Self-management is recognized as the cornerstone of overall diabetes management. Web-based self-management programs have the potential of supporting type 2 diabetes patients with managing their diabetes and reducing the workload for the care provider, where the addition of online coaching could improve patient motivation and reduce program attrition. This study aims to test the hypothesis that a web-based self-management program with coaching will prove more effective on improving patient self-management behavior and clinical outcome measures than a web-based self-management program without coaching.
The effects of a web-based self-management program with and without coaching will be tested with a nested randomized controlled trial within a healthcare group in the Netherlands. In one year 220 type 2 diabetes patients will be randomized into an intervention group (n = 110) or a control group (n = 110). The control group will receive only the online self-management program. The intervention group will receive the online self-management program and additional online coaching. Participants will be followed for one year, with follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months.
The intervention being tested is set to support type 2 diabetes patients with their diabetes self-management and is expected to have beneficial effects on self-care activities, well being and clinical outcomes. When proven effective this self-management support program could be offered to other health care groups and their type 2 diabetes patients in the Netherlands.
Nederlands Trial Register NTR4064
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Self-management; Web-based; Asynchronized coaching
To examine the views and current practice of SMBG among Black Caribbean and South Asian individuals with non-insulin treated Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Twelve participants completed semi-structured interviews that were guided by the Health Belief Model and analyzed using thematic network analysis.
The frequency of monitoring among participants varied from several times a day to once per week. Most participants expressed similar experiences regarding their views and practices of SMBG. Minor differences across gender and culture were observed. All participants understood the benefits, but not all viewed SMBG as beneficial to their personal diabetes management. SMBG can facilitate a better understanding and maintenance of self-care behaviours. However, it can trigger both positive and negative emotional responses, such as a sense of disappointment when high readings are not anticipated, resulting in emotional distress. Health care professionals play a key role in the way SMBG is perceived and used by patients.
While the majority of participants value SMBG as a self-management tool, barriers exist that impede its practice, particularly its cost. How individuals cope with these barriers is integral to understanding why some patients adopt SMBG more than others.
Self-monitoring of blood glucose; Diabetes mellitus; Caribbean; South Asian
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma sometimes involves the endocrine organs, but involvement of both the pituitary and adrenal glands is extremely rare. Involvement of these structures can lead to hypopituitarism and adrenal insufficiency, and subsequent recovery of their function is rarely seen. The present report describes an extremely rare case of pituitary and adrenal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting with hypopituitarism and adrenal insufficiency with subsequent recovery of pituitary and adrenal function after successful treatment of the lymphoma.
A 63-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital due to miosis, ptosis, hypohidrosis of his left face, polydipsia and polyuria. 18F-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography / computed tomography revealed hotspots in the pituitary gland, bilateral adrenal glands and the apex of his left lung. Surgical biopsy from the pituitary lesion confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with lymphoma cells replacing normal pituitary tissue. Endocrine function tests revealed adrenal insufficiency and panhypopituitarism, including a possible affection of the posterior pituitary. Hormone replacement therapy with desmopressin and hydrocortisone was started. Chemotherapy consisted of six courses of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and prednisolone) and two courses of high-dose methotrexate followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Subsequently, his pituitary and bilateral adrenal lesions resolved, and serial endocrine function tests showed gradual improvement in pituitary and adrenal function.
The present report describes an extremely rare case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with involvement of both the pituitary and bilateral adrenal glands. R-CHOP and high-dose methotrexate therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was quite effective, and panhypopituitarism and adrenal insufficiency improved to almost normal values after successful treatment of the lymphoma with chemotherapy.
Pituitary lymphoma; Adrenal lymphoma; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Panhypopituitarism; Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Recovery of pituitary and adrenal function
Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been applied to identify type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the U.S. and European countries. It has not been used in China mainly due to lack of a standardized approach to measure HbA1c, short of knowledge about racial-specific standard and deficiency of an optimal cut-off point.
To evaluate combination of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in diagnosing T2DM in Chinese adults, a multistage sampling cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2009. The FPG measurement, HbA1c assay, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed in 6,661 Chinese adults (3057 men, 3604 women) who had no prior history of diabetes to identify the unrecognized T2DM.
A total of 454 participants were identified as T2DM based on the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Of these patients, 239 were detected using an FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l and 141 were further identified using an HbA1c ≥ 43 mmol/mol (6.1%), achieving a sensitivity of 83.7% and a specificity of 89.3% for combining use of FPG and HbA1c. In subjects at high risk of diabetes, the combining use of FPG and HbA1c produced a higher sensitivity and an improved positive predictive value (PPV), and had a satisfactory specificity and negative predictive value (NPV).
The combining use of FPG and HbA1c is a potential screening and diagnosis approach for T2DM in Chinese adults, especially among those at high risk of the disease.
