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1.  Temperature modulation with an esophageal heat transfer device- a pediatric swine model study 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15(1):16.
Background
An increasing number of conditions appear to benefit from control and modulation of temperature, but available techniques to control temperature often have limitations, particularly in smaller patients with high surface to mass ratios. We aimed to evaluate a new method of temperature modulation with an esophageal heat transfer device in a pediatric swine model, hypothesizing that clinically significant modulation in temperature (both increases and decreases of more than 1°C) would be possible.
Methods
Three female Yorkshire swine averaging 23 kg were anesthetized with inhalational isoflurane prior to placement of the esophageal device, which was powered by a commercially available heat exchanger. Swine temperature was measured rectally and cooling and warming were performed by selecting the appropriate external heat exchanger mode. Temperature was recorded over time in order to calculate rates of temperature change. Histopathology of esophageal tissue was performed after study completion.
Results
Average swine baseline temperature was 38.3°C. Swine #1 exhibited a cooling rate of 3.5°C/hr; however, passive cooling may have contributed to this rate. External warming blankets maintained thermal equilibrium in swine #2 and #3, demonstrating maximum temperature decrease of 1.7°C/hr. Warming rates averaged 0.29°C/hr. Histopathologic analysis of esophageal tissue showed no adverse effects.
Conclusions
An esophageal heat transfer device successfully modulated the temperature in a pediatric swine model. This approach to temperature modulation may offer a useful new modality to control temperature in conditions warranting temperature management (such as maintenance of normothermia, induction of hypothermia, fever control, or malignant hyperthermia).
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-16
PMCID: PMC4327961
2.  The effect of preoperative suggestions on perioperative dreams and dream recalls after administration of different general anesthetic combinations: a randomized trial in maxillofacial surgery 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15(1):11.
Background
Images evoked immediately before the induction of anesthesia with the help of suggestions may influence dreaming during anesthesia.The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of evoked dreams and dream recalls by employing suggestions before induction of anesthesia while administering different general anesthetic combinations.
Methods
This is a single center, prospective randomized including 270 adult patients scheduled for maxillofacial surgical interventions. Patients were assigned to control, suggestion and dreamfilm groups according to the psychological method used. According to the anesthetic protocol there were also three subgroups: etomidate & sevoflurane, propofol & sevoflurane, propofol & propofol groups. Primary outcome measure was the incidence of postoperative dreams in the non-intervention group and in the three groups receiving different psychological interventions. Secondary endpoint was to test the effect of perioperative suggestions and dreamfilm-formation training on the occurrance of dreams and recallable dreams in different general anesthesiological techniques.
Results
Dream incidence rates measured in the control group did not differ significantly (etomidate & sevoflurane: 40%, propofol & sevoflurane: 26%, propofol & propofol: 39%). A significant increase could be observed in the incidence rate of dreams between the control and suggestion groups in the propofol & sevoflurane (26%-52%) group (p = 0.023). There was a significant difference in the incidence of dreams between the control and dreamfilm subgroup in the propofol & sevoflurane (26% vs. 57%), and in the propofol & propofol group (39% vs.70%) (p = 0.010, and p = 0.009, respectively). Similar to this, there was a significant difference in dream incidence between the dreamfilm and the suggestion subgroups (44% vs. 70%) in the propofol & propofol group (p = 0.019). Propofol as an induction agent contributed most to dream formation and recalls (χ2-test p value: 0.005). The content of images and dreams evoked using suggestions showed great agreement using all three anesthetic protocols.
Conclusion
The psychological method influenced dreaming during anesthesia. The increase of the incidence rate of dreams was dependent on the anesthetic agent used, especially the induction agent.
The study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01839201.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-11) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-11
PMCID: PMC4328798
3.  Association of time in blood glucose range with outcomes following cardiac surgery 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15(1):14.
Background
The importance of optimal postoperative glycemic control in cardiac patients remains unclear. Various glycemic targets have been prescribed to reduce wound infection and overall mortality rates.
Aim of the work: To assess glucose control, as determined by time in range (TIR), in patients with glycemic targets of 6.0 to 8.1 mmol/L, and to determine factors related to poor control.
Methods
This prospective descriptive study evaluated 227 consecutive patients, 100 with and 127 without diabetes, after cardiac surgery. Patients received insulin to target glucose concentrations of 6.0 to 8.1 mmol/L. Data analyzed included patient age, gender, race, Euro score, cardiopulmonary bypass time (CPB), aortic cross clamp time (ACC), length of ventilation, stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and stay in the hospital. Patients were divided into two groups, those who maintained > 80% and < 80% TIR. Outcome variables were compared in diabetics and non-diabetics.
Results
Patients with >80% and <80% TIR were matched in age, sex, gender, and Euro score. Failure to maintain target glycemia was significantly more frequent in diabetics (p = 0.001), in patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) > 8% (p = 0.0001), and in patients taking dopamine (p = 0.04) and adrenaline (p = 0.05). Times of CPB and ACC, length of stay in the ICU and ventilation were significantly higher in patients with TIR <80% than >80%. Rates of hypoglycemia, acute kidney injury, and in-hospital mortality were similar in the two groups, although the incidence of wound infection was higher in patients with TIR <80%. Both diabetics and non-diabetics with low TIR had poorer outcomes, as shown by length of stay and POAF. No significant differences were found between the two ethnic groups (Arabs and Asians).
Conclusion
Patients with >80% TIR, whether or not diabetics, had better outcomes than those with <80% TIR, as determined by wound infection, lengths of ventilation and ICU stay. Additionally, they were not subject to frequent hypoglycemic events. Preoperatively high HbA1C is likely a good predictor of poor glycemic control.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-14
PMCID: PMC4323258  PMID: 25670921
Glucose control; Outcome; Wound infection
4.  Cardiac surgery in 260 octogenarians: a case series 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15(1):15.
Background
The elderly undergo cardiac surgery more and more frequently, often present multiple comorbidities, assume chronic therapies, and present a unique physiology. Aim of our study was to analyze the experience of a referral cardiac surgery center with all types of cardiac surgery interventions performed in patients ≥80 years old over a six years’ period.
