To determine CYP2C19 and CYP2C8 allele frequencies, 28 coding and/or functional variants were genotyped in 1250 African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) individuals. The combined CYP2C19 variant allele frequencies ranged from ~0.30–0.41; however, the CYP2C8 frequencies were much lower (~0.04–0.13). After incorporating previously reported CYP2C9 genotyping results from these populations (36 total CYP2C variants), 16 multi-ethnic CYP2C haplotypes were inferred with frequencies >0.5%. Notably, the 2C19*17-2C9*1-2C8*2 haplotype was identified among African-Americans (8%) and Hispanics (2%), indicating that CYP2C19*17 does not always tag a CYP2C haplotype that encodes efficient CYP2C-substrate metabolism. The 2C19*1-2C9*2-2C8*3 haplotype was identified in all populations except African-Americans and additional novel haplotypes were identified in selected populations (e.g., 2C19*2-2C9*1-2C8*4, 2C19*4B-2C9*1-2C8*1), together indicating that both CYP2C19*17 and *2 can be linked with other CYP2C loss-of-function alleles. These results have important implications for pharmacogenomic association studies involving the CYP2C locus and are clinically relevant when administering CYP2C-substrate medications.
CYP2C19; CYP2C8; CYP2C9; clinical pharmacogenetics; linkage disequilibrium; haplotype
As a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonist, fenofibrate favorably modulates dyslipidemia and inflammation markers, which are associated with cardiovascular risk. To determine whether variation in the PPARα receptor gene was associated with lipid and inflammatory marker response, we conducted a three week trial of fenofibrate in 861 men and women. Mixed linear models which controlled for age and sex, as well as family pedigree and study-center, were constructed using SNPs in the PPARα gene as predictors and changes in fasting triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol and inflammatory markers as outcomes. Significant associations with low-density cholesterol (LDL-C) and interleukin-2 (IL-2; P<.001) responses to fenofibrate were found. Although there were suggestive associations with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and TG responses (P<.05), these did not survive the correction for multiple testing. We conclude that variants in the PPARα gene may contribute to future pharmacogenomic paradigms seeking to predict fenofibrate responders from both an anti-dyslipidemic and anti-inflammatory perspective.
lipid; inflammation; PPARA; pharmacogenetics; GOLDN; fenofibrate response
Marked prolongation of the QT interval and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia following medication (drug-induced long QT syndrome, diLQTS) is a severe adverse drug reaction (ADR) that phenocopies congenital long QT syndrome (cLQTS) and one of the leading causes for drug withdrawal and relabeling. We evaluated the frequency of rare non-synonymous variants in genes contributing to the maintenance of heart rhythm in cases of diLQTS using targeted capture coupled to next generation sequencing. Eleven of 31 diLQTS subjects (36%) carried a novel missense mutation in genes with known congenital arrhythmia associations or a known cLQTS mutation. In the 26 Caucasian subjects, 23% carried a highly conserved rare variant predicted to be deleterious to protein function in these genes compared with only 2-4% in public databases (p < 0.003). We conclude that rare variation in genes responsible for congenital arrhythmia syndromes is frequent in diLQTS. Our findings demonstrate that diLQTS is a pharmacogenomic syndrome predisposed by rare genetic variants.
pharmacogenomics; sudden cardiac death; adverse drug reaction; next generation sequencing
Nearly one-third of adults in the U.S. have hypertension, which is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. The goal of antihypertensive pharmacogenetic research is to enhance understanding of drug response based on the interaction of individual genetic architecture and antihypertensive therapy to improve blood pressure control and ultimately prevent CVD outcomes. In the context of the Genetics of Hypertension Associated Treatment (GenHAT) study and using a case-only design, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in RYR3 interact with four classes of antihypertensive drugs, particularly the calcium channel blocker amlodipine versus other classes, to modify the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD; fatal CHD and non-fatal myocardial infarction combined) and heart failure in high-risk hypertensive individuals. RYR3 mediates the mobilization of stored Ca+2 in cardiac and skeletal muscle to initiate muscle contraction. There was suggestive evidence of pharmacogenetic effects on heart failure, the strongest of which was for rs877087, with the smallest p-value =.0005 for the codominant model when comparing amlodipine versus all other treatments. There were no pharmacogenetic effects observed for CHD. The findings reported here for the case-only analysis of the antihypertensive pharmacogenetic effect of RYR3 among 3,058 CHD cases and 1,940 heart failure cases show that a hypertensive patient’s genetic profile may help predict which medication(s) might better lower cardiovascular disease risk.
