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1.  Could caregiver reporting adherence help detect virological failure in Cameroonian early treated HIV-infected infants? 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:132.
Viral load is still the marker of choice for monitoring adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and confirming the success of HIV treatment. Unfortunately it is difficult to access in many resource-poor settings. We aimed to measure the performance of caregiver reporting adherence for detecting virological failure in routine practice during the first 2 years after cART initiation in infants.
PEDIACAM is an ongoing prospective cohort study including HIV1-infected infants diagnosed before 7 months of age between November 2007 and October 2011 in Cameroon. Adherence was assessed using a questionnaire administered every 3 months from cART initiation; the HIV-RNA viral load was determined at the same visits. Virological failure was defined as having a viral load ≥ 1000 cp/mL at 3 and 12 months after cART initiation or having a viral load ≥ 400 cp/mL at 24 months after cART initiation. The performance of each current missed and cumulative missed dose defined according to adherence as reported by caregiver was assessed using the viral load as the gold standard.
cART was initiated at a median age of 4 months (IQR: 3–6) in the 167 infants included. The cumulative missed dose showed the best overall performance for detecting virological failure after 12 months of cART (AUC test, p = 0.005, LR + =4.4 and LR− = 0.4). Whatever the adherence reporting criterion, the negative predictive value was high (NPV ≥ 75 %) 12 and 24 months after cART initiation, whereas the positive predictive value was low (PPV ≤ 50 %).
The adherence questionnaire administered by the health care provider to the infants’ caregivers is not reliable for detecting virological failure in routine practice: its positive predictive value is low. However, the cumulative missed dose measurement may be a reliable predictor of virological success, particularly after 12 months of cART, given its high negative predictive value.
PMCID: PMC4578260  PMID: 26391474
Antiretroviral therapy; Infants; Adherence reporting; Virological failure; Resource-limited settings
2.  Prevalence of congenital defects including selected neural tube defects in Nepal: results from a health survey 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:133.
In resource-limited nations like Nepal, congenital defects, including neural tube defects (NTDs), have great public health impact. NTDs and a few other congenital defects can be prevented by micronutrient supplementation. Without proper research regarding such defects, it is difficult to assess the damage made to health and productivity. This study aims to investigate different congenital defects among children in Nepal.
Household surveys and health camps were conducted from 2011 to 2012. Physical examination of women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years) was done in selected Village Development Committees of nine districts in three ecological regions of Nepal. Congenital defects, including NTDs, were examined in children (age 0 to 5 years) who were alive at the time of the survey. Data entry and analysis was performed by using SPSS version 11.5.
21,111 women were interviewed and 27,201 children born to them were assessed. The prevalence of congenital defects was 52.0 (95 % CI: 44.0–61.0) per 10,000 children. The prevalence of selected NTDs was 4.0 (95 % CI: 2.0–7.0) per 10,000 children. Among the neural tube defects, encephalocele, myelomeningocele and dermal sinus were the major ones, having almost the same prevalence in the Hill and Terai regions. The majority of children with genital abnormalities (17.0 per 10,000 children; 95 % CI: 10.0–28.0) and limb deformities (14.0 per 10,000 children; 95 % CI: 8.0–24.0) were found in the Terai. The rate of congenital birth defects was higher in the regions where women were in poor health.
There is high prevalence of congenital defects in Nepal. Since such defects add a burden to families and society, it is imperative that health policies addressing programs like supplementation, fortification and dietary diversification be implemented.
PMCID: PMC4578608  PMID: 26391586
Children; Congenital defects; Nepal; Neural tube defects
3.  The Acute Chest Syndrome in Cameroonian children living with sickle cell disease 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:131.
Although sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is particularly affected by sickle cell disease (SCD), there is dearth of research on this topic in the region, specifically targeting the magnitude of SCD-related complications. We therefore conducted this study to determine the burden of acute chest syndrome (ACS) and describe its clinical and therapeutic aspects among SCD children in Cameroon, a SSA country.
This was a retrospective study carried-out from September 2013 to June 2014 at the SCD unit of the Mother and Child Centre of the Chantal Biya Foundation, a pediatric reference centre in Yaoundé, Cameroon. We enrolled all SCD children with confirmed diagnosis of ACS, and recorded their clinical presentation at admission along with their evolution during hospitalization.
Twenty one cases of ACS were identified during the study period, from 338 hospitalizations of children with SCD. Ages ranged from 11 months to 16 years with a mean (standard deviation) of 5.5 (3.4) years, and a male/female sex ratio of 3.2/1. We noticed relatively low levels of HbF, from 6.4 to 21.9 % with a mean of 14.6 % (6.0 %). The three main symptoms at admission were fever (90.5 %), cough (81 %) and chest pains (28.6 %). Two patients (9.5 %) developed ACS 2 days after admission. The mean values of leukocytes, neutrophils, serum CRP, serum LDH and hemoglobin were respectively 32479.4 (17862.3)/mm3, 23476 (11543.7)/mm3, 228.2 (132.6) mg/l, 3452.3 (2916.3) IU/l and 6.5 (1.2) g/dl. The main localizations of radiological alveolar consolidations were the lower lobes (90.5 %). Treatment associated broad-spectrum antibiotics (100 %), hydration (100 %), analgesics (43.2 %), whole blood transfusion (66.7 %), and oxygen supplementation (33.3 %). Blood transfusion significantly improved hemoglobin level (p = 0.039). The duration of hospitalization, the mean of which was 6.8 (3.1) days, was influenced by none of the tested variables (all p values > 0.05).
ACS is frequent among SCD children in our milieu. Its etiologies seem to be multifactorial. Patients’ parents should be educated to recognize early signs and symptoms of the disease, and consult rapidly. Additionally, clinicians must be trained to diagnose ACS, and manage it promptly and efficiently to avoid its related catastrophic consequences.
PMCID: PMC4578678  PMID: 26391669
Acute chest syndrome; Sickle cell disease; Children; Cameroon; Sub-Saharan Africa
4.  Children’s perceptions about medicines: individual differences and taste 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:130.