Methods
A retrospective observational study performed in a university hospital. 260 patients were included in the study (3.5% of the patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the study period).
Results
Mean age was 82 ± 1.8 years. Eighty-five percent of patients underwent elective surgery, 15% unplanned surgery and 4.2% redo surgery. Intervention for aortic valve pathology and coronary artery bypass grafting were performed in 51% and 46% of the patients, respectively. Interventions involving the mitral valve were the 26% of the total, those on the tricuspid valve were 13% and those on the ascending aortic arch the 9.6%. Postoperative low output syndrome was identified in 44 patients (17%). Mortality was 3.9% and most of the patients (91%) were discharged from hospital in good clinical conditions. Hospital mortality was lower in planned vs unplanned surgery: 3.8% vs 14% respectively. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 9.106, CI 2.275 – 36.450) was the unique independent predictor of mortality.
Conclusions
Clinicians should be aware that cardiac surgery can be safely performed at all ages, that risk stratification is mandatory and that hemodynamic treatment to avoid complications is expected.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-15) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-15
PMCID: PMC4328195
Octogenarian; Cardiac surgery; Mortality; Complications; Anesthesia; Intensive care
5.  Accuracy of tracheal aspirate gram stain in predicting Staphylococcus aureus infection in ventilator-associated pneumonia 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15(1):19.
Background
The Gram stain can be used to direct initial empiric antimicrobial therapy when complete culture is not available. This rapid test could prevent the initiation of inappropriate therapy and adverse outcomes. However, several studies have attempted to determine the value of the Gram stain in the diagnosis and therapy of bacterial infection in different populations of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) with conflicting results. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the Gram stain in predicting the existence of Staphylococcus aureus infections from cultures of patients suspected of having VAP.
Methods
This prospective single-center open cohort study enrolled 399 patients from December 2005 to December 2010. Patients suspected of having VAP by ATS IDSA criteria were included. Respiratory secretion samples were collected by tracheal aspirate (TA) for standard bacterioscopic analysis by Gram stain and culture.
Results
Respiratory secretion samples collected by tracheal aspirates of 392 patients were analyzed by Gram stain and culture. When Gram-positive cocci were arranged in clusters, the sensitivity was 68.4%, specificity 97.8%, positive predictive value 88.1% and negative predictive value 92.8% for predicting the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in culture (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
A tracheal aspirate Gram stain can be used to rule out the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with a clinical diagnosis of VAP with a 92.8% Negative Predictive Value. Therefore, 7.2% of patients with Staphylococcus aureus would not be protected by an empiric treatment that limits antimicrobial coverage to Staphylococcus aureus only when Gram positive cocci in clusters are identified.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-19
PMCID: PMC4323075  PMID: 25670922
Staphylococcus aureus; Gram stain; Tracheal aspirate; Ventilator-associated pneumonia
6.  The efficacy of pre-warming on reducing intraprocedural hypothermia in endovascular coiling of cerebral aneurysms 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15(1):8.
Background
The anesthetic management of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms in the interventional neuroradiology suite can be challenged by hypothermia because of low ambient temperature for operating and maintaining its equipments. We evaluated the efficacy of skin surface warming prior to induction of anesthesia to prevent the decrease in core temperature and reduce the incidence of hypothermia.
Methods
Seventy-two patients were randomized to pre-warmed and control group. The patients in pre-warmed group were warmed 30 minutes before induction with a forced-air warming blanket set at 38°C. Pre-induction tympanic temperature (Tpre) was measured using an infrared tympanic thermometer and core temperature was measured at the esophagus immediately after intubation (T0) and recorded at 20 minutes intervals (T20, T40, T60, T80, T100, and T120). The number of patients who became hypothermic at each time was recorded.
Results
Tpre in the control and pre-warmed group were 36.4 ± 0.4°C and 36.6 ± 0.3°C, whereas T0 were 36.5 ± 0.4°C and 36.6 ± 0.2°C. Core temperatures in the pre-warmed group were significantly higher than the control group at T20, T40, T60, T80, T100, and T120 (P < 0.001). Compared to T0, core temperatures at each time were significantly lower in both two groups (P = 0.007 at T20 in pre-warmed group, P < 0.001 at the other times in both groups). The incidence of hypothermia was significantly lower in the pre-warmed group than the control group from T20 to T120 (P = 0.002 at T20, P < 0.001 at the other times).
Conclusion
Pre-warming for 30 minutes at 38°C did not modify the trends of the temperature decrease seen in the INR suite. It just slightly elevated the beginning post intubation base temperature. The rate of decrease was similar from T20 to T120. However, pre-warming considerably reduced the risk of intraprocedural hypothermia.
Trial registration
Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS) Identifier: KCT0001320. Registered December 19th, 2014.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-8
PMCID: PMC4322559  PMID: 25670919
Cerebral aneurysm; Hypothermia; Interventional neuroradiology; Pre-warming
7.  Abdominal circumference but not the degree of lumbar flexion affects the accuracy of lumbar interspace identification by Tuffier’s line palpation method: an observational study 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15(1):9.
Background
Lumbar puncture for spinal or epidural anesthesia is commonly performed by palpating bony landmarks, but identification of the desired intervertebral level is often inaccurate. It is unclear whether such inaccuracy is related to patient factors, such as body mass index and degree of lumbar flexion. We hypothesized that overweight patients and patients with less of an ability to hyperflex their lumbar spines are prone to inaccurate lumbar spinous intervertebral level identification.