Type 2 diabetes; Diagnosis; Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c; Fasting plasma glucose; Chinese adults
Type 2 diabetes differs from type 1 diabetes in its pathogenesis. Type 1 diabetic diaphragm has altered gene expression which includes lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, ubiquitination and oxidoreductase activity. The objectives of the present study were to assess respiratory muscle gene expression changes in type 2 diabetes and to determine whether they are greater for the diaphragm than an upper airway muscle.
Diaphragm and sternohyoid muscle from Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were analyzed with Affymetrix gene expression arrays.
The two muscles had 97 and 102 genes, respectively, with at least ± 1.5-fold significantly changed expression with diabetes, and these were assigned to gene ontology groups based on over-representation analysis. Several significantly changed groups were common to both muscles, including lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, muscle contraction, ion transport and collagen, although the number of genes and the specific genes involved differed considerably for the two muscles. In both muscles there was a shift in metabolism gene expression from carbohydrate metabolism toward lipid metabolism, but the shift was greater and involved more genes in diabetic diaphragm than diabetic sternohyoid muscle. Groups present in only diaphragm were blood circulation and oxidoreductase activity. Groups present in only sternohyoid were immune & inflammation and response to stress & wounding, with complement genes being a prominent component.
Type 2 diabetes-induced gene expression changes in respiratory muscles has both similarities and differences relative to previous data on type 1 diabetes gene expression. Furthermore, the diabetic alterations in gene expression differ between diaphragm and sternohyoid.
Traditional lipid indices have been associated with type 2 diabetes, but it remains uncertain which lipid index is the best discriminator for diabetes. In this study, we aimed to assess lipoproteins, traditional lipid variables, and other variables to discover their association with diabetes in the Taiwanese population.
Data from a nationwide cross-sectional population-based survey of 3087 men and 3373 women in 2002 were analyzed in this study. All participants were assessed for anthropometry, glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting sugar and lipid profiles with triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and B (ApoB). The ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C, ApoB/ApoA1, ApoB/LDL-C and ApoA1/HDL-C and other variables were analyzed to determine their potential roles in type 2 diabetes in the Taiwanese population. The Odds ratios (ORs) of the risk variables for diabetes were estimated using logistic regression and were adjusted for confounding factors.
The increased ratio of ApoA1/HDL-C was significantly associated with diabetes in men (top tertile vs. lowest: OR 2.98; 95% CI: 1.12 - 7.92; P-trend = 0.030) and women (top tertile vs. lowest: OR 2.15; 95% CI: 1.00 - 4.59; P-trend = 0.047). A modest increased diabetic risk was evident with ApoB/LDL-C in women (top tertile vs. lowest: OR 2.03; 95% CI: 1.07- 3.85; P-trend = 0.028), but not in men (top tertile v. lowest: OR 1.69; 95% CI: 0.79- 3.62; P-trend = 0.198).
ApoA1/HDL-C had a significant linear association with diabetes in both sexes and was superior to other lipid and lipoprotein variables among the general Taiwanese population.
Apolipoprotein A1; Apolipoprotein B; High density lipoprotein-cholesterol; Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; Diabetes
The detection of microvascular damage in type 1 diabetes is difficult and traditional investigations do not detect changes until they are well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined ability of nailfold capillaroscopy, laser Doppler flowmetry, retinal vessel analysis and 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to detect early microvascular changes in a paediatric and adolescent population with type 1 diabetes.
Patients aged between 8 – 18 years with type I diabetes and no other autoimmune conditions were studied. The participants underwent the above cardiac and vascular investigations in a single three-hour session. Standard parameters including HbA1c were also investigated. Associations between all parameters were described by correlation analysis. Fisher’s exact and t-tests determined the association with clinical findings.
26 participants were recruited. The mean HbA1c was 8.1% (SD ± 1.1) with a mean duration of type 1 diabetes of 7.9 years (SD ± 3.4). Three participants had microalbuminuria and one had early signs of retinopathy. Participants with microvascular complications had more avascular areas on nailfold capillaroscopy (p = 0.03). Recent HbA1c was positively associated with the number of nailfold microhaemorrhages (p = 0.03) Decreased baseline perfusion by laser Doppler flowmetry was associated with increased capillary density (p = 0.001) and an increased number of microaneurysms (p = 0.04) on nailfold capillaroscopy.
This pilot study has shown that in children and adolescents with established type 1 diabetes, abnormal microvasculature can be detected by these investigations. These markers were also positively associated with evidence of suboptimal diabetes control as assessed by HbA1c. Further research will be necessary to determine the practical role of these investigations in the management and progress of the complications of type 1 diabetes.