Bitter taste receptors are genetically diverse, so children likely vary in sensitivity to the “bad” taste of some pediatric formulations. Based on prior results that variation in a bitter taste receptor gene, TAS2R38, was related to solid (pill) formulation usage, we investigated whether this variation related to liquid formulation usage and young children’s reports of past experiences with medicines and whether maternal reports of these past experiences were concordant with those of their children.
We conducted retrospective interviews of 172 children 3 to 10 years old and their mothers (N = 130) separately in a clinical research setting about issues related to medication usage. Children were genotyped for the TASR38 variant A49P (alanine to proline at position 49). Children’s responses were compared with their TAS2R38 genotype and with maternal reports.
Children (>4 years) reported rejecting medication primarily because of taste complaints, and those with at least one sensitive TAS2R38 allele (AP or PP genotype) were more likely to report rejecting liquid medications than were those without a taster allele (AA genotype; χ2 = 5.72, df = 1, p = 0.02). Children’s and mothers’ reports of the children’s past problems with medication were in concordance (p = 0.03).
Individual differences in taste responses to medications highlight the need to consider children’s genetic variation and their own perceptions when developing formulations acceptable to the pediatric palate. Pediatric trials could systematically collect valid information directly from children and from their caregivers regarding palatability (rejection) issues, providing data to develop well-accepted pediatric formulations that effectively treat illnesses for all children.
Trial Registration protocol registration system (NCT01407939). Registered 19 July 2011.
PMCID: PMC4578784  PMID: 26391354
Children; Compliance; Genetics; Medication; Taste
5.  Prevalence and influences of preschoolers’ sedentary behaviors in early learning centers: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:128.
Recent research has highlighted the need for increased evidence regarding the sedentary activity levels of preschoolers. Given the large proportion of time this population spends in various early learning facilities, the exploration of sedentary behaviors within this particular environment should be a priority. The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to compare sedentary time of preschoolers in three different early learning environments (i.e., full-day kindergarten [FDK], center-, and home-based childcare); and (2) to assess which characteristics (i.e., staff behaviors, sedentary environment, fixed play environment, portable play environment, sedentary opportunities) of these early learning environments influence preschoolers’ sedentary time.
Data collection occurred between September 2011 and June 2012. Preschoolers’ sedentary time was measured using Actical™ accelerometers at a 15 s epoch. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) tool was used to assess the sedentary environment of participating early learning classrooms, and those subscales (n = 5) that were evidence-informed as potentially influencing sedentary time in early learning centers were explored in the current study. A linear mixed model ANCOVA was carried out to determine the differences in sedentary time based on type of early learning environment while direct entry regression analyses were performed to describe the relationships between sedentary time and the five sedentary-specific EPAO subscale.
Preschoolers (n = 218) from 28 early learning programs (i.e., 8 FDK, 9 centre-, and 8 home-based childcare facilities) participated. Accelerometry data revealed that preschoolers attending centre-based childcare engaged in the highest rate of sedentary time (41.62 mins/hr, SD = 3.78) compared to preschoolers in home-based childcare (40.72 mins/hr, SD = 6.34) and FDK (39.68 mins/hr, SD = 3.43). The models for FDK, center-based childcare, and home-based childcare, comprised each of the five EPAO subscales accounted for 10.5 %, 5.9 %, and 40.78 % of the variability in sedentary time, respectively. Only the models for FDK and home-based childcare were found to be statistically significant (p < .05).
This is the first exploration of differences in sedentary time among preschoolers in different early learning arrangements. Findings highlight the substantial portion of the day preschoolers spend in sedentary pursuits, and subsequently, the ongoing need to reduce preschoolers’ sedentary time in early learning programs, particularly among those attending centre-based childcare facilities.
PMCID: PMC4574464  PMID: 26383623
Sedentary time; Preschoolers; Early learning facilities; Accelerometers
6.  Glucosuria as an early marker of late-onset sepsis in preterms: a prospective cohort study 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:125.
Early and accurate diagnosis of late-onset sepsis (LONS) in preterm infants is difficult since presenting signs are subtle and non-specific. Because neonatal sepsis may be accompanied by glucose intolerance and glucosuria, we hypothesized that glucosuria may be associated with LONS in preterms, in an early stage. We aim to evaluate the association of glucosuria and late-onset neonatal sepsis (LONS) in preterm infants, in an attempt to improve early and accurate diagnosis of LONS.
We performed a prospective observational cohort study in 316 preterms (<34 weeks). We daily measured glucosuria and followed patients for occurrence of LONS, defined as clinical and blood culture-proven sepsis occurring after 72 h. Attending physicians were blinded to glucosuria results. We assessed the diagnostic value of glucosuria for clinical and blood culture-proven LONS using logistic regression analysis.
Glucosuria was found in 65.8 % of 316 preterm patients, and sepsis was suspected 157 times in 123 patients. LONS was found in 47.1 % of 157 suspected episodes. The presence of glucosuria was associated with LONS (OR 2.59, 95 % CI 1.24–5.43, p = 0.012) with sensitivity 69.0 % and specificity 53.8 % (Likelihoodratio 1.49). After adjustment for gestational age, birth weight, and postnatal age, this association weakened and was no longer significant (adjusted OR 2.16; 95 % CI 0.99–1.85, p = 0.055). An increase in glucosuria 48–24 h before onset of symptoms was not associated with LONS.
In preterms glucosuria is associated with LONS within 24 h, however this association is too weak to be of diagnostic value.
PMCID: PMC4573674  PMID: 26383242
Premature infant; Infection; Nosocomial sepsis; Signs and symptoms; Diagnosis; Glucose; Hyperglycaemia
7.  High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with Williams-Beuren syndrome 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:126.
A high incidence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors has been reported in adults with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS). However, the prevalence of these factors in children and adolescents with WS is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of CV risk factors in these patients.