Methods
52 adult volunteers were included in this study. 7 anesthesiologists with different years of experience identified and marked subjects’ levels of the iliac crests, then marked the presumed interspaces. Lumbar X-ray was then performed with metal markers, and actual radiographic findings were identified and compared to the initial markings.
Results
Patients with larger abdominal circumferences (mean (SD), 94.0(12.1) cm), higher body mass indices (25.9(3.9) kg/m2), and aged between 50 and 70 years old had lumbar interspaces that were higher than the presumed level; patients with smaller abdominal circumferences (82.8(13.5) cm) and lower body mass indices (21.6(4.1) kg/m2) had intervertebral levels that were lower than the presumed level. Cobb’s angle, indicating the degree of lumbar flexion, did not affect the accuracy obtained.
Conclusions
Patients’ abdominal circumference, body mass index, and age are factors that may impact the accuracy of lumbar level identification. Tuffier’s line, as identified by palpation, does not seem to be a reliable landmark for proper lumbar interspace identification in all cases.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-9
PMCID: PMC4323173  PMID: 25670920
Lumbar interspace; Spinal anesthesia; Cobb’s angle; Abdominal circumference
8.  Feasibility of ultrasound-guided capsule-sheath space block combined with anterior cervical cutaneous nerves block for thyroidectomy: an observational pilot study 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15(1):4.
Background
We evaluated the efficacy of a new anesthetic technique termed ultrasound-guided capsule-sheath space block (CSSB) combined with anterior cervical cutaneous nerve block (CCNB) for thyroidectomy.
Methods
The study included two parts: Part one was an imaging study to determine technique feasibility. The CSSB was performed on five healthy volunteers by introducing the needle 0.5 cm lateral to the probe under in-plane needle ultrasound guidance. After puncture of the false capsule and its subsequent contraction with the true capsule of thyroid, 10 mL of contrast medium was deposited slowly in the capsule-sheath space. The CCNB was performed bilaterally as follows: Under ultrasound guidance, a subcutaneous injection was made along the sternocleidomastoid using 10 mL of contrast medium which was followed by a girdle-shaped picchu raised from the cricoid cartilage to supraclavicular region. The spreading pattern of contrast medium was imaged using computed tomographic scanning. In part two (a clinical case series) the technique efficacy was evaluated. Seventy-eight patients undergoing thyroidectomy had ultrasound-guided CSSB and CCNB with local anesthetics. The sensory onset of CCNB, intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, and analgesic effect were assessed and complications were noted.
Results
The distribution of contrast medium was well defined. In part two the onset time of CCNB was 2.2 ± 0.7 min, and the hemodynamic parameters remained stable intraoperatively. The recall of visual analogue scale scores during surgery was 2 [1–4] for median (range). The patients’ and surgeons’ satisfaction scores were 2 [1–4] and 1 [1–3] for median (range). No serious complications occurred.
Conclusions
Combining ultrasound-guided CSSB and CCNB is a feasible, effective and safe technique for thyroidectomy.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ChiCTR-ONC-12002025. Registered 19 March 2012.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-4
PMCID: PMC4322798  PMID: 25670918
Regional anesthesia; Ultrasound guidance; Thyroidectomy; Contrast medium; Ropivacaine
9.  Remifentanil added to sufentanil-sevoflurane anesthesia suppresses hemodynamic and metabolic stress responses to intense surgical stimuli more effectively than high-dose sufentanil-sevoflurane alone 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15(1):3.
Background
Even extremely high-doses of the potent opioid, sufentanil, cannot reliably suppress stress responses to intense surgical stimuli such as sternotomy. The chemically related opioid remifentanil with its different pharmacokinetics and binding affinities for delta- and kappa-opioid receptors might be more effective in attenuating these responses.
Methods
ASA I-III patients scheduled for a surgical procedure with sternotomy under balanced anesthesia (sevoflurane and sufentanil 3 μg.kg-1 bolus, 0.017 μg.kg-1.min-1 infusion) were randomized into two groups. Patients in the study group were supplemented with remifentanil (2 μg.kg-1 bolus, 2–7 μg.kg-1.min-1 infusion) starting ten minutes before sternotomy. Heart rate, arterial blood pressures, cardiac index, ejection fraction, systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), total body oxygen uptake (VO2) and electric dermal response were measured and compared between the groups.
Results
62 patients were studied (study group 32, control group 30). Systolic and mean arterial blood pressures, SVRI, VO2 and skin conductance increased during sternotomy and sternal spread in the control group but not in the study group. Systolic blood pressure increase: 7.5 ± 19 mmHg vs. -3.4 ± 8.9 (p = 0.005); VO2 increase: 31 ± 46% vs. -0.4 ± 32%; incidence of systolic blood pressure increase greater than 15 percent: 20% vs. 3% (p = 0.035) (control vs. study group).
Conclusion
High-dose remifentanil added to sevoflurane-sufentanil anesthesia suppresses the sympathoadrenergic response to sternotomy and sternal spread better than high-dose sufentanil alone.
Trial registration
Clinical Trial number: DRKS00004327, August 31, 2012
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-3
PMCID: PMC4322556  PMID: 25670917
Sternotomy; Stress response; Remifentanil; Intraoperative hypertension; Oxygen uptake
10.  A repeated measures, randomised cross-over trial, comparing the acute exercise response between passive and active sitting in critically ill patients 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15(1):1.
Background
Early mobilisation of critically ill patients is safe and beneficial, but the metabolic cost of exercise remains unquantified. This study compared the acute exercise response in critically ill participants during passive and active sitting.
Method
We conducted a prospective, randomised, cross-over study, in ventilated patients receiving rehabilitative physiotherapy. Ten participants completed a passive chair transfer, or a sit on the edge of the bed, followed by the alternate exercise activity on the consecutive day. The primary outcome measure was oxygen consumption.
