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1.  Microbial and metabolic interactions between the gastrointestinal tract and Clostridium difficile infection 
Gut Microbes  2013;5(1):86-95.
Antibiotics disturb the gastrointestinal tract microbiota and in turn reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile. The mechanism for this loss of colonization resistance is still unknown but likely reflects structural (microbial) and functional (metabolic) changes to the gastrointestinal tract. Members of the gut microbial community shape intestinal metabolism that provides nutrients and ultimately supports host immunity. This review will discuss how antibiotics alter the structure of the gut microbiota and how this impacts bacterial metabolism in the gut. It will also explore the chemical requirements for C. difficile germination, growth, toxin production and sporulation. Many of the metabolites that influence C. difficile physiology are products of gut microbial metabolism including bile acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. To restore colonization resistance against C. difficile after antibiotics a targeted approach restoring both the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract is needed.
doi:10.4161/gmic.27131
PMCID: PMC4049944  PMID: 24335555
Clostridium difficile; antibiotics; gut microbiota; gut metabolome; colonization resistance
2.  Alteration of the Murine Gastrointestinal Microbiota by Tigecycline Leads to Increased Susceptibility to Clostridium difficile Infection 
Antibiotics can play dual roles in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI); antibiotic treatment increases the risk of CDI, and antibiotics are used to treat CDI. The glycylcycline antibiotic tigecycline has broad antimicrobial activity, yet it is rarely associated with the development of CDI, presumably due to its activity against C. difficile. In this study, we investigated how tigecycline treatment affects the structure of the gut microbiota and susceptibility to CDI by treating mice with tigecycline (n = 20) or saline (n = 8) for 10 days. A sequence analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to monitor changes in the fecal microbiota. A subset of the mice was followed for 5 weeks after the end of treatment. The remaining mice were challenged with C. difficile strain VPI 10463 spores 2 days after the tigecycline treatment ended. Tigecycline treatment resulted in major shifts in the gut microbiota, including large decreases in Bacteroidetes levels and large increases in Proteobacteria levels. Mice with tigecycline-altered microbial communities were susceptible to challenge with C. difficile spores and developed clinical signs of severe CDI. Five weeks after the cessation of tigecycline treatment, the recovery of the bacterial community was incomplete and diversity was lower than in the untreated controls. Antibiotics with intrinsic activity against C. difficile can still alter the microbiota in a way that leads to susceptibility to CDI after discontinuation of the drug. These results indicate that microbiotic dynamics are key in the development of CDI, and a better understanding of these dynamics may lead to better strategies to prevent and treat this disease.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02262-13
PMCID: PMC3993203  PMID: 24590475
3.  Antibiotic-induced shifts in the mouse gut microbiome and metabolome increase susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection 
Nature communications  2014;5:3114.
Antibiotics can have significant and long lasting effects on the gastrointestinal tract microbiota, reducing colonization resistance against pathogens including Clostridium difficile. Here we show that antibiotic treatment induces substantial changes in the gut microbial community and in the metabolome of mice susceptible to C. difficile infection. Levels of secondary bile acids, glucose, free fatty acids, and dipeptides decrease, whereas those of primary bile acids and sugar alcohols increase, reflecting the modified metabolic activity of the altered gut microbiome. In vitro and ex vivo analyses demonstrate that C. difficile can exploit specific metabolites that become more abundant in the mouse gut after antibiotics, including primary bile acid taurocholate for germination, and carbon sources mannitol, fructose, sorbitol, raffinose and stachyose for growth. Our results indicate that antibiotic-mediated alteration of the gut microbiome converts the global metabolic profile to one that favors C. difficile germination and growth.
doi:10.1038/ncomms4114
PMCID: PMC3950275  PMID: 24445449
4.  Improving the Catalytic Activity of Hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus horikoshii Prolidase for Detoxification of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents over a Broad Range of Temperatures 
Archaea  2011;2011:565127.
Prolidases hydrolyze Xaa-Pro dipeptides and can also cleave the P-F and P-O bonds found in organophosphorus (OP) compounds, including the nerve agents soman and sarin. Ph1prol (PH0974) has previously been isolated and characterized from Pyrococcus horikoshii and was shown to have higher catalytic activity over a broader pH range, higher affinity for metal, and increased thermostability compared to P. furiosus prolidase, Pfprol (PF1343). To obtain a better enzyme for OP nerve agent decontamination and to investigate the structural factors that may influence protein thermostability and thermoactivity, randomly mutated Ph1prol enzymes were prepared. Four Ph1prol mutants (A195T/G306S-, Y301C/K342N-, E127G/E252D-, and E36V-Ph1prol) were isolated which had greater thermostability and improved activity over a broader range of temperatures against Xaa-Pro dipeptides and OP nerve agents compared to wild type Pyrococcus prolidases.
doi:10.1155/2011/565127
PMCID: PMC3227228  PMID: 22162664
5.  The Complete Campylobacter jejuni Transcriptome during Colonization of a Natural Host Determined by RNAseq 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e73586.
