ulcer, perceived halitosis, perceived dry mouth, and perceived total denture satisfaction scores). OHRQoL was measured using the Taiwanese version of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-T). The location and number of remaining natural teeth and the type of denture were also recorded. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed using GOHAI-T scores as the dependent variable.
Results
All the predictors together accounted for 50% of the variance in GOHAI-T scores. Further, education level, number of natural teeth, denture status, perceived loose denture, perceived oral ulcer, and perceived total denture satisfaction scores had statistically significant influences on OHRQoL. When compared with other variables, factors related to denture wearing, especially perceived total denture satisfaction scores, had the greatest impact on GOHAI-T scores.
Conclusions
Of the factors analyzed in this study, denture satisfaction was the strongest predictor of OHRQoL. This suggests that denture satisfaction is useful for assessing the effect of denture treatment on the OHRQoL of elderly individuals wearing removable dentures.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-15-1
PMCID: PMC4298049  PMID: 25559722
Elderly; Removable dental prostheses; Oral health-related quality of life; Geriatric oral health assessment index; Denture satisfaction; Dental care service
19.  The accuracy of estimating chronological age from Demirjian and Nolla methods in a Portuguese and Spanish sample 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14:160.
Background
Age determination has great importance in many clinical decisions, being commonly used in odontopediatrics, orthodontics, pediatrics, and forensic medicine. The Nolla and Demirjian et al. methods have been used for these purposes. However, estimating chronological age by means of the dental mineralization stage is not a straightforward analysis, and it is fundamental to test the validity of these methods and their applicability to populations. In this article we intend to compare the accuracy of estimating chronological age from dental age measured with the Nolla and Demirjian methods in a Portuguese and Spanish sample, considering the variables of sex and age-group.
Methods
The sample was composed of 821 orthopantomographs of healthy Portuguese (n = 270) and Spanish (n = 551) subjects from 4 to 34 years old. For the Nolla and Demirjian methods, seven mandibular left teeth were examined, staged according to the dental maturity scale of each method. We obtained a good index of inter-rater agreement, a good internal consistency for the teeth assessment, and a good temporal consistency.
Results
Dental age was calculated for each method. The Demirjian et al. method tends to overestimate the real age of participants and the Nolla method tends to underestimate it. The accuracy of both methods varied between the sexes and age groups. Both methods were found to be more precise with males. As the age-group increases, the predictive capacities of both methods diminish. The Nolla method was more accurate than the Demirjian method in early and late childhood for both sexes. Neither method could predict chronological age in adults.
Conclusions
We can estimate chronological age for early and late childhood, through the Nolla and Demirjian methods, with the former showing greater predictive capacities than the latter. The Demirjian method tends to overestimate age and the Nolla method tends to underestimate it, leading to the importance of forming regression equations adapted to the population studied. Nolla and Demirjian formulas adapted to our sample were created as a function of sex and age-group.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-160
PMCID: PMC4326296  PMID: 25540020
Nolla method; Demirjian method; Age estimation; Chronological age
20.  Pyrosequencing of supra- and subgingival biofilms from inflamed peri-implant and periodontal sites 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14(1):157.
Background
To investigate the microbial composition of biofilms at inflamed peri-implant and periodontal tissues in the same subject, using 16S rRNA sequencing.
Methods
Supra- and submucosal, and supra- and subgingival plaque samples were collected from 7 subjects suffering from diseased peri-implant and periodontal tissues. Bacterial DNA was isolated and 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced and aligned for the identification of bacterial genera.
Results
43734 chimera-depleted, denoised sequences were identified, corresponding to 1 phylum, 8 classes, 10 orders, 44 families and 150 genera. The most abundant families or genera found in supramucosal or supragingival plaque were Streptoccocaceae, Rothia and Porphyromonas. In submucosal plaque, the most abundant family or genera found were Rothia, Streptococcaceae and Porphyromonas on implants. The most abundant subgingival bacteria on teeth were Prevotella, Streptococcaceae, and TG5. The number of sequences found for the genera Tannerella and Aggregatibacter on implants differed significantly between supra- and submucosal locations before multiple testing. The analyses demonstrated no significant differences between microbiomes on implants and teeth in supra- or submucosal and supra- or subgingival biofilms.