Thirty-two WS patients aged <18 years were enrolled in the study. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels (n = 32), oral glucose tolerance test results (n = 20), plasma renin and aldosterone levels (n = 31), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP; n = 24), carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT; n = 15), and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD; n = 15) were measured and analyzed.
The lipid profile revealed hypercholesterolemia in 22 % and elevated oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in 94 % of the patients. Glucose metabolism abnormalities were found in 70 % of the patients. Insulin resistance was observed in 40 % of the patients. High plasma renin and aldosterone levels were detected in 45 and 39 % of the patients, respectively. A mean systolic blood pressure above the 90th percentile was noted in 29 % of patients. High IMT (>0.65 mm) and low FMD (<9 %) were detected in 80 and 73 % of patients, respectively.
In patients with WS, CV risk factors are frequently present from childhood. In children with WS, screening tests for the early detection of CV risk factors and long-term follow-up are required to determine whether long-term exposure to these factors increases the risk for CV events in adulthood.
PMCID: PMC4574554  PMID: 26384008
Williams-Beuren syndrome; Cardiovascular risk; Child; Adolescent; Elastin
8.  Association of neck circumference and high blood pressure in children and adolescents: a case–control study 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:127.
High blood pressure (BP) is a serious, common and growing global public health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between high NC (neck circumference) alone and in combinations with BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and high BP among Lithuanian children and adolescents aged 12 to 15 years.
An epidemiological case–control study was performed between May 2012 and November 2013. NC, WC, hip circumference (HC), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), body height, weight, and BP were measured. The participants with high BP (≥90th percentile) were screened on two separate occasions. Data on NC, WC, HC, MUAC, BMI, body adiposity index (BAI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and BP were analyzed in 1947 children and adolescents aged 12–15 years. Age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the associations were estimated using multivariate logistic regression models.
The prevalence rates of prehypertension (BP ≥90th– < 95th percentile) and hypertension (BP ≥95th percentile) was 6.3 and 25.1 %, respectively. The overall prevalence of high NC (if NC was in the ≥90th percentile), overweight/obesity (as measured by BMI), and abdominal overweight/obesity (if WC was in the ≥75th percentile) were 14.3, 15.8, and 13 %, respectively. After adjustment for age and sex, NC in the ≥90th percentile was significantly associated with an increased risk of elevated BP (prehypertension: aOR = 2.99; 95 % CI, 1.88–4.77; hypertension aOR = 4.05; 95 % CI, 3.03–5.41, and prehypertension/hypertension aOR = 3.75; 95 % CI, 2.86–4.91), compared to the participants with NC in the <90th percentile. Overweight/obesity and abdominal overweight/obesity were also significantly associated with an elevated BP. The combinations including both risk factors (high NC with overweight/obesity, and high NC with abdominal overweight/obesity) showed higher aORs than those with either risk factor alone.
High NC alone—but particularly in combinations with overweight/obesity and abdominal overweight/obesity—was associated with an increased risk of high BP.
PMCID: PMC4574610  PMID: 26383844
Prehypertension; Hypertension; Neck circumference; Overweight; Obesity; Abdominal obesity; Children; Adolescents
9.  Association between gross motor function and postural control in sitting in children with Cerebral Palsy: a correlational study in Spain 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:124.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the causes of physical disability in children. Sitting abilities can be described using the Level of Sitting Scale (LSS) and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). There is growing interest in the sitting posture of children with CP owing to a stable sitting position allows for the development of eye-hand coordination, functions of the upper extremities and functional skills. Besides, in recent years researchers have tried to develop a new terminology to classify the CP as performed by the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE), in order to improve the monitoring of the frequency of the PC, providing a framework for research and service planning. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between GMFCS and LSS. The second purpose was to describe how the SCPE relates to sitting abilities with the GMFCS and LSS.
The study involved 139 children with CP (range 3–18 years) from 24 educational centres. Age, gender, CP classification according to SCPE, GMFCS and LSS levels were recorded by an experienced physiotherapist.
A significant inverse relationship between GMFCS and LSS score levels was found (rs = −0.86, p = 0.00). 45.3 % of the children capable of leaning in any direction and of re-erecting the trunk (level VIII on the LSS) could walk without limitation (level I on the GMFCS). There were differences in the distribution of the GMFCS (χ2(4):50.78) and LSS (χ2(7): 37.15) levels and CP according to the distribution of the spasticity (p <0.01).
There was a negative correlation between both scales and a relation between sitting ability and the capacity to walk with or without technical devices. GMFCS and the LSS are useful tools for describing the functional abilities and limitations of children with CP, specially sitting and mobility. Classification based on the distribution of spasticity and the gross motor function provides clinical information on the prognosis and development of children with CP.
PMCID: PMC4571109  PMID: 26376627
Cerebral palsy; Seating; Movement disorders; Postural balance; Measurement
10.  Comforting strategies and perceived barriers to pediatric pain management during IV line insertion procedure in Uganda’s national referral hospital: A descriptive study 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:122.
Venipuncture and intravenous (IV) cannula insertions are the two common sources of pain in hospitalized children and health care today. The WHO asserts that, pain relief is a basic fundamental right and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Nonpharmacological comforting strategies when implemented are important to relive pain related distress in children during peripheral IV line insertion. However, evidence to date that suggests implementation of such strategies and their barriers in Uganda remains very limited. This study aimed at establishing the current practices in regard to the use of comforting strategies and the perceived barriers faced by health care providers to implement pediatric pain management during IV line insertion procedure in Uganda’s national referral hospital, Mulago.
A cross sectional and descriptive study was conducted between December 1, 2012 and February 28, 2013 involving doctors, nurses and interns in six pediatric wards of Mulago Hospital in Uganda. A pre-tested self- administered and semi- structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data was entered into SPSS and descriptive statistics run on all the variables.