Results
In comparison to resting supine, a passive chair transfer elicited no change in oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production or minute ventilation; but mean arterial pressure (91.86 mmHg (95% CI 84.61 to 99.10) to 101.23 mmHg (95% CI 93.35 to 109.11) (p = 0.002)) and heart rate (89.13 bpm (95% CI 77.14 to 101.13) to 97.21 bpm (95% CI 81.22 to 113.20) (p = 0.008)) increased. Sitting on the edge of the bed resulted in significant increases in oxygen consumption (262.33 ml/min (95% CI 201.97 to 322.70) to 353.02 ml/min (95% CI 303.50 to 402.55), p = 0.002), carbon dioxide production (171.93 ml/min (95% CI 131.87 to 211.98) to 206.23 ml/min (95% CI 151.03 to 261.43), p = 0.026), minute ventilation (9.97 l/min (95% CI 7.30 to 12.65) to 12.82 l/min (95% CI 10.29 to 15.36), p < 0.001), mean arterial pressure (86.81 mmHg (95% CI 77.48 to 96.14) to 95.59 mmHg (95% CI 88.62 to 102.56), p = 0.034) and heart rate (87.60 bpm (95% CI 73.64 to 101.56) to 94.91 bpm (95% CI 79.57 to 110.25), p = 0.007). When comparing the 2 activities, sitting on the edge of the bed elicited a significantly larger increase in oxygen consumption (90.69 ml/min (95% CI 44.04 to 137.34) vs 14.43 ml/min (95% CI -27.28 to 56.14), p = 0.007) and minute ventilation (2.85 l/min (95% CI 1.70 to 3.99) vs 0.74 l/min (95% CI -0.92 to 1.56), p = 0.012).
Conclusion
Sitting on the edge of the bed is a more metabolically demanding activity than a passive chair transfer in critically ill patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-1
PMCID: PMC4322801  PMID: 25670916
Critical illness; Early ambulation; Exercise; Oxygen consumption; Physiotherapy; Rehabilitation
11.  Anesthetic management of patients undergoing bariatric surgery: two year experience in a single institution in Switzerland 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):125.
Background
In the field of anesthesia for bariatric surgery, a wide variety of recommendations exist, but a general consensus on the perioperative management of such patients is missing. We outline the perioperative experiences that we gained in the first two years after introducing a bariatric program.
Methods
The perioperative approach was established together with all relevant disciplines. Pertinent topics for the anesthesiologists were; successful airway management, indications for more invasive monitoring, and the planning of the postoperative period and deposition. This retrospective analysis was approved by the local ethics committee. Data are mean [SD].
Results
182 bariatric surgical procedures were performed (147 gastric bypass procedures (GBP; 146 (99.3%) performed laparascopically). GBP patients were 43 [10] years old, 78% female, BMI 45 [7] kg/m2, 73% ASA physical status of 2. 42 patients (28.6%) presented with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. 117 GBP (79.6%) patients were intubated conventionally by direct laryngoscopy (one converted to fiber-optic intubation, one aspiration of gastric contents). 32 patients (21.8%) required an arterial line, 10 patients (6.8%) a central venous line. Induction lasted 25 [16] min, the procedure itself 138 [42] min. No blood products were required. Two patients (1.4%) presented with hypothermia (<35°C) at the end of their case. The emergence period lasted 17 [9] min. Postoperatively, 32 patients (21.8%) were transferred to the ICU (one ventilated). The other patients spent 4.1 [0.7] h in the post anesthesia care unit. 15 patients (10.2%) required take backs for surgical revision (two laparotomies).
Conclusions
The physiology and anatomy of bariatric patients demand a tailored approach from both the anesthesiologist and the perioperative team. The interaction of a multi-disciplinary team is key to achieving good outcomes and a low rate of complications.
Trial registration
DRKS00005437 (date of registration 16th December 2013)
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-125
PMCID: PMC4277841  PMID: 25544832
Anesthesia; Complications; Bariatric surgery; Obesity
12.  External validation of the intensive care national audit & research centre (ICNARC) risk prediction model in critical care units in Scotland 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):116.
Background
Risk prediction models are used in critical care for risk stratification, summarising and communicating risk, supporting clinical decision-making and benchmarking performance. However, they require validation before they can be used with confidence, ideally using independently collected data from a different source to that used to develop the model. The aim of this study was to validate the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) model using independently collected data from critical care units in Scotland.
Methods
Data were extracted from the Scottish Intensive Care Society Audit Group (SICSAG) database for the years 2007 to 2009. Recoding and mapping of variables was performed, as required, to apply the ICNARC model (2009 recalibration) to the SICSAG data using standard computer algorithms. The performance of the ICNARC model was assessed for discrimination, calibration and overall fit and compared with that of the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II model.
Results
There were 29,626 admissions to 24 adult, general critical care units in Scotland between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2009. After exclusions, 23,269 admissions were included in the analysis. The ICNARC model outperformed APACHE II on measures of discrimination (c index 0.848 versus 0.806), calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-squared statistic 18.8 versus 214) and overall fit (Brier’s score 0.140 versus 0.157; Shapiro’s R 0.652 versus 0.621). Model performance was consistent across the three years studied.
Conclusions
The ICNARC model performed well when validated in an external population to that in which it was developed, using independently collected data.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-116) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-116
PMCID: PMC4277842  PMID: 25544831
Critical care; Intensive care units; Models; Statistical; Prognosis; Risk adjustment; Severity of illness index; Validation studies
13.  In vivo study of the effects of exogenous hydrogen sulfide on lung mitochondria in acute lung injury in rats 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):117.
Background
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious disease with high incidence in ICU, and impaired mitochondria function plays a significant role in ALI. In this study, we examined the possible roles of exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in lung mitochondria regulation in ALI rats.