Clinical Trial number NCT01279928, ClinicalTrials.gov
Type 1 diabetes; Nailfold capillaroscopy; Laser Doppler flowmetry; Retinal vessel analysis; 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; Microvascular disease
A considerable interest has been drawn to potential protective effects of bilirubin against oxidative stress-related diseases. Smoking is known to be associated with lower concentrations of serum bilirubin, but other behavioral correlates of serum bilirubin have not been well studied. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations of behavioral and clinical factors with serum total bilirubin in Japanese men and women.
The study subjects comprised of 4802 men and 6414 women aged 49–76 years who participated in the baseline survey of an ongoing cohort study on lifestyle-related diseases in Fukuoka, Japan. With consideration to time of the day of blood sampling and fasting hours, the associations with smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, physical activity, coffee, tea, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol with serum bilirubin were evaluated by analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression analysis.
While smoking was negatively associated with serum bilirubin, alcohol consumption was positively associated with serum bilirubin in both men and women. Coffee consumption was associated with lower bilirubin concentrations in both sexes. In the multiple linear regression analysis, HDL cholesterol was positively and HbA1c was negatively associated with bilirubin in both men and women, and the associations were more evident in women.
Smoking, alcohol use and coffee consumption were important behavioral correlates of serum bilirubin in Japanese men and women. Serum HDL cholesterol was a measurable clinical correlate of bilirubin in women.
Bilirubin; Coffee; Smoking; Alcohol; High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, development of diabetes, and coronary heart disease. There is limited information on the contribution of previous obesity on the risk of coronary heart disease. We aimed to examine the effect of previous history of obesity on the occurrence of coronary heart disease in patients with diabetes.
We carried out a retrospective chart analysis of 315 type 2 diabetic patients without obesity and without atherosclerotic cardiovascular events at their initial hospital visit (men/women 236/79; mean ± standard deviation; age 53.1 ± 6.6 years; maximal body mass index before enrollment (MAXBMI) 26.6 ± 3.4 kg/m2; decrease of the BMI at enrollment from MAXBMI (deltaBMI) 4.23 ± 2.62 kg/m2) to investigate the association of previous obesity (MAXBMI larger than 30 kg/m2) with the long-term incidence of cardiovascular events. Of 315 patients, forty-eight were previously obese.
After median follow-up of 13.9 years, 48 patients developed coronary heart disease. The Kaplan-Meier analysis exhibited that coronary heart disease occurred more frequently in previously obese patients than in subjects in the reference category (22 kg/m2 < or = MAXBMI < 25 kg/m2) and that the effect lasted proportionally over follow-up periods. Multivariate Cox regression models showed that hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals of coronary heart disease for patients with previous obesity compared with subjects in the reference category were 2.52 and 1.15 to 5.50 (p value = 0.020) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. In this cohort, deltaBMI strongly correlated with MAXBMI and also behaved as a risk factor. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals by the increment of one standard deviation of deltaBMI after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were 1.38 and 1.08 to 1.79 (p value = 0.013).
Previous obesity and/or large body weight loss before admission might act as an increased risk for coronary heart disease.
Diabetes; Previous obesity; Coronary heart disease
To examine the effects of physical activity on the development and progression of microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes.
A retrospective analysis of data from the Diabetes Control and Complications trial was undertaken. Physical activity data was collected at baseline for each of 1441 recruits, converted to metabolic equivalent of task values, and categorised according to the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations. The rates of development/progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy were compared in those who achieved over twice recommended, up to twice recommended, and less than recommended metabolic equivalent of task levels of activity. The DCCT study had a mean duration of follow up of 6.5 years ending in 1993.
A total of 271 subjects had a sustained three-step progression in diabetic retinopathy. The rates of development or progression of retinopathy showed no significant association with physical activity level. The number of outcomes for nephropathy and neuropathy were small and there was no significant association with physical activity level.
We found no evidence that physical activity improves microvascular outcomes in type 1 diabetes. However we demonstrate no evidence of harm. We suggest that physical activity continues to play an important role in the management of type 1 diabetes.
Physical activity; Exercise; Complications; Retinopathy; Type 1 diabetes
Our aim was to assess the associations between vitamin D (vitD) status, metabolic profile and polymorphisms in genes involved in the transport (Group-Component: GC) and the hydroxylation (NAD synthetase 1: NADSYN1) of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in non-diabetic individuals.
We conducted a cross-sectional study with 323 individuals recruited from the Health Center of Guadeloupe, France. The rs2282679 T > G and rs2298849 T > C in GC and rs12785878 G > T in NADSYN1 were genotyped.