Of the 120 questionnaires distributed, 105 (RR = 87.5 %) were returned and completed. The evidence based comforting strategies used for pain management during IV line insertion by the majority of health care professionals were; skin to skin (51 %) and appropriate upright positioning of the child on mother’s lap (69 %). The least used comforting strategies were; allowing the child to suck his thumb or hand (70 %), use of distraction (69 %) and directing the child to suck one of his fingers into his mouth (90 %). The identified barriers to implementing comforting strategies were; lack of time (42 %), having emergency situations (18 %), and not knowing the right method to use (11 %). Of 105, 100 (95 %) reported that there is need for continuous professional development on comforting strategies.
Findings demonstrated that fewer health care providers used some evidence based comforting strategies of pain relief during pediatric peripheral IV line insertion. Distraction and other evidence based strategies for pain and distress relieve are less often used by the majority of the health care providers. Incorporating pediatric pain management content in all health professionals training curricula could improve the current practices for better health outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4572629  PMID: 26377665
Comforting strategies; Health care provider; Pain management; Pediatric
11.  Premature baby with extreme hyponatraemia (95 mmol per litre): a case report 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:121.
Whilst mild neonatal hyponatraemia is common and relatively harmless, extreme hyponatraemia of 95 mmol per litre has never been reported in a premature baby and such a level could be associated with immediate as well as long-lasting detrimental effects on health.
Case presentation
Twenty-four days old baby boy born at 28 weeks gestation (triplet one) unexpectedly became moribund with hypovolaemic shock and was found to have blood sodium of 95 mmol per litre. Diagnostic work up revealed a combination of a urinary tract infection, inadvertently low sodium provision with donor breast milk, and weak renin-angiotensin-aldosterone response. Commencement of treatment with intravenous fluids and extra sodium led to unanticipated diuresis and faster than expected increase of sodium level. Ultimately, treatment resulted in clinical recovery and normalisation of sodium level, which subsequently remained normal with no additional sodium supplementation. Follow up revealed mild spastic diplegia.
Continuous monitoring and daily medical reviews may not be sensitive enough to recognise development of extreme hyponatraemia. Blood sodium levels should be monitored closely and any abnormalities promptly addressed. Treatment of hypovolaemic hyponatraemia should be centred on fluid resuscitation, anticipation of “paradoxical” diuresis, and blood sodium correction rate of 8 to 10 mmol per litre per day.
PMCID: PMC4572644  PMID: 26377549
Hyponatraemia; Hypovolaemia; Urinary tract infection; Donor breast milk; Prematurity
12.  Antidepressant prescribing in Irish children: secular trends and international comparison in the context of a safety warning 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:119.
In 2003, the Irish Medicines Board (IMB) warned against the treatment of childhood depression with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) due to increased risk of suicide. This study examined the effect of this warning on the prevalence of anti-depressants in Irish children and compared age and gender trends and international comparisons of prescription rates.
A retrospective cohort study of the Irish Health Service Executive (HSE) pharmacy claims database for the General Medical Services (GMS) scheme for dispensed medication. Data were obtained for 2002–2011 for those aged ≤15 years. Prevalence of anti-depressants per 1000 eligible population, along with 95 % confidence intervals, were calculated. A negative binomial regression analysis was used to investigate trends and compare rates across years, sex and age groups (0–4, 5–11, 12–15 years). International prescribing data were retrieved from the literature.
The prevalence of anti-depressants decreased from 4.74/1000 population (95 % CI: 4.47-5.01) in 2002 to 2.61/1000 population (95 % CI: 2.43-2.80) in 2008. SSRI rates decreased from 2002 to 2008. Prescription rates for contra-indicated SSRIs paroxetine, sertraline and citralopram decreased significantly from 2002 to 2005, and, apart from paroxetine, only small fluctuations were seen from 2005 onwards. Fluoxetine was the most frequently prescribed anti-depressant and rates increased between 2002 and 2011. Anti-depressant rates were higher for younger boys and older girls. The Irish prevalence was lower than the US, similar to the U.K. and higher than Germany and Denmark.
The direction and timing of these trends suggest that medical practitioners followed the IMB advice.
PMCID: PMC4567806  PMID: 26362648
Children; Anti-depressants; Paediatric prescribing; Safety warning
13.  Socio-demographic, environmental and caring risk factors for childhood drowning deaths in Bangladesh 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:114.
Drowning contributes to incapacity and early death in many countries. In low- and middle-income countries, children are the most susceptible to fatalities. Over 50 % of the global drowning deaths occur among children aged under 15 years old with children aged between 1 and 4 years of age being most at risk. In Bangladesh, drowning rates are 10 to 20 times more than those in other developing countries. The object of this study is to determine the socio-demographic, environmental and caring hazard issues for child drowning in Bangladesh.
A case–control study was conducted, with data collected from the Bangladesh Health and Injury Survey (BHIS) to identify the social-demographic and environmental factors associated with childhood drowning. The participants represented 171,366 households from seven divisions of Bangladesh—Dhaka, Rajshahi, Chittagong, Barisal, Sylhet, Khulna and Rangpur. The survey was conducted between January and December of 2003. A total of 141 children drowning were identified in the year preceding the survey. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios with 95 % CI intervals were estimated for various associated factors for child drowning deaths.
In Bangladesh, in 2003, the incidence of drowning deaths was 104.8 per 100,000 among those aged less than 5 years; 168.7 per 100,000 in rural areas; male 32.4 per 100,000; 112.7 per 100,000 between 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m.; and cannot swim 134.9 per 100,000. The socio-demographic danger factors for child drowning deaths were: being male (OR = 1.45, 95 % CI = 1.34–1.78), aged less than 5 years (OR = 2.89, 95 % CI = 1.89–3.11), urban areas (OR = 0.67, 95 % CI = 0.67–1.87), and mother being illiterate (OR = 1.69, 95 % CI = 1.01–2.81). Significant environmental and caring factors included mother/caregiver not being the accompanying person (OR = 25.4, 95 % CI = 14.4–45.3) and children cannot swim (OR = 4.5, 95 % CI = 1.25–19.4).