Methods
The rat ALI model was induced by an intra-tongue vein Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. We used sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) as the H2S donor. We randomly divided 40 Sprague–Dawley rats into five groups: control, LPS injury, LPS + low-dose NaHS (0.78 mg•kg-1), LPS + middle-dose NaHS (1.56 mg•kg-1), and LPS + high-dose NaHS (3.12 mg•kg-1). Rats were killed 3 h after NaHS administration. We calculated a semi-quantitative histological index of lung injury assessments and measured the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio. We further analyzed serum for interleukin-1β levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We observed lung mitochondria ultrastructures with an electron microscope. We examined oxidative stress markers in lung mitochondria and the mitochondrial swelling and activity. We analyzed lung mitochondria and cytosol Cyt-c protein expression using Western blotting.
Results
Compared to the control group, the quantitative assessment score index, wet-to-dry weight ratios, and interleukin-1β content in the LPS injury group were significantly increased and the mitochondrial ultrastructure damaged. Furthermore, mitochondrial activity, adenosine triphosphatease, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and mitochondrial Cyt-c protein expression were significantly decreased, and malondialdehyde content, mitochondrial swelling, and cytosol Cyt-c protein expression were significantly increased in the LPS injury group compared to the control group. These effects were lessened by NaHS.
Conclusion
Exogenous H2S provided a protective effect against ALI by decreasing the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation level and protecting the cell structure in the LPS-induced rat models. Its regulatory effect on lung mitochondria is positively correlated with the dosage.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-117
PMCID: PMC4279795  PMID: 25550681
Acute lung injury; Mitochondria; Lipopolysaccharide; Exogenous hydrogen sulfide; Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation
14.  Intrathecal injection of fluorocitric acid inhibits the activation of glial cells causing reduced mirror pain in rats 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):119.
Background
Growing evidence has shown that unilateral nerve injury results in pain hypersensitivity in the ipsilateral and contralateral sides respective to the injury site. This phenomenon is known as mirror image pain (MIP). Glial cells have been indicated in the mechanism of MIP; however, it is not clear how glial cells are involved in MIP.
Methods
To observe phenomenon MIP and the following mechanism, 20 adult male Sprague–Dawley rats (weighing 180–220 g) were separated into two groups: Sham Group (n = 10) and left L5 spinal nerve ligated and sectioned (SNL) group (n = 10). Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity were measured for both groups to determine if the SNL model had Mirror image of Pain (MIP). Nav1.7 protein expression in DRG was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and western-blotting. And then to observe the effect of fluorocitrate on MIP, 15 rats were separated into three Groups: Sham Group (n = 5); SNL + FC group: intrathecal injection of Fluorocitric acid(FC) 1 nmol/10 μL (n = 5); SNL + NS group: intrathecal injection of 0.9% Normal Saline (n = 5). Behavior testing, immunocytochemistry, and western-blotting using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from both sides were then conducted.
Results
The results showed pain hypersensitivity in both hind-paws of the SNL animals, Mechanical tests showed the paw withdrawal threshold dropped from 13.30 ± 1.204 g to 2.57 ± 1.963 g at 14 d as will as the ipsilateral paw thermal withdrawal threshold dropped from 16.5 ± 2.236 s to 4.38 ± 2.544 s at 14d. Mechanical tests showed the contralateral paw withdrawal threshold dropped from 14.01 ± 1.412 to 4.2 ± 1.789 g at 7d will the thermal withdrawal threshold dropped from 16.8 ± 2.176 s to 7.6 ± 1.517 s at 7d. Nav1.7 expression increased and glial cells actived in bilateral side DRG after SNL compared with sham group. After intrathecal injection of fluorocitrate, the glial cell in bilatral DRG were inhibited and the pain behavior were reversed in both hindpaws too.
Conclusions
Fluorocitrate can inhibit the activation of glial cells in spinal cord and DRG, and reduce MIP.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-119
PMCID: PMC4297429  PMID: 25598703
Mirror-image pain; Satellite glial cells; DL-fluorocitric acid; Nav1.7 protein
15.  Does premedication with dexmedetomidine provide perioperative hemodynamic stability in hypertensive patients? 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):113.
Background
Perioperative hemodynamic fluctuations are seen more often in hypertensive patients than in normotensive patients. The purpose of our study was to investigate the perioperative hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine and midazolam used for premedication in hypertensive patients relative to each other and in comparison to normotensive patients.
Methods
One-hundred-forty female, normotensive or hypertensive patients undergoing myomectomies or hysterectomies. They were randomly enrolled into the subgroups: Group ND (normotensive-dexmedetomidine); Group HD (hypertensive-dexmedetomine); Group NM (normotensive-midazolam); Group HM (hypertensive- midazolam). Dexmedetomidine was administered at a concentration of 0.5 μg.kg−1, and midazolam was administered at a concentration of 0.025 μg.kg−1 via intravenous (IV) infusion before the induction of anaesthesia. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded at several times (Tbeginning, Tpreop5 min, Tpreop 10 min, Tinduction, Tintubation, Tintubation5 min, Tinitial surgery, Tsurgery 15 min, Tsurgery 30 min, Textubation, Textubation 5 min). Propofol amount for induction, time between induction and initial surgery, demand of antihypertensive therapy, rescue atropine were recorded. Quantitative clinical and demographic characteristics were compared using One Way ANOVA. The values were compared using One-way Analysis of Variance. Additionally periodic variations were examined by One way Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance for groups separately.
Results
SBP was significantly different between normotensive and hypertensive groups at the following time points: Tpreop 5 min, Tpreop 10 min, Tinduction, Tintubation, Tintubation 5 min and Tinitial surgery. MBP was significantly different in the hypertensive groups at Tinduction, Tintubation, Tintubation 5 min, Tinitial surgery, Tsurgery 15 min, Tsurgery 30 min, Textubation and Textubation 5 min. The perioperative requirements for antihypertensive drugs were significantly higher in Group HM.
Conclusion
In the hypertensive patients, dexmedetomidine premedication provides better hemodynamic stability compared with midazolam, and because it decreases the antihypertensive requirements, its use might be beneficial.