Mean age was 46(range 18–86) years. 57% of participants had vitD insufficiency, 8% had vitD deficiency, 61% were overweight and 58% had dyslipidemia. A higher frequency of overweight was noted in women carrying rs2298849T allele v CC carriers (71% v 50%; P = 0.035). The rs2282679G allele was associated with increased risks of vitD deficiency and vitD insufficiency (OR =3.53, P = 0.008, OR = 2.34, P = 0.02 respectively). The rs2298849 TT genotype was associated with vitD deficiency and overweight (OR =3.4, P = 0.004 and OR = 1.76, P = 0.04 respectively) and the rs12785878 GG genotype with vitD insufficiency and dyslipidemia (OR = 1.80, P = 0.01 and OR = 1.72, P = 0.03 respectively). Based on the number of risk alleles for rs2282679 and rs12785878 combined, a genotype score of 3 (vs. 0–1) was associated with a 5.5 ng/mL average reduction in serum 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.001).
The GC and NADSYN1 genes are associated with the vitamin D status and might contribute to dyslipidemia and overweight independently of 25(OH)D levels.
Dyslipidemia; Overweight; Vitamin D; NAD synthetase 1; NADSYN; Group specific component; GC
Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) are appetite regulating hormones secreted from the gastrointestinal tract (gut). Aside from their known effect on energy homeostasis, accumulating data indicates that these gut hormones also affect bone metabolism. However, data regarding the influence of ghrelin and PYY on bone density in humans is very limited, and the results are inconclusive. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the potential association between circulating ghrelin and PYY with bone density indices in the general population.
A total of 2257 adult subjects from the CODING (Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland Population: Environment and Genetics) study participated in this investigation. Acylated ghrelin and total PYY were measured in serum after a 12-hour fasting, with the Enzyme- Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the spine, femoral neck, and total hip. Multiple regression analyses adjusting for age, BMI, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption were employed to analyze the association between serum ghrelin and PYY with bone mineral density parameters.
Significant positive associations of ghrelin concentration with L2-L4 BMD, L2-L4 Z-score, femoral neck BMD, femoral neck Z-score, total hip BMD, and total hip Z-score were found in women. No significant correlations between ghrelin and bone density indices were present in men. After dividing the female group into pre-menopausal and post-menopausal, ghrelin was positively correlated with femoral neck Z-score, and total hip Z-score in pre-menopausal women and L2-L4 BMD, and Z-score in post-menopausal group. Moreover, no significant association was discovered between serum PYY and bone density at any site.
Our results suggest a beneficial association of circulating ghrelin concentration with bone density in women at the population level. This association is independent of major confounding factors including BMI, physical activity, age, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Effect of menopause on this association seemed to be site specific. However, PYY does not seem to be associated with bone density parameters.
Ghrelin; Peptide YY; Osteoporosis; Bone density
Alterations in the naive T cell subpopulations have been demonstrated in patients with T cell mediated autoimmune disorders, reminiscent of immunological changes found in the elderly during immunosenescence, including the switch from CD45RA + to CD45RO + T cells and decreased thymic function with increased compensatory proliferative mechanisms, partly associated with latent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The present study was aimed to investigate proportions of lymphocytes, their relation to CMV-seropositivity and the replicative history of CD45RA + expressing T cells in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT, n = 18) and healthy controls (HC, n = 70).
Proportions of peripheral T cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The replicative history was assessed by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and relative telomere length (RTL). Expression of CD62L was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in thyroid sections. The role of CMV was assessed by serology, ELISPOT assay and in situ hybridization.
Our results demonstrated a significant increase of CD28-negative T cells, associated with CMV-seropositivity in HT patients. HT showed abundant CD45RO + T cells with peripheral loss of CD62L-expressing CD8 + CD45RA + T cells, the latter mainly depending on disease duration. CD62L was expressed in thyroid lymphocyte infiltrations. The diagnosis of HT and within the HT group CMV-seropositivity were the main determinants for the loss of CD28 expression. RTL was not different between HC and HT. HT showed significantly lower TRECs in CD4 + CD45RA + T cells compared to HC.
Patients with HT display a peripheral T cell phenotype reminiscent of findings in elderly persons or other autoimmune disorders. Whether these mechanisms are primary or secondary to the immunological alterations of autoimmune conditions should be investigated in longitudinal studies which may open research on new therapeutic regimes for treatment of HT and associated autoimmune diseases.
Immunosenescence; CD62L; Regulatory T cells; TREC; Telomere
Insufficient vitamin D status and increased renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity have been associated with renal-vascular disease and nephropathy in diabetes. Accumulating evidence indicates that vitamin D receptor (VDR) activation lowers unfavorable RAS activity; however, more human intervention studies evaluating whether this mechanism could influence diabetic kidney disease are needed. We previously reported that both vitamin D levels and genetic variation at the VDR predict human RAS activity, and that vitamin D therapy can lower RAS activity in non-diabetics. The VALIDATE-D study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, intervention study designed to extend these findings by evaluating whether direct VDR activation in diabetes lowers circulating and local renal-vascular tissue RAS activity (Aims 1 and 2) in a manner similar to the action of ACE inhibitors (Aim 3).