Campylobacter jejuni is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of bacterial derived gastroenteritis worldwide. C. jejuni regulates gene expression under various environmental conditions and stresses, indicative of its ability to survive in diverse niches. Despite this ability to highly regulate gene transcription, C. jejuni encodes few transcription factors and its genome lacks many canonical transcriptional regulators. High throughput deep sequencing of mRNA transcripts (termed RNAseq) has been used to study the transcriptome of many different organisms, including C. jejuni; however, this technology has yet to be applied to defining the transcriptome of C. jejuni during in vivo colonization of its natural host, the chicken. In addition to its use in profiling the abundance of annotated genes, RNAseq is a powerful tool for identifying and quantifying, as-of-yet, unknown transcripts including non-coding regulatory RNAs, 5’ untranslated regulatory elements, and anti-sense transcripts. Here we report the complete transcriptome of C. jejuni during colonization of the chicken cecum and in two different in vitro growth phases using strand-specific RNAseq. Through this study, we identified over 250 genes differentially expressed in vivo in addition to numerous putative regulatory RNAs, including trans-acting non-coding RNAs and anti-sense transcripts. These latter potential regulatory elements were not identified in two prior studies using ORF-based microarrays, highlighting the power and value of the RNAseq approach. Our results provide new insights into how C. jejuni responds and adapts to the cecal environment and reveals new functions involved in colonization of its natural host.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073586
PMCID: PMC3749233  PMID: 23991199
6.  Cefoperazone-treated mice as an experimental platform to assess differential virulence of Clostridium difficile strains 
Gut Microbes  2011;2(6):326-334.
The toxin-producing bacterium C. difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated colitis, with an estimated 500,000 cases C. difficile infection (CDI) each year in the US with a cost approaching 3 billion dollars. Despite the significance of CDI, the pathogenesis of this infection is still being defined. The recent development of tractable murine models of CDI will help define the determinants of C. difficile pathogenesis in vivo. To determine if cefoperazone-treated mice could be utilized to reveal differential pathogenicity of C. difficile strains, 5–8 week old C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with a 10 d course of cefoperazone administered in the drinking water. Following a 2-d recovery period without antibiotics, the animals were orally challenged with C. difficile strains chosen to represent the potential range of virulence of this organism from rapidly fatal to nonpathogenic. Animals were monitored for loss of weight and clinical signs of colitis. At the time of harvest, C. difficile strains were isolated from cecal contents and the severity of colitis was determined by histopathologic examination of the cecum and colon. Cefoperazone treated mice challenged with C. difficile strains VPI 10463 and BI1 exhibited signs of severe colitis while infection with 630 and F200 was subclinical. This increased clinical severity was correlated with more severe histopathology with significantly more edema, inflammation and epithelial damage encountered in the colons of animals infected with VPI 10463 and BI1. Disease severity also correlated with levels of C. difficile cytotoxic activity in intestinal tissues and elevated blood neutrophil counts. Cefoperazone treated mice represent a useful model of C. difficile infection that will help us better understand the pathogenesis and virulence of this re-emerging pathogen.
PMCID: PMC3337121  PMID: 22198617
Clostridium difficile; antibiotics; cefoperazone; colitis; strains
7.  The interplay between microbiome dynamics and pathogen dynamics in a murine model of Clostridium difficile infection 
Gut Microbes  2011;2(3):145-158.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) arises in the setting of antibiotic administration where disruption of the normal indigenous gut microbiota leads to susceptibility to C. difficile colonization and colitis. Using a murine model of CDI, we demonstrate that changes in the community structure of the indigenous gut microbiota are associated with the loss of colonization resistance against C. difficile. Several antibiotic regimens were tested in combination for the ability to overcome colonization resistance, including a five antibiotic cocktail consisting of kanamycin, gentamicin, colistin, metronidazole and vancomycin administered in drinking water for three days, a single intraperitoneal dose of clindamycin or 10 days of cefoperazone in drinking water. Following antibiotic treatment animals were challenged with 105 colony forming units of C. difficile strain VPI 10463 via oral gavage. Animals that received the antibiotic cocktail and clindamycin prior to C. difficile challenge followed one of two clinical courses, either becoming clinically ill and moribund within 2–4 days post challenge, or remaining clinically well. Animals that became clinically ill developed histologically severe colitis. These histopathologic findings were significantly less severe in animals that remained clinically well. Analysis of 16s rRNA gene sequences retrieved from gut tissue at necropsy demonstrated that Proteobacteria dominated the gut microbiota in clinically ill animals. In contrast, the gut microbial community of clinically well animals more closely resembled untreated animals, which were dominated by members of the Firmicutes. All animals that received cefoperazone treatment prior to C. difficile challenge were clinically ill and moribund by 2–5 days post challenge in a dose dependent manner. The gut communities in these animals were dominated by C. difficile suggesting that cefoperazone treatment resulted in a greater loss in colonization resistance. Thus, the severity of colitis that arises in this system reflects the interplay between the expansion of C. difficile in the gut community and the ecologic dynamics of the indigenous microbial community as it recovers from antibiotic perturbation. We demonstrate that altering the balance of these two opposing processes alters clinical outcome and thus may lead to novel preventative and therapeutic approaches for CDI.
doi:10.4161/gmic.2.3.16333
PMCID: PMC3225775  PMID: 21804357
Clostridium difficile; colonization resistance; microbial ecology; antibiotic-associated diarrhea; C. difficile infection

Results 1-7 (7)