Drowning is the single largest reason for the mortality of children aged less than five years. There is a need to educate Bangladeshi parents and encourage behavioural change concerning supervision. The Government should use mass media to raise awareness about drowning among the community with a focus on rural areas. Policies should focus on increasing supervision by mothers/care persons, swimming skills, and should target illiterate mothers. Therefore, there is an immediate need for the Bangladeshi Government to address the problem of drowning.
PMCID: PMC4566200  PMID: 26357879
Social-demographic; Environmental and caring; Risk factors; Drowning; Bangladesh
14.  Operative management of cryptorchidism: guidelines and reality - a 10-year observational analysis of 3587 cases 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:116.
Undescended testis (UDT) is the most common disorder in pediatric surgery and one of the most important risk factors for malignancy and subfertility. In 2009 local guidelines were modified and now recommend treatment to be completed by the age of 1. Aim of this study was to analyze age distribution at the time of orchidopexy, whether the procedure is performed according to guideline recommendations and to assess primary care pediatricians’ attitude regarding their treatment approach.
We retrospectively analyzed 3587 patients with UDT regarding age at orchidopexy between 2003 and 2012 in 13 German hospitals. Furthermore, we conducted an anonymized nation-wide survey among primary care pediatricians regarding their attitude toward management of UDT.
Before modification of the guideline 78 % (n = 1245) of the boys with UDT were not operated according to guideline recommendations. After the modification that number rose to 95 % (n = 1472). 42 % of the orchidopexies were performed on patients aged 4 to 17 years. 46 % of the primary care pediatricians were not aware of this discrepancy and 38 % would only initiate operative management after the first year of life. In hospitals with pediatric surgery departments significantly more patients received orchidopexy in their first year of life (p < .001).
The guideline for UDT in Germany has not yet been implemented sufficiently. Timing of orchidopexy must be optimized in order to improve long-term prognosis. Both primary care providers and parents should be educated regarding the advantages of early orchidopexy in UDT. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate the high rate of late orchidopexies.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12887-015-0429-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4566496  PMID: 26357871
Undescended testis; Testicular descent; Primary cryptorchidism; Maldescensus testis; Retractile testis; Acquired cryptorchidism; Orchidopexy; Timing of surgery; Health services research; Guideline implementation
15.  Effects of low-dose clonidine on cardiovascular and autonomic variables in adolescents with chronic fatigue: a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:117.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a common and disabling condition in adolescence with few treatment options. A central feature of CFS is orthostatic intolerance and abnormal autonomic cardiovascular control characterized by sympathetic predominance. We hypothesized that symptoms as well as the underlying pathophysiology might improve by treatment with the alpha2A–adrenoceptor agonist clonidine.
A total of 176 adolescent CFS patients (12–18 years) were assessed for eligibility at a single referral center recruiting nation-wide. Patients were randomized 1:1 by a computer system and started treatment with clonidine capsules (25 μg or 50 μg twice daily, respectively, for body weight below/above 35 kg) or placebo capsules for 9 weeks. Double-blinding was provided. Data were collected from March 2010 until October 2012 as part of The Norwegian Study of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents: Pathophysiology and Intervention Trial (NorCAPITAL). Effect of clonidine intervention was assessed by general linear models in intention-to-treat analyses, including baseline values as covariates in the model.
A total of 120 patients (clonidine group n = 60, placebo group n = 60) were enrolled and started treatment. There were 14 drop-outs (5 in the clonidine group, 9 in the placebo group) during the intervention period. At 8 weeks, the clonidine group had lower plasma norepinephrine (difference = 205 pmol/L, p = 0.05) and urine norepinephrine/creatinine ratio (difference = 3.9 nmol/mmol, p = 0.002). During supine rest, the clonidine group had higher heart rate variability in the low-frequency range (LF-HRV, absolute units) (ratio = 1.4, p = 0.007) as well as higher standard deviation of all RR-intervals (SDNN) (difference = 12.0 ms, p = 0.05); during 20° head-up tilt there were no statistical differences in any cardiovascular variable. Symptoms of orthostatic intolerance did not change during the intervention period.
Low-dose clonidine reduces catecholamine levels in adolescent CFS, but the effects on autonomic cardiovascular control are sparse. Clonidine does not improve symptoms of orthostatic intolerance.
Trial registration
Clinical Trials ID: NCT01040429, date of registration 12/28/2009.
PMCID: PMC4566847  PMID: 26357864
16.  Factors associated with red blood cell transfusions in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants in Brazilian neonatal units 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:113.
Preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units frequently receive red blood cells (RBC) transfusions due to the anemia of prematurity. A number of variables related to gestational age, severity of illness and transfusion practices adopted in the neonatal unit where the neonate was born may contribute to the prescription of RBC transfusions. This study aimed to analyse the frequency and factors associated with RBC transfusions in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants.
A prospective cohort of 4283 preterm infants (gestational age: 29.9 ± 2.9 weeks; birth weight: 1084 ± 275 g) carried out at 16 university hospitals in Brazil between January 2009 and December 2011 was analysed. Factors associated with RBC transfusions were evaluated using univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis.
A total of 2208 (51.6 %) infants received RBC transfusions (variation per neonatal unit: 34.1 % to 66.4 %). RBC transfusions were significantly associated with gestational age (OR: -1.098; 95%CI: -1.12 to -1.04), SNAPPE II score (1.01; 1.00-1.02), apnea (1.69; 1.34-2.14), pulmonary hemorrhage (2.65; 1.74-4.031), need for oxygen at 28 days of life (1.56; 1.17-2.08), clinical sepsis (3.22; 2.55-4.05), necrotising enterocolitis (3.80; 2.26-6.41), grades III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage (1.64; 1.05-2.58), mechanical ventilation (2.27; 1.74-2.97), use of umbilical catheter (1.86; 1.35-2.57), parenteral nutrition (2.06; 1.27-3.33), >60 days of hospitalization (5.29; 4.02-6.95) and the neonatal unit where the neonate was born.
The frequency of RBC transfusions varied among neonatal intensive care units. Even after adjusting for adverse health conditions and therapeutic interventions, the neonatal unit continued to influence transfusion practices in very-low birth-weight infants.