Forty subjects with type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuria, and without chronic kidney disease will be recruited to undergo detailed assessment of the RAS before and after randomization to calcitriol 0.75 mcg/day or placebo. Primary analyses will evaluate whether calcitriol therapy reduces circulating and renal-vascular tissue-RAS activity in comparison to placebo. All subjects will thereafter be treated with lisinopril and followed for 3.5 months to evaluate whether combination therapy (calcitriol + lisinopril vs. placebo + lisinopril) additively or synergistically improves renal-vascular function, and lowers proteinuria.
The VALIDATE-D study is the first human intervention study to evaluate whether direct VDR activation can lower the human RAS in diabetes, compared to the effect of an ACE inhibitor, and whether this mechanism can translate to clinically relevant endpoints for diabetic kidney disease. The outcomes of VALIDATE-D will have major implications for the recommendation of vitamin D supplementation for the primary prevention of kidney complications in diabetes.
Vitamin D; Calcitriol; Renin; Angiotensin; Diabetes; Kidney
The interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and its receptor (RAGE) has played an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. A soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) has been reported as a decoy receptor for AGEs. Oxidative stress is demonstrated in pathological condition such as atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. It has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of both macro- and microvascular complications. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of glycemic control on sRAGE and oxidative stress markers in type 2 diabetic patients.
Seventy patients with type 2 diabetes and 20 healthy subjects were recruited into the study. Blood glutathione (GSH) and plasma total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were measured using commercially available colorimetric kits, blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was measured by the method of Marklund and Marklund, and plasma C-peptide, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), sRAGE, and VCAM-1 levels were measured using competitive ELISA kits.
Plasma sRAGE levels were significantly lower (p < 0.05) while VCAM-1 levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in poorly controlled diabetic patients compared with healthy control. Blood GSH levels were significantly lower in diabetic patients compared with healthy control (p < 0.05). Plasma C-peptide, NOx, ox-LDL levels, and SOD activity were not significantly different in diabetic patients compared with healthy control. Plasma levels of sRAGE were negatively associated with circulating VCAM-1 levels in diabetic patients.
Poor glycemic control decreases plasma sRAGE and increases VCAM-1 levels while good glycemic control improves these abnormalities which provides benefit to diabetic patients.
sRAGE; Oxidative stress; HbA1c; Type 2 DM
Sub-clinical hypothyroid dysfunction, a relatively understudied disorder in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), has significant clinical implications if not properly monitored. Also from KSA, more than 50% of the population suffer from hypovitaminosis D (<50 nmol/l). In this cross-sectional case-control study, we described the differences and associations in the metabolic patterns of adult Saudis with and without hypothyroid dysfunction in relation to their vitamin D status, PTH, calcium and lipid profile.
A total of 94 consenting adult Saudis [52 controls (without subclinical hypothyroidism), 42 cases (previously diagnosed subjects)] were included in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometrics were obtained and fasting blood samples were taken for ascertaining lipid and thyroid profile, as well as measuring PTH, 25(OH) vitamin D and calcium.
Cases had a significantly higher body mass index than the controls (p < 0.001). Circulating triglycerides was also significantly higher in cases than the controls (p = 0.001). A significant positive association between HDL-cholesterol and PTH (R = 0.56; p = 0.001), as well as a negative and modestly significant negative association between LDL-cholesterol and PTH (R = - 20.0; p = 0.04) were observed. FT3 was inversely associated with circulating 25 (OH) vitamin D (R = -0.25; p = 0.01).
Patients with hypothyroid dysfunction possess several cardiometabolic risk factors that include obesity and dyslipidemia. The association between PTH and cholesterol levels as well as the inverse association between vitamin D status and FT3 needs to be reassessed prospectively on a larger scale to confirm these findings.
Thyroid dysfunction; Obesity; Dyslipidemia; Saudi
To examine the association of anthropometry indices with gout and to compare the performance of indices to predict gout in Taiwanese men.
There were 1443 male subjects aged more than 20 years who participated in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT, 1993–1996). Anthropometric evaluation consisted of weight, height, hip and waist circumference (WC) with later body mass index (BMI), waist to height (WHtR) and waist to hip (WHR) estimations. We conducted 4 logistic models to determine the relationships between anthropometric indices and gout. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to compare the predictive performance and to identify the optimal cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity of these indices for gout in men.
After controlling for other covariables, the adjusted odds ratios for the mid and top tertiles of WHtR were 2.55 (95% CI: 1.16, 5.59) and 3.01 (95% CI: 1.13, 7.99), respectively, but no linear association was found for BMI, WHR and WC. In ROC curve, the greatest area under curve was 0.684 for WHtR and the cut-off point of WHtR was 0.57.