Trial registration
Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02058485.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-113
PMCID: PMC4279802  PMID: 25550680
Dexmedetomidine; Midazolam; Premedication; Hypertension
16.  Changes in intracranial pressure gradients between the cerebral hemispheres in patients with intracerebral hematomas in one cerebral hemisphere 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):112.
Background
Intracranial-pressure (ICP) monitoring is useful for patients with increased ICP following hemorrhagic stroke. In this study, the changes in pressure gradients between the two cerebral hemispheres were investigated after hemorrhagic stroke of one side, and after a craniotomy.
Methods
Twenty-four patients with acute cerebral hemorrhages and intracerebral hematomas who exhibited mass effect and midline shift to the contralateral side on computed tomography were selected for this study. After admission, both sides of the cranium were drilled, and optical fiber sensors were implanted to monitor the brain parenchyma pressure (BPP) in both cerebral hemispheres. All patients underwent surgical hematoma evacuations. The preoperative and postoperative BPP data from both cerebral hemispheres were collected at various time points and compared pairwise.
Results
There were statistically significant differences (P < 0.01) in the preoperative BPP values between the two hemispheres at three different time points. Differences in the BPP values between the two hemispheres at the time of surgery, and 24 and 48 h after surgery, were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The posteroperative BPPs of both hemispheres were statistically significantly lower than preoperative recordings.
Conclusions
BPP sensors should be applied to the injured cerebral hemisphere, because this becomes the source of increased ICP. Hematoma evacuation surgery effectively decreases ICP and eliminates pressure gradients between the two cerebral hemispheres, consequently enabling brain shift correction.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-112
PMCID: PMC4265537  PMID: 25506260
Intracranial-pressure monitoring; Elevated intracranial pressure; Intracranial pressure monitoring; Cerebral hemisphere
17.  Administration of fibrinogen concentrate for refractory bleeding in massively transfused, non-trauma patients with coagulopathy: a retrospective study with comparator group 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):109.
Background
This retrospective, single centre study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of fibrinogen concentrate (FBNc) in decreasing blood requirements and reaching optimal fibrinogen level, in non-trauma, massively transfused, bleeding patients with coagulopathy.
Methods
Over a 3-years period, all patients for whom a massive transfusion protocol was activated and had received ≥4 units of allogeneic blood components within a ≤4 h period, were included. Patients were classified according to whether they received FBNc or achieved an optimal fibrinogen level of ≥2 g/L within 24 h after FBNc administration.
Results
Seventy-one patients received 2 [2,4] g of FBNc (FBNc group) and 72 did not (comparator group). FBNc was administered after transfusing 5 [5,9] blood component units, 3 [2,6] hours after massive transfusion protocol activation. Linear regression analysis showed that SOFA (AOR 0.75 [95% CI:0.08-1.43]) and admission fibrinogen level (AOR -2.7 [95% CI:-4.68 – -0.78]), but not FBNc administration, were independently associated with total transfused units. There was a significant inverse relation between both admission and target fibrinogen levels, and total transfused components. Logistic regression showed a direct relationship between admission fibrinogen level and achieving a target level ≥2 g/L (AOR 3.29 [95% CI;1.95-5.56]). No thromboembolic events associated with FBNc were observed.
Conclusions
In massively transfused, non-trauma patients with coagulopathy and refractory bleeding, late administration of low FBNc dosage was not associated with decreased blood transfusion or increased post-infusion fibrinogen level. Given that both fibrinogen upon admission and target fibrinogen levels were associated with decreased blood transfusion, earlier administration and higher doses of FBNc could be needed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-109
PMCID: PMC4258800  PMID: 25489274
Anaemia; Bleeding; Clauss method; Fibrinogen concentrate; Goal directed therapy; Massive transfusion protocol; Thromboelastometry; ROTEM; Thromboelastography; TEG; FIBTEM; Transfusion
18.  Culture negative empyema in a critically ill child: an opportunity for rapid molecular diagnostics 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):107.
Background
Nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAAT) are advancing our ability to make rapid molecular diagnoses in patients with serious culture negative infections. This is the first report of PCR coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry use in the evaluation of complicated community acquired pneumonia in a pediatric patient.
Case presentation
We present a case of culture negative empyema in a critically ill, Caucasian, 2-year-old girl who was treated with broad-spectrum empiric antibiotics, in which the length of stay was prolonged by adverse effects of the empiric antibiotic treatment. PCR coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was applied to culture negative fluid and tissue samples from the patient in order to determine the etiology of the empyema.
Conclusions
Using this method, Streptococcus mitis/viridans was identified as the pathogen. A retrospective review of cases of empyema in children at our institution found that 87.5% of cases were negative for identification of a pathogen and antibiotics were administered to 100% of cases prior to collecting pleural fluid for culture. Understanding the role of Streptococcus mitis/viridans group in the etiology of empyema using an advanced NAAT coupled with mass spectrometry can enlighten clinicians as to the impact of this pathogen in community acquired pneumonia and help assist with antibiotic stewardship.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-107
PMCID: PMC4258007  PMID: 25484623
Empyema; Culture negative infection; Antimicrobial stewardship; Pediatric infection
19.  The influence of statin exposure on inflammatory markers in patients with early bacterial infection: pilot prospective cohort study 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):106.
Background
In the context of infection, progressive illness resulting in acute organ dysfunction is thought to be secondary to inflammatory response. Our aims were to determine risk factors for progressive illness following infection in a low-risk hospitalised cohort, including the impact of prior stain therapy.