RYR3 gene; calcium channel blocker; hypertension; coronary heart disease; heart failure; genetic interaction
Inhaled corticosteroids are the most commonly used controller medications prescribed for asthma. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1876828 in CRHR1 and rs37973 in GLCCI1, have previously been associated with corticosteroid efficacy. We studied data from four existing clinical trials of asthmatics who received inhaled corticosteroids and had lung function measured by forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) before and after the period of such treatment. We combined the two SNPs rs37973 and rs1876828 into a predictive test of FEV1 change using a Bayesian model, which identified patients with good or poor steroid response (highest or lowest quartile, respectively) with predictive performance of 65.7% (p = 0.039 vs. random) area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve in the training population and 65.9% (p = 0.025 vs. random) in the test population. These findings show that two genetic variants can be combined into a predictive test that achieves similar accuracy and superior replicability compared with single SNP predictors.
Pharmacogenetics; Asthma; Glucocorticoids; Predictive Modeling
The discovery of pharmacogenomic markers in colorectal cancer (CRC) could be setting-specific. FOLFOX4 is employed in the adjuvant and metastatic setting in CRC. This prospective study is aimed to validate in the adjuvant setting the pharmacogenomic markers of toxicity reported in the metastatic setting (that is, GSTP1-rs947894, and -rs1138272; GSTM1-null genotype; AGXT-rs4426527, -rs34116584 and del-74 bp), and to discover additional markers. CRC patients (n = 144) treated with adjuvant FOLFOX4 were genotyped for 57 polymorphisms in 29 genes. Grade ≥2 neurotoxicity was associated false discovery rate-adjusted q-value <0.1) with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ABCC1 (rs2074087: odds ratio = 0.43(0.22–0.86)), and ABCC2 (rs3740066: 2.99(1.16–7.70); rs1885301: 3.06(1.35–6.92); rs4148396: 4.69(1.60–13.74); rs717620: 14.39(1.63–127.02)). hMSH6-rs3136228 was associated with grade 3–4 neutropenia (3.23(1.38–7.57), q-value = 0.0937). XRCC3-rs1799794 was associated with grade 3–4 non-hematological toxicity (8.90(2.48–31.97), q-value = 0.0150). The markers previously identified in metastatic CRC were not validated. We have identified new markers of toxicity in genes of transport and DNA repair. If validated in other studies, they could help to identify patients at risk of toxicity.
pharmacogenomics; FOLFOX4; colorectal cancer; neurotoxicity
A possible side effect of serotonin-enhancing drugs is the serotonin syndrome, which can be lethal. Here we examined possible hypersensitivity to two such drugs, the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) and the atypical opioid tramadol, in mice lacking the genes for both monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and MAOB. MAOA/B-knockout (KO) mice displayed baseline serotonin syndrome behaviors, and these behavioral responses were highly exaggerated following 5-HTP or tramadol versus baseline and wild-type (WT) littermates. Compared with MAOA/B-WT mice, baseline tissue serotonin levels were increased ~2.6–3.9-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. Following 5-HTP, serotonin levels were further increased ~4.5–6.2-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. These exaggerated responses are in line with the exaggerated responses following serotonin-enhancing drugs that we previously observed in mice lacking the serotonin transporter (SERT). These findings provide a second genetic mouse model suggestive of possible human vulnerability to the serotonin syndrome in individuals with lesser-expressing MAO or SERT polymorphisms that confer serotonergic system changes.
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP); monoamine oxidase (MAO) A/