WHtR had a significant linear association with gout in Taiwanese men and was superior to BMI, WHR and WC.
Gout; Anthropometry; Waist to height ratio
Sorafenib can be considered as the effective option of treatment in patients with metastatic radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancers. The cutaneous manifestations of Sorafenib include rash, desquamation, hand foot skin reactions, pruritus, alopecia and erythema. We report the first case of hypopigmentation related to sorafenib therapy.
We report the case of a middle aged gentleman with metastatic papillary carcinoma of thyroid diagnosed in 2005. He was managed with total thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine and TSH suppressive therapy. Despite receiving radioactive iodine 530 mci cumulative dose, patient had persistant disease with lung metastasis. Therefore a TKI, sorafenib, was started. He developed hypopigmentation of the skin more prominent on face six weeks after starting sorafenib treatment.He also developed diarrhea, desquamation of hands and feet, hair loss over scalp, eye brows and moustache. Sorafenib treatment was discontinued. His diarrhea stopped in one week and after four weeks his skin became normalized whereas he regained his hairs in six weeks.
To our knowledge, hypopigmentation in our patient appears to be the first reported of its kind in the literature to date. Sorafenib is used in Renal cell carcinoma, Hepatcellular carcinoma and radioactive iodine refractory thyroid carcinoma therefore it is very important to be aware of hypopigmentation as a potential side effect for both physicians and patients.
Thyroid Carcinoma; Sorafenib; Hypopigmentation
Being an intermediate stage in the development of diabetes, pre-diabetics were estimated as high as 14% to 63% in China and one to three quarters of them will develop into diabetes within 10 years. It is well established that the risk of diabetes progression can be modified substantially and a whole range of proven guidelines, protocols and methodologies are available. Unfortunately, most proven interventions are seldom used in daily practice and this is especially true in resource poor rural China. This project aims at demonstrating that an evolutionary intervention package featuring low cost, integration with routine services, cultural sensitization and self-optimization, is effective and sustainable in preventing diabetes.
This project utilizes a quasi cluster randomized controlled trial and a batched implementation strategy in which villages are recruited in 7 blocks within 7 consecutive years respectively. Block 0 involves 3 villages and provides an opportunity for piloting and refining primitive intervention methodologies and protocols. The following 6 blocks consist of 14 villages each and serve as intervention arm; while all the villages not yet started intervention form the control arm. For each block, measurement happens at baseline and every 12 months (for plasma glucose) or monthly (for body weight and blood pressure) after baseline. These arrangements enable documentation of up to 6 years of consecutive measures and detection of lower incidence of progression into diabetes, improved body max index and blood pressure, and increased service use and involvement in healthy dietary and physical activities among pre-diabetics receiving the experimental intervention compared to themselves at baseline or those in the delayed-intervention control condition.
China has a long history of separating disease prevention and treatment systems and there is a clear need to leverages key success factors in a synergetic way toward integrated and sustainable diabetes prevention. This project is owned and managed by local health authorities and utilizes available resources. It introduces a package of long-term incentives, establishes ongoing mechanisms for continuous capacity building and quality improvement, and builds up an operational cycle for catalyzing similar efforts in the local prefecture even throughout rural China.
Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN66772711.
Hypothyroidism, commonly induced in preparation for radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer, is a text-book cause for hyponatremia. Nausea, stress, and increased fluid intake associated with the treatment are expected to exacerbate hyponatremia.
We prospectively studied 212 (80% females) consecutive thyroid cancer patients for the incidence of hypothyroidism-induced hyponatremia and associated risk factors.
Mean(SD) age was 39.7(14.1) year, creatinine 82.0(20.8) μmol/l, TSH 141.6(92.0) mU/l, pre- and post-isolation sodium 139.5(2.3) and 137.8(3.0) mEq/l, respectively, and estimated fluid intake during isolation 9.7(6.2) L. Mild hyponatremia (≥130 mEq/l) was present in 18 patients (8.5%) and moderate hyponatremia (≥120 mEq/l) in 4(1.9%), 3 of the latter had elevated creatinine concentration and 2 were on diuretics. There was no significant correlation between post-isolation sodium concentration and TSH concentration (r = 0.03, p = 0.69) or estimated fluid intake (r = 0.10, p =0.17). There was significant correlation between post-isolation sodium concentration and age (r = −0.24, p < 0.0001) and creatinine concentration (r = −0.22, p = 0.001). Pre-post-isolation drop in sodium concentration was more in females (mean difference 1.21, p = 0.02). Compared to eunatremic patients, hyponatremic patients were more likely to have pre-isolation hyponatremia (9% vs. 0.5%, p = 0.03), elevated creatinine concentration (36% vs. 13%, p = 0.008), and to be on diuretics (23% vs. 1%, p = 0.0001).