Methods
We performed a prospective observational cohort study on two adult acute medical wards of a single tertiary academic hospital. We screened drug prescription charts of all adult acute medical admissions for inclusion criteria of inpatient administration of antibiotics for more than 24 hours for a microbiologically confirmed or clinically suspected infection. Patients were followed until admission to a high dependency unit (HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU), discharge from hospital, or to a maximum of 10 days. Outcomes were evolution of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, white cell count and C-reactive protein measurements, and adverse clinical outcomes. We constructed multivariable models accounting for repeated within-patient measurements to determine associations between a priori selected predictors (days since admission, age, gender, Charlson score, prior statin exposure) and selected outcomes.
Results
We enrolled 209 patients; 27.8% were statin users and the commonest infection was pneumonia (51.0%). Most (88.0%) had at least 1 SIRS criterion on admission, and 76 (37.3%) manifested additional SIRS criteria over time. Risks of admission to HDU/ICU (3.3%) and of 30-day mortality (5.7%) were low. The proportion of patients with at least 1 SIRS criterion, mean CRP, and mean WBC all decreased over time. Multivariable regression models identified days since hospital admission as the only variable associated with daily presence of SIRS criteria, WCC, or CRP (adjusted OR <1 and p < 0.0001 in all analyses). Statin exposure was not a significant predictor.
Conclusions
This cohort of ward patients treated for infection had a low risk of clinical deterioration, inflammatory markers improved over time, and statin exposure was not associated with any outcome. Future larger studies may identify risk factors for progression of illness in this population and plausible surrogate endpoints for evaluation in clinical trials.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-106
PMCID: PMC4256798  PMID: 25484622
Sepsis; Biomarkers; Surrogate end-points; Progression of illness
20.  Techniques for the insertion of the proseal laryngeal mask airway: comparison of the foley airway stylet tool with the introducer tool in a prospective, randomized study 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):105.
Background
Many tools have been developed to facilitate the insertion of the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion, which can be impeded by folding of its soft cuff. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of ProSeal LMA insertion guided by a soft, direct optical Foley Airway Stylet Tool (FAST) with the standard introducer tool (IT).
Methods
One hundred sixty patients undergoing general anesthesia using the ProSeal LMA as an airway management device were randomly allocated to either FAST-guided or IT-assisted groups. Following ProSeal LMA insertion, the glottic and esophageal openings were identified using a fiberoptic bronchoscope introduced through the airway and the drain tube. The primary outcomes were time taken to insert the ProSeal LMA and the success rate at the first attempt. Secondary end points included ease of insertion, hemodynamic response to insertion, and postoperative adverse events recorded in the recovery room and on the first postoperative morning.
Results
One hundred forty patients were included in the final analysis: 66 in the FAST-guided group and 74 in the IT-assisted group. The success rate of FAST device-guided ProSeal LMA insertion (95.7%) was broadly comparable with IT-assisted insertion (98.7%). However, the time taken to insert the ProSeal LMA was significantly longer when the FAST technique was used (p <0.001). The incidence of correct alignment of the airway tube and the drain tube did not differ significantly between the groups. There were no significant differences in ease of insertion or hemodynamic responses to insertion, except that the incidence of postoperative sore throat was significantly higher in the FAST group on the first postoperative day (22.2% compared with 6.8% in the IT group; p =0.035).
Conclusion
Both FAST-guided and IT-assisted techniques achieved correct ProSeal LMA positioning, but the IT technique was significantly quicker and less likely to cause a sore throat.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02048657
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-105
PMCID: PMC4247224  PMID: 25435806
ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (LMA); Foley Airway Stylet Tool (FAST); Introducer tool (IT); Fiberoptic bronchoscope
21.  An evaluation of POSSUM and P-POSSUM scoring in predicting post-operative mortality in a level 1 critical care setting 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):104.
Background
POSSUM and P-POSSUM are used in the assessment of outcomes in surgical patients. Neither scoring systems’ accuracy has been established where a level 1 critical care facility (level 1 care ward) is available for perioperative care. We compared POSSUM and P-POSSUM predicted with observed mortality on a level 1 care ward.
Methods
A prospective, observational study was performed between May 2000 and June 2008. POSSUM and P-POSSUM scores were calculated for all postoperative patients who were admitted to the level 1 care ward. Data for post-operative mortality were obtained from hospital records for 2552 episodes of patient care. Observed vs expected mortality was compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the goodness of fit assessed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow equation.
Results
ROC curves show good discriminative ability between survivors and non-survivors for POSSUM and P-POSSUM. Physiological score had far higher discrimination than operative score. Both models showed poor calibration and poor goodness of fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow). Observed to expected (O:E) mortality ratio for POSSUM and P-POSSUM indicated significantly fewer than expected deaths in all deciles of risk.
Conclusions
Our data suggest a 30-60% reduction in O:E mortality. We suggest that the use of POSSUM models to predict mortality in patients admitted to level 1 care ward is inappropriate or that a recalibration of POSSUM is required to make it useful in a level 1 care ward setting.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-104
PMCID: PMC4247634  PMID: 25469106
22.  Pre-analytic factors and initial biomarker levels in community-acquired pneumonia patients 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):102.
Background
Blood biomarkers are increasingly used to diagnose, guide therapy in, and risk-stratify community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients in emergency departments (EDs). How pre-analytic factors affect these markers’ initial levels in this population is unknown.
Methods
In this secondary analysis of consecutive ED patients with CAP from a large multicentre antibiotic stewardship trial, we used adjusted multivariate regression models to determine the magnitude and statistical significance of differences in mean baseline concentrations of five biomarkers (procalcitonin [PCT], C-reactive protein [CRP], white blood cells count [WBC], proadrenomedullin [ProADM], copeptin) associated with six pre-analytic factors (antibiotic or corticosteroid pretreatment, age, gender, chronic renal failure or chronic liver insufficiency).