Conclusion
Diseased peri-implant and periodontal tissues in the same subject share similiar bacterial genera and based on the analysis of taxa on a genus level biofilm compositions may not account for the potentially distinct pathologies at implants or teeth.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-157) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-157
PMCID: PMC4298060  PMID: 25518856
Deep-sequencing; 16S rRNA sequencing; Diseased peri-implant tissues; Diseased periodontal tissues; Supragingival plaque; Subgingival plaque; Biofilm; Microbiology
21.  Self-reported oral health and associated factors in the North Finland 1966 birth cohort at the age of 31 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14(1):155.
Background
The Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort (NFBC 1966) is an epidemiological study where the participants have been controlled since pregnancy both in field tests and using questionnaires. This study aimed to evaluate cross-sectionally the association of self-reported oral symptoms (dental caries and bleeding of gums) with sociodemographic and health behavior factors among the subjects.
Methods
Of the 11,541 original members of the cohort, 8,690 (75%) responded to the questionnaire on oral health (dental decay, gingival bleeding and self-estimated dental treatment need) and sociodemographic factors, general health and health behavior. Cross-tabulation and chi-squared tests as well as multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the association between the outcome and explanatory variables.
Results
The study group was equally distributed between the genders. One third of the subjects reported having dental decay, one fourth gingival bleeding and a half a dental treatment need. As compared to women, men reported significantly more frequently symptoms (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed low tooth brushing frequency increasing the odds most for all oral symptoms ((OR 1.57 (1.39–1.78) for dental decay, 1.94 (1.68-2.24) for gingival bleeding and 1.42 (1.26-1.61) for dental treatment need). Frequent smoking was associated with dental decay (OR 1.63 (1.44–1.84)) and treatment need OR (1.39 (1.23–1.56)), whereas poor general health (OR 1.71 (1.48–1.96)) and high BMI (OR 1.19 (1.03–1.36)) both were associated with gingival bleeding.
Conclusions
Males with single marital status, BMI over 25, poor general health and poor oral health behaviors are at risk for self-reported poor oral health and dental treatment need.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-155
PMCID: PMC4274689  PMID: 25516106
Self-reported oral health; Health behavior; Dental health surveys; Adults; Epidemiological
22.  Association between knowledge of caries preventive practices, preventive oral health habits of parents and children and caries experience in children resident in sub-urban Nigeria 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14(1):156.
Background
The objectives of this study were to assess the association between children and parents’ knowledge of caries preventive practices, the parents’ caries preventive oral health behaviours and children’s caries preventive oral health behaviour and caries experience.
Method
Three hundred and twenty four participants aged 8–12 years, 308 fathers and 318 mothers were recruited through a household survey conducted in Suburban Nigeria. A questionnaire was administered to generate information on fathers, mothers and children’s knowledge of caries prevention measures and their oral health behaviour. Clinical examination was conducted on the children to determine their dmft/DMFT. Analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of the children’s good oral health behaviour.
Result
The mothers’ oral health behaviours were significant predictors of the children’s oral health behaviours. Children who had good knowledge of caries prevention measures had significant increased odds of brushing their teeth twice daily or more. The children’s caries prevalence was 13.9%, the mean dmft was 0.2 and the mean DMFT was 0.09. None of the dependent variables could predict the presence of caries in children.
Conclusion
The study highlights the effect of maternal oral health behaviour on the oral health behaviour of children aged 8 years to 12 years in suburban Nigeria. A pilot study is needed to evaluate how enhanced maternal preventive oral health practices can improve the oral health preventive practices of children.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-156
PMCID: PMC4279893  PMID: 25516332
Caries; Prevention; Nigeria; Fluoride; Tooth brushing; Tobacco; Sugar
23.  Cost-effectiveness of caries excavations in different risk groups − a micro-simulation study 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14(1):153.
Background
Whilst being the most prevalent disease worldwide, dental caries is increasingly concentrated in high-risk populations. New caries treatments should therefore be evaluated not only in terms of their cost-effectiveness in individuals, but also their effects on the distribution of costs and benefits across different populations. To treat deep caries, there are currently three strategies: selective (one-step incomplete), stepwise (two-step incomplete) and complete excavation. Building on prior research that found selective excavation generally cost-effective, we compared the costs-effectiveness of different excavations in low- and high-risk patients, hypothesizing that selective excavation had greater cost-effectiveness-advantages in patients with high compared with low risk.