In the setting of acute severe hypothyroidism: 1) clinically-important hyponatremia is uncommon; sodium concentration may not need to be monitored unless patients have impaired renal function or are on diuretics, 2) age and female gender are associated with lower sodium concentration. Uncomplicated acute severe hypothyroidism didn’t cause clinically-important hyponatremia/SIADH in this cohort of patients.
Hyponatremia; Hypothyroidism; Differentiated thyroid cancer; Radioiodine therapy
The abnormality of interleukin-21 (IL-21)-IL-21-receptor (IL-21R) system has been found in many autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs). In this study, we investigated whether polymorphisms of the IL-21 and IL-21R are associated with Graves’ disease (GD) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), two major forms of AITDs, among a Chinese population.
Rs907715, rs4833837, rs2221903 and rs2055979 of the IL-21 gene and rs3093301 and rs2285452 of the IL-21R gene were explored in a case–control study including 405 GD, 228 HT patients and 242 controls. These genes were genotyped by the PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and the MASS spectrometry method.
For IL-21 gene, we identified and confirmed a higher prevalence of A alleles of rs2221903 (P = 0.018, OR = 1.50 95% CI = 1.07-2.09) in GD patients. We also found a significant association between rs2221903 and HT (allele: P = 0.009, OR = 1.69 95% CI = 1.13-2.51; genotype: recessive P = 0.021, OR = 11.72 95% CI = 1.46-94.13). For the IL-21R gene, compared with controls, the genotype frequencies of rs3093301 and rs2285452 were significantly different in HT patients using dominant genetic model (P = 0.023, OR = 1.61 95% CI = 1.07-2.42; P = 0.031, OR = 1.71 95% CI = 1.05-2.80, respectively). Furthermore, the haplotype AA containing the major alleles of rs4833837 and rs2221903 was associated with increased susceptibility to GD with an OR of 1.50(95% CI =1.08-2.09, P = 0.016), and to HT with an OR of 1.69(95% CI =1.14-2.52, P = 0.009).
Our results indicated that the SNPs of the IL-21 gene is associated with the development of GD. In addition, we found that individuals with the SNPs of the common IL-21 and IL-21R may have higher risk of HT.
Interleukin-21 (IL-21); Interleukin-21 receptor (IL-21R); Graves’ disease; Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
Diabetes distress is a general term that refers to the emotional burdens, anxieties, frustrations, stressors and worries that stem from managing a severe, complex condition like Type 1 diabetes. To date there has been limited research on diabetes-related distress in younger people with Type 1 diabetes. This qualitative study aimed to identify causes of diabetes distress in a sample of young adults with Type 1 diabetes.
Semi-structured interviews with 35 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (23–30 years of age).
This study found diabetes related-distress to be common in a sample of young adults with Type 1 diabetes in the second phase of young adulthood (23–30 years of age). Diabetes distress was triggered by multiple factors, the most common of which were: self-consciousness/stigma, day-to-day diabetes management difficulties, having to fight the healthcare system, concerns about the future and apprehension about pregnancy. A number of factors appeared to moderate distress in this group, including having opportunities to talk to healthcare professionals, attending diabetes education programmes and joining peer support groups. Young adults felt that having opportunities to talk to healthcare professionals about diabetes distress should be a component of standard diabetes care.
Some aspects of living with diabetes frequently distress young adults with Type 1 diabetes who are in their twenties. Clinicians should facilitate young adults’ attendance at diabetes education programmes, provide them with opportunities to talk about their diabetes-related frustrations and difficulties and, where possible, assist in the development of peer-support networks for young adults with diabetes.
Young adult; Distress; Qualitative; Type 1 diabetes; Emerging adulthood
In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), colesevelam HCI, added to other anti-diabetic therapy, reduced hemoglobin A1C by approximately 0.3% to 0.4% over 16- to 26-weeks compared with an increase of approximately 0.1% to 0.2% for placebo, for a placebo-adjusted treatment effect of approximately 0.5%. Evidence on real-world effectiveness is unknown. This retrospective cohort study examined A1C changes following colesevelam HCL initiation in patients with diabetes, regardless of concomitant anti-diabetic medication use.
2000–2011 GE Centricity electronic medical records data were used to identify patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) aged 18 or older initiating colesevelam HCL. The sample was further restricted to uncontrolled patients with database activity ≥ 395 days before and after colesevelam HCL initiation, A1C > 7% during 90 days prior to starting colesevelam HCL, without prior use of bile acid sequestrants, and with at least one A1C result between 42 to 210 days after initiation. Three overlapping time intervals were created for A1C measurement, including 16-weeks, 26-weeks, and 52-weeks following therapy initiation. The last observed A1C lab measurement during each interval was used to define change from baseline. Mean change in A1C was examined using paired t-tests. Sensitivity analyses considered only patients who remained on colesevelam HCL through each respective measurement period, as well as the effect of concomitant diabetes medications.