Results
Of 925 CAP patients (median age 73 years, 58.8% male), 25.5% had antibiotic pretreatment, 2.4%, corticosteroid pretreatment, 22.3%, chronic renal failure, 2.4% chronic liver insufficiency. Differences associated with pre-analytic factors averaged 6.1% ±4.6%; the three largest statistically significant changes (95% confidence interval) were: PCT, +14.2% (+2.1% to +26.4%, p = 0.02) with liver insufficiency; ProADM, +13.2% (+10.2% to +16.1%, p < 0.01) with age above median; CRP, -12.8% (-25.4% to -0.2%, p = 0.05) with steroid pretreatment. In post hoc sensitivity analyses, reclassification statistics showed that these factors did not result in significant changes of biomarker levels across clinically used cut-off ranges.
Conclusions
Despite statistically significant associations of some pre-analytic factors and biomarker levels, a clinically relevant influence seems unlikely. Our observations reinforce the concept of using biomarkers in algorithms with widely-separated cut-offs and overruling criteria considering the entire clinical picture.
Trial registration
Identifier ISRCTN95122877.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-102) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-102
PMCID: PMC4240803  PMID: 25419180
Community-acquired pneumonia; Blood biomarkers; Procalcitonin; C-reactive protein; White blood cells count; Proadrenomedullin; Copeptin; Pre-analytic factors; Pretreatment
23.  GlideScope Use improves intubation success rates: an observational study using propensity score matching 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):101.
Background
Rigid video laryngoscopes are popular alternatives to direct laryngoscopy for intubation, but further large scale prospective studies comparing these devices to direct laryngoscopy in routine anesthesiology practice are needed. We hypothesized that the first pass success rate with one particular video laryngoscope, the GlideScope, would be higher than the success rate with direct laryngoscopy.
Methods
3831 total intubation attempts were tracked in an observational study comparing first-pass success rate using a Macintosh or Miller-style laryngoscope with the GlideScope. Propensity scoring was then used to select 626 subjects matched between the two groups based on their morphologic traits.
Results
Comparing the GlideScope and direct laryngoscopy groups suggested that intubation would be more difficult in the GlideScope group based on the Mallampati class, cervical range of motion, mouth opening, dentition, weight, and past intubation history. Thus, a propensity score based on these factors was used to balance the groups into two 313 patient cohorts. Direct laryngoscopy was successful in 80.8% on the first-pass intubation attempt, while the GlideScope was successful in 93.6% (p <0.001; risk difference of 0.128 with a 95% CI of 0.0771 – 0.181).
Conclusion
A greater first-attempt success rate was found when using the GlideScope versus direct laryngoscopy. In addition, the GlideScope was found to be 99% successful for intubation after initial failure of direct laryngoscopy, helping to reduce the incidence of failed intubation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-101
PMCID: PMC4233079  PMID: 25400507
Airway management; Direct laryngoscopy; Difficult intubation
24.  Continuous spinal anaesthesia versus ultrasound-guided combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block for hip replacement surgery in elderly high-risk patients: a prospective randomised study 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):99.
Background
Our aim is to compare the hemodynamic effects of combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block (PCSNB) with continuous spinal anaesthesia (CSA) in elderly high-risk patients undergoing hip replacement surgery.
Methods
Seventy patients over the age of 60 with ASA III or IV physical status were randomly allocated to two groups: In the PCSNB group, ultrasound-guided psoas compartment block was performed with modified Winnie technique using 30 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1:200.000 epinephrine (5 μgr/mL) and iliac crest block was performed using the same local anaesthetic solution (5 mL). All patients in the PCSNB group needed continuing infusion of propofol (2 mg/kg/h) during operation. In the CSA group, CSA was performed in the L3-L4 interspaced with the patient in lateral decubitus position using 2.5 mg of isobaric bupivacaine 0.5%. When sensory block was not reached to the level of T12 within 10 minutes in the CSA group, additional 2.5 mg of isobaric bupivacaine 0.5% was administered through the catheter at 5-min intervals by limiting the total dose of 15 mg until a T12 level of the sensory block was achieved.
Results
The PCSNB group had significantly higher mean arterial blood pressure values at the beginning of surgery and at 5th, 10th and 20th minutes of surgery compared to the CSA group (P =0.038, P =0.029, P =0.012, P =0.009 respectively). There were no significant differences between groups in terms of heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation values during surgery and the postoperative period (P >0.05). Arterial hypotension required ephedrine was observed in 13 patients in the CSA and 4 patients in the PCSNB group (P =0.012).
Conclusions
CSA and PCSNB produce satisfactory quality of anaesthesia in elderly high-risk patients with fewer hemodynamic changes in PCSNB cases compared with CSA cases.
Trial registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12614000658617, Registered 24 June 2014.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-99
PMCID: PMC4237736  PMID: 25414593
Anaesthesia technique; Hip surgery; High-risk patient; Continuous spinal anaesthesia; Combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block
25.  A confounding coincidence: epidural anesthesia and paraplegia due to intramedullary tuberculoma in a patient who underwent cholecystectomy 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14(1):100.
Background
Paraplegia associated with epidural anesthesia or caused by intramedullary spinal tuberculoma is rare but catastrophic. We present a case of paraplegia following epidural anesthesia in a patient with an undiagnosed intramedullary spinal tuberculoma.
Case presentation
A 42-year-old man developed paraplegia after an open cholecystectomy under epidural anesthesia. Spinal cord infarction, acute transverse myelitis, and intramedullary neoplasms were ruled out by histopathologic examination, and intramedullary spinal tuberculoma at the T6–T7 level was identified. Despite surgical treatment and subsequent antituberculous therapy, the patient retained some disability attributable to the delay in diagnosis.
Conclusion
Physicians should be aware of coexisting disease as a cause of paraplegia following procedures using epidural anesthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive diagnostic test, although it is still difficult to differentiate spinal cord infarction, myelitis, intramedullary spinal tuberculoma, and neoplasms from imaging features alone.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-100
PMCID: PMC4237767  PMID: 25414594
Epidural anesthesia; Intramedullary spinal tuberculoma; Paraplegia

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