Methods
An average tooth-level Markov-model was constructed following the posterior teeth in an initially 18-year old male individual, either with low or high risk, over his lifetime. Risk was assumed to be predicted by several parameters (oral hygiene, social position, dental service utilization), with evidence-based transition probabilities or hazard functions being adjusted for different risk status where applicable. Total lifetime treatment costs were estimated for German healthcare, with both mixed public-private and only private out-of-pocket costs being calculated. For cost-effectiveness-analysis, micro-simulations were performed and joint parameter uncertainty introduced by random sampling of probabilities. Cohort analyses were used for assessing the underlying reasons for potential differences between strategies and populations.
Results
Selective excavation was more effective and less costly than both alternatives regardless of an individual’s risk. All three strategies were less effective and more costly in patients with high compared with low risk, whilst the differences between risk groups were smallest for selective excavation. Thus, the cost-effectiveness-advantages of selective excavation were more pronounced in high-risk groups, who also benefitted the most from reduced private out-of-pocket treatment costs.
Conclusions
Whilst caries excavation does not tackle the underlying sources for both the development of caries lesions and the potential differences of individuals’ risk status, selective excavation seems most suitable to treat deep lesions, especially in patients with high risk, who over-proportionally benefit from the resulting health-gains and cost-savings.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-153
PMCID: PMC4279684  PMID: 25511906
Caries; Dental; Caries removal; Incomplete; Partial; Inequality; Caries risk; Health economics
24.  Five-year follow-up of children receiving comprehensive dental care under general anesthesia 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14(1):154.
Background
Dental general anesthesia (DGA) is part of public dental care in Finland, but the intention is to return the patient to routine dental care. The aims of this study were to describe the details of treatments under DGA given to generally healthy children and to explore the outcome of their dental care during a 5-year follow-up, with special focus on preventive care. In particular, we examined the return of the patients to routine dental care, of which, to our knowledge, little is known.
Methods
Our prospective 5-year follow-up of generally healthy children (aged 0–13 years) treated under DGA by the Helsinki Public Dental Service in 2004 was based on official dental and general anesthesia documents. The statistical analyses employed chi-square tests, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r), Fisher’s transformation to test r ≠ 0, and logistic regression modeling.
Results
The most common reason for DGA was uncooperation (82%), followed by dental fear (56%). Filling therapy predominated in the treatments given under anesthesia, and the mean number of treatments per patients was 9.5 (SD = 4.2). Throughout the follow-up, 54% of the patients continued to have co-operation problems and 53% expressed dental fear; 11% of the patients received repeat DGA. The mean follow-up time was 48 (median 52) months. The postoperative review visit was actualized within 1.5 (SD = 0.8) months and the first visit to the home dental clinic of the patients in 12.0 (SD = 11.8) months for the 0–5-year-olds and in 7.2 (SD = 5.9) months for the 6–13-year-olds (p < 0.001). The mean time elapsed to the first need for treatment was 18.5 (SD = 14.1) months. During the follow-up, the mean number of treatments per patient was 5.3 (SD = 4.9); almost all patients (97%) received preventive treatment at one of two visits, but the control of dental fear remained rare.
Conclusions
To return to routine dental care after DGA, most of the generally healthy children in our study still needed special attention due to their uncooperation and dental fear, thus calling for a renewal of practices to treat these patients.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-154
PMCID: PMC4277839  PMID: 25512015
Anesthesia; General; Community dentistry; Health services; Outpatient; Preventive dentistry
25.  The relationship between ezrin and podoplanin expressions in keratocystic odontogenic tumors 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14(1):150.
Background
The aims of this study were to investigate the immunolocalization of ezrin and its relationship with the podoplanin expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumors.
Material and Methods
The immunohistochemical expressions of ezrin and podoplanin by odontogenic epithelium were evaluated in keratocystic odontogenic tumors using monoclonal antibodies.
Results
Our results showed strong cytoplasmic ezrin and membranous podoplanin expressions in basal epithelial layer of all keratocystic odontogenic tumors. The cytoplasmic and membranous ezrin expressions were also detected in suprabasal epithelial layers of tumors. Statistically significant difference between cellular immunolocalization of ezrin and podoplanin odontogenic epithelium were found by Wilcoxon’s test (p < 0.05). No correlation between both proteins in keratocystic odontogenic tumors was detected by Spearman test.
Conclusions
These results suggest that ezrin and podoplanin may contribute to the expansive growth and local invasiveness of keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Additionally, as both proteins were overexpressed by odontogenic epithelium, their possible roles need to be further explored in benign odontogenic tumors.
doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-150
PMCID: PMC4271494  PMID: 25480364
Keratocystic odontogenic tumor; Ezrin; Podoplanin

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