Of 1,709,393 patients in the GE database with T2DM, 1,747 met inclusion criteria. The cohort was 58% female, 38% age ≥ 65, and the majority was white. For the 16-week endpoint (N = 1,385), A1C dropped from a mean of 8.22% to 7.75% (mean change −0.47%; P < 0.0001). For the 26- and 52-week endpoints (N = 1,747), A1C dropped from a mean of 8.25% to 7.81% (mean change −0.44%; P < 0.0001) and 8.25% to 7.79% (mean change −0.46%; P < 0.0001), respectively. Sensitivity analyses showed that A1C reductions were of similar direction and magnitude for patients who remained on treatment, and for the subgroups of patients stratified by receipt of concomitant T2DM treatments.
The 0.44% to 0.47% A1C reduction observed in this study was similar to the reduction observed in RCTs, supporting the real-world effectiveness of colesevelam HCL in reducing A1C.
Infection is the most common precipitating factor and cause of death in patients with hyperglycemic crises. Treating infection-precipitated hyperglycemic crises includes using empiric antibiotics early; correcting dehydration, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalances; and frequent monitoring. Intensive care unit admission, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and even novel therapy for infection may be beneficial for patients with a high risk of mortality. However, these management options are costly and not beneficial for every patient. Selecting high-risk patients who would most likely benefit is more appropriate. We investigated the independent mortality predictors of patients with infection-precipitated hyperglycemic crises to facilitate clinical decision making.
This study was conducted in a university-affiliated medical center. Consecutive adult patients (> 18 years old) visiting the Emergency Department between January 2004 and December 2010 were enrolled when they met the criteria of an infection-precipitated hyperglycemic crisis. Thirty-day mortality was the primary endpoint.
One hundred forty-two patients were enrolled. The infection source did not predict mortality. The presenting variables that were independently associated with 30-day mortality in a multiple logistic regression model were cancer history (odds ratio [OR], 7.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4-23.2), bandemia (OR, 7.0; 95% CI, 1.6-30.3), and serum creatinine (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8). The common sources of infection were the lower respiratory tract (30.3%), urinary tract (49.3%), skin or soft tissue (12.0%), and intra-abdominal (6.3%).
Cancer history, bandemia, and serum creatinine level are three independent mortality predictors for patients with infection-precipitated hyperglycemic crises. These predictors are both readily available and valuable for physicians making decisions about risk stratification, treatment, and disposition.
Hyperglycemic crises; Hyperosmolality; Infection; Mortality; Predictor
Down syndrome (DS) has been described as one of the main contributors for low bone mineral density (BMD). Physical activity (PA) is a key factor in skeletal health and thus, PA levels might be associated to the risk of developing osteoporosis. Therefore, the aims were (1) to describe PA patterns in adolescents with DS compared to their counterparts and (2) to determine the relationships between PA and the risk of having low bone mass in adolescents with DS.
Nineteen adolescents (10 girls) with DS and 14 without disabilities (7 girls) participated in the study. Minutes in different PA intensities were objectively assessed with accelerometers (ActiTrainer). Moreover adolescents with DS were classified into PA tertiles taking into account the amount of total minutes of PA at any intensity, resulting in those performing low, medium or high of PA (lowPA, medPA and highPA). BMD was measured at the whole body, hip and lumbar spine with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the BMD Z-score was calculated for each region taking into account age- and sex-matched reference data. Student’s unpaired t-tests and analysis of covariance were used to compare variables between different conditions (DS vs. control) and PA levels (low, medium and high).
None of the adolescents with DS achieved the minimum of 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous PA (VPA) intensity recommended by PA guidelines; adolescents with DS group spent less time in sedentary and in VPA and more time in light PA than those without DS (p < 0.05). Adolescents with DS showed lower BMD Z-score values than those without (p < 0.05). Those adolescents with DS allocated in the lowPA tertile showed significant lower BMD Z-score at the hip and a general tendency towards lower BMD Z-score was found at whole body and lumbar spine compared to those in highPA tertile and (p < 0.05).
Adolescents with DS in the highPA tertile showed lower risk of developing future osteoporosis by having higher BMD Z-score at the hip. This data provides an idea regarding the importance of accumulated minutes of PA, and not only moderate or vigorous in the bone health in adolescents with DS.
Osteoporosis; Osteopenia; Accelerometer; Dual energy x-ray; Actitrainer; Body composition