PMCID: PMC4560891  PMID: 26341125
Very low birth weight infants; Neonatal intensive care unit; Anemia; Red blood cell transfusion; Risk factors
17.  Introduction of the gross motor function classification system in Venezuela - a model for knowledge dissemination 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:111.
A current worldwide common goal is to optimize the health and well-being of children with cerebral palsy (CP). In order to reach that goal, for this heterogeneous group, a common language and classification systems are required to predict development and offer evidence based interventions. In most countries in Africa, South America, Asia and Eastern Europe the classification systems for CP are unfamiliar and rarely used. Education and implementation are required. The specific aims of this study were to examine a model in order to introduce the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS-E&R) in Venezuela, and to examine the validity and the reliability.
Children with CP, registered at a National child rehabilitation centre in Venezuela, were invited to participate. The Spanish version of GMFCS-E&R was used. The Wilson mobility scale was translated and used to examine the concurrent validity. A structured questionnaire, comprising aspects of mobility and gross motor function, was constructed. In addition, each child was filmed. A paediatrician in Venezuela received supervised self-education in GMFCS-E&R and the Wilson mobility scale. A Swedish student was educated in GMFCS-E&R and the Wilson mobility scale prior to visiting Venezuela. In Venezuela, all children were classified and scored by the paediatrician and student independently. An experienced paediatric physiotherapist (PT) in Sweden made independent GMFCS-E&R classifications and Wilson mobility scale scorings, accomplished through merging data from the structured questionnaire with observations of the films. Descriptive statistics were used and reliability was presented with weighted Kappa (Kw). Spearman’s correlation coefficient was calculated to explore the concurrent validity between GMFCS-E&R and Wilson mobility scale.
Eighty-eight children (56 boys), mean age 10 years (3–18), with CP participated. The inter-rater reliability of GMFCS-E&R between; the paediatrician and the PT was Kw = 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.75-0.88), the PT and student was Kw = 0.91 (95 % CI: 0.86-0.95) and the paediatrician and student was Kw = 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.79-0.90). The correlations between GMFCS-E&R and Wilson mobility scale were high rs =0.94-0.95 (p < 0.001).
In a setting with no previous knowledge of GMFCS-E&R, the model with education, supervised self-education and practice was efficient and resulted in very good reliability and validity.
PMCID: PMC4560893  PMID: 26341265
18.  Differences in perinatal and infant mortality in high-income countries: artifacts of birth registration or evidence of true differences? 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:112.
Variation in birth registration criteria may compromise international comparisons of fetal and infant mortality. We examined the effect of birth registration practices on fetal and infant mortality rates to determine whether observed differences in perinatal and infant mortality rates were artifacts of birth registration or reflected true differences in health status.
A retrospective population-based cohort study was done using data from Canada, United States, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden from 1995–2005. Main outcome measures included live births by gestational age and birth weight; gestational age—and birth weight-specific stillbirth rates; neonatal, post-neonatal, and cause-specific infant mortality.
Proportion of live births <22 weeks varied substantially: Sweden (not reported), Iceland (0.00 %), Finland (0.001 %), Denmark (0.01 %), Norway (0.02 %), Canada (0.07 %) and United States (0.08 %). At 22–23 weeks, neonatal mortality rates were highest in Canada (892.2 per 1000 live births), Denmark (879.3) and Iceland (1000.0), moderately high in the United States (724.1), Finland (794.3) and Norway (739.0) and low in Sweden (561.2). Stillbirth:live birth ratios at 22–23 weeks were significantly lower in the United States (79.2 stillbirths per 100 live births) and Finland (90.8) than in Canada (112.1), Iceland (176.2) and Norway (173.9). Crude neonatal mortality rates were 83 % higher in Canada and 96 % higher in the United States than Finland. Neonatal mortality rates among live births ≥28 weeks were lower in Canada and United States compared with Finland. Post-neonatal mortality rates were higher in Canada and United States than in Nordic countries.
Live birth frequencies and stillbirth and neonatal mortality patterns at the borderline of viability are likely due to differences in birth registration practices, although true differences in maternal, fetal and infant health cannot be ruled out. This study emphasises the need for further standardisations, in order to enhance the relevance of international comparisons of infant mortality.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12887-015-0430-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4560894  PMID: 26340994
Birth registration; Infant mortality; Gestational age; Birth weight; Stillbirths; Neonatal mortality
19.  Nutrition practice, compliance to guidelines and postnatal growth in moderately premature babies: the NUTRIQUAL French survey 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:110.
The nutritional care provided to moderately premature babies is poorly studied. For a large cohort of such babies, we aimed to describe: nutrition practice intentions, comparison of the intended with the actual practice, compliance of actual practice to current nutrition guidelines, and postnatal growth.
A questionnaire was sent out to 29 neonatal intensive care units in France, in order to address practice intentions. In the same units, retrospective patient’s data were collected to assess actual practice, compliance to nutrition guidelines and infant postnatal growth. The cumulative nutritional deficit during the two first weeks of life was calculated and variables associated with ΔZ-score for weight at 36 weeks postconceptional age/discharge (ΔZ-scorew 36PCA/DC) were analysed by multivariate linear regression.
276 infants born 30 to 33 weeks of gestation were studied. Among them, 76 % received parenteral nutrition on central venous line after birth. On day of life 1 (DOL1), 93 % of infants had parenteral amino acids (AA), at an intake ≥ 1.5 g/kg in 27 % of cases. Lipids were started at ≤ DOL2 in 47 % of infants. There was a divergence between the intended and the actual practice for both AA and lipids intake. The AA and energy cumulative deficit (DOL1 to DOL14) were respectively 10.9 ± 8.3 g/kg and 483 ± 181 kcal/kg. Weight Z-score (mean ± SD) significantly decreased from birth (−0.17 ± 0.88) to 36 weeks PCA/DC (−1.00 ± 0.82) (p < 0.0001), and the extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) rate at 36 weeks PCA/DC was 24.2 %. Independent variables associated with ΔZ-scorew 36PCA/DC were AA cumulative intake and DOL of full enteral feeding.
Nutrition intake was not in compliance with recommendations, and the rate of EUGR was considerable in this cohort. Efforts are needed to improve adherence to nutrition guidelines and growth outcome of moderately preterm infants.
PMCID: PMC4559914  PMID: 26337814
Newborn; Survey; Feeding; Calories; Standards; Growth retard; Parenteral and enteral intake
20.  Plasma levels of monokine induced by interferon-gamma/chemokine (C-X-X motif) ligand 9, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 in children with Kawasaki disease 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:109.
Monokines induced by interferon-gamma/Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (MIG/CXCL9), thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (TARC/CCL17) are chemotactic factors that specifically collect and activate leukocytes, which are considered as chemoattractants of T helper cells. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of T helper type-1 (Th1) cells and T helper type-2 (Th2) cells in Kawasaki disease (KD) by determining plasma levels of MIG/CXCL9 and TARC/CCL17 and exploring the relationship between MIG/CXCL9, TARC/CCL17 levels and coronary artery lesions (CAL).
Forty-three children patients with KD and 19 healthy controls were included in this study. General characteristics were obtained from all subjects. Plasma concentrations of chemotactic factors of MIG/CXCL9 and TARC/CCL17 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for all subjects.
Plasma levels of MIG/CXCL9, TARC/CCL17, and the ratios of MIG/TARC were significantly elevated in pediatric patients with KD compared to those in the control group. There were also significantly higher levels of MIG/CXCL9, TARC/CCL17, MIG/TARC ratios and prominently lower hemoglobin (Hb) levels in KD with CAL compared to KD without coronary artery lesions (NCAL). Hb was significantly decreased and plasma MIG/CXCL9 levels had a significantly negative correlation with CRP in KD with CAL patients (KD-CAL), whereas a positive correlation of plasma MIG/CXCL 9 with WBC was observed in KD without CAL patients (KD-NCAL).
Th1 and Th2 cells may be involved in an imbalanced activation in pediatric KD patients during an acute period of the disease. Furthermore, immune lesions of vessels in KD patients may be mediated by the imbalanced activation of Th1 and Th2 cells.
PMCID: PMC4560122  PMID: 26337791
Kawasaki disease; Chemokine; T cell; Children
21.  Age of introduction of first complementary feeding for infants: a systematic review 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:107.
Despite a World Health Organization recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding of all full-term infants to 6 months of age, it is not clear what the health implications may be. Breast milk alone may not meet the nutrition needs for all growing infants, leaving them at risk for deficiencies. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between moderate (4 months) versus late (6 months) introduction of complementary foods to the full-term breastfed infant on iron status and growth.
An electronic search of peer-reviewed and gray-literature was conducted for randomized control trials (RCTs) and observational studies related to the timing of introduction of complementary foods. Iron status and growth data from the relevant RCTs were analyzed using RevMan 5.2.11.
Three RCTs and one observational study met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed significantly higher hemoglobin levels in infants fed solids at 4 months versus those fed solids at 6 months in developing countries [mean difference [MD]: 5.0 g/L; 95 % CI: 1.5, 8.5 g/L; P = 0.005]. Meta-anaysis also showed higher serum ferritin levels in the 4-month group in both developed and developing countries [MD: 26.0 μg/L; 95 % CI: -0.1, 52.1 μg/L, P = 0.050], [MD: 18.9 μg/L; 95 % CI: 0.7, 37.1 μg/L, P = 0.040]. Short follow-up periods and small sample sizes of the included studies were the major limitations.
RCT evidence suggests the rate of iron deficiency anemia in breastfed infants could be positively altered by introduction of solids at 4 months.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12887-015-0409-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4557230  PMID: 26328549
Age of introduction of solids; Breastfed infant; Complementary feeding; Growth; Iron; Solid food
22.  Effect of integrated infectious disease training and on-site support on the management of childhood illnesses in Uganda: a cluster randomized trial 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:103.
The Integrated Infectious Disease Capacity-Building Evaluation (IDCAP) was designed to test the effects of two interventions, Integrated Management of Infectious Disease (IMID) training and on-site support (OSS), on clinical practice of mid-level practitioners. This article reports the effects of these interventions on clinical practice in management of common childhood illnesses.
Two trainees from each of 36 health facilities participated in the IMID training. IMID was a three-week core course, two one-week boost courses, and distance learning over nine months. Eighteen of the 36 health facilities were then randomly assigned to arm A, and participated in OSS, while the other 18 health facilities assigned to arm B did not. Clinical faculty assessed trainee practice on clinical practice of six sets of tasks: patient history, physical examination, laboratory tests, diagnosis, treatment, and patient/caregiver education. The effects of IMID were measured by the post/pre adjusted relative risk (aRR) of appropriate practice in arm B. The incremental effects of OSS were measured by the adjusted ratio of relative risks (aRRR) in arm A compared to arm B. All hypotheses were tested at a 5 % level of significance.
Patient samples were comparable across arms at baseline and endline. The majority of children were aged under five years; 84 % at baseline and 97 % at endline. The effects of IMID on patient history (aRR = 1.12; 95 % CI = 1.04-1.21) and physical examination (aRR = 1.40; 95 % CI = 1.16-1.68) tasks were statistically significant. OSS was associated with incremental improvement in patient history (aRRR = 1.18; 95 % CI = 1.06-1.31), and physical examination (aRRR = 1.27; 95 % CI = 1.02-1.59) tasks. Improvements in laboratory testing, diagnosis, treatment, and patient/caregiver education were not statistically significant.
IMID training was associated with improved patient history taking and physical examination, and OSS further improved these clinical practices. On-site training and continuous quality improvement activities support transfer of learning to practice among mid-level practitioners.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12887-015-0410-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4551363  PMID: 26315284
Mid-level practitioners; Clinical practice; Quality of health care; Education; Medical; Continuing; Mentors; Medicine; Infectious diseases; Training; Pediatrics; Primary health care; Africa; South of the Sahara; Uganda
23.  Intraventricular hemorrhage in asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia: a look into incidence, timing and risk factors 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:106.
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is uncommon in term newborns. Asphyxia and hypothermia have been mentioned separately as possible risk factors of IVH, since they might cause fluctuations of cerebral blood flow. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, the timing, and the risk factors of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in term asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia.
We conducted a prospective cohort study of all term asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia from August 2008 to June 2013. The presence or not of IVH was assessed using brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed after the hypothermia treatment was completed or using head ultrasound during the hypothermia treatment. For these newborns, to determine the timing of IVH, we retrospectively reviewed if they had other brain imaging studies performed during their neonatal hospitalization stay. In addition, we compared their general characteristics with those not developing IVH.
One hundred and sixty asphyxiated newborns met the criteria for hypothermia. Fifteen of these newborns developed IVH, leading to an estimate of 9 % (95 % CI: 5.3-15.0 %) of IVH in this population of newborns. Fifty-three percent had hemorrhage limited to the choroid plexus or IVH without ventricular dilatation; 47 % had IVH with ventricular dilatation or parenchymal hemorrhage. Sixty-seven percent had an initial normal brain imaging; the diagnostic brain imaging that demonstrated the IVH was obtained either during cooling (in 30 %), within 24 h of the rewarming (in 30 %), or 24 h after the rewarming (in 40 %). Recurrent seizures were the presenting symptom of IVH during the rewarming in 20 % of the newborns. Coagulopathy was more frequent in the asphyxiated newborns developing IVH (p < 0.001). The asphyxiated newborns developing IVH also presented more frequently with persistent pulmonary hypertension, hypotension, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy (p = 0.03).
The asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia appear to be at an increased risk of IVH, especially those with significant hemodynamic instability. IVH seems to develop during late hypothermia and rewarming. Efforts should be directed towards maintaining hemodynamic stability in these patients, even during the rewarming.
PMCID: PMC4551518  PMID: 26315402
Birth asphyxia; Hypothermia; Neonatal encephalopathy; Intraventricular hemorrhage; Magnetic resonance imaging; Newborn brain
24.  Poisoning emergency visits among children: a 3-year retrospective study in Qatar 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:104.
Poisoning in toddlers and infants is almost always unintentional due to their exploratory behavior, which is different from adults. The prevalence and background of childhood poisoning in Qatar is still unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the extent of childhood poisoning in Qatar and, specifically, to describe the frequency of poisoning as a cause of Accident & Emergency (A&E) admission, the demographic profile of affected patients, the circumstances leading to exposure, and the specific agents involved in poisoning among children under age 14 in our setting.
This study was a cross-sectional survey of children up to 14 years old utilizing retrospective data between October 2009 and October 2012. The data were collected from the childhood poisoning case registry and patient medical records at the Accident and Emergency (A&E) Unit of all the Hamad Medical Corporation hospitals. Pharmacists reviewed all the handwritten medical records. Data written on the data collection form were transferred into excel and later into SPSS version 21. The data were analyzed using frequencies and percentages, and a chi-square test was used for categorical variables.
Out of 1179 registered poisoning cases listed in the registry, only 794 cases (67.3 %) were usable and included in the final analysis. A&E admissions for unintentional poisoning for children accounted for 0.22 % of all A&E admissions from 2009 to 12. The majority of poisoning cases happened among children between 1 and 5 years old (n = 704, 59.7 %). Cases were more frequent among non-Qatari than Qatari children (39.4 % vs. 28.5 %). Most cases occurred in the living room (28.2 %) and typically took place in the afternoon (29.2 %). Analgesic and antipyretic medicines were the most common agents ingested by children (n = 194, 36.9 %), specifically paracetamol (n = 140, 26.6 %).
Cases of unintentional poisoning are higher among children aged 1 to 5 years, males and non-Qatari. Most cases occurred in the living room and typically took place in the afternoon. The most common type of poison ingested by children was medicines, i.e., analgesics and antipyretics, specifically paracetamol.
PMCID: PMC4551530  PMID: 26315670
Accident & emergency visits; Children; Government hospital; Poisoning; Qatar
25.  Motorcycle-related hospitalization of adolescents in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Pediatrics  2015;15:105.
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the injury pattern, mechanisms, severity, and mortality of adolescents and adults hospitalized for treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents in a Level I trauma center.
Detailed data regarding patients aged 13–19 years (adolescents) and aged 30–50 years (adults) who had sustained trauma due to a motorcycle accident were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012. The Pearson’s chi-squared test, Fisher’s exact test, or the independent Student’s t-test were performed to compare the adolescent and adult motorcyclists and to compare the motorcycle drivers and motorcycle pillion.
Analysis of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores revealed that the adolescent patients had sustained higher rates of facial, abdominal, and hepatic injury and of cranial, mandibular, and femoral fracture but lower rates of thorax and extremity injury; hemothorax; and rib, scapular, clavicle, and humeral fracture compared to the adults. No significant differences were found between the adolescents and adults regarding Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Trauma-Injury Severity Score (TRISS), mortality, length of hospital stay, or intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate. A significantly greater percentage of adolescents compared to adults were found not to have worn a helmet. Motorcycle riders who had not worn a helmet were found to have a significantly lower first Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and a significantly higher percentage was found to present with unconscious status, head and neck injury, and cranial fracture compared to those who had worn a helmet.
Adolescent motorcycle riders comprise a major population of patients hospitalized for treatment of trauma. This population tends to present with a higher injury severity compared to other hospitalized trauma patients and a bodily injury pattern differing from that of adult motorcycle riders, indicating the need to emphasize use of protective equipment, especially helmets, to reduce their rate and severity of injury.
PMCID: PMC4551731  PMID: 26315551
Abbreviated injury scale; Adolescent; Glasgow coma scale; Injury severity score; New injury severity score; Motorcycle; Trauma; Trauma injury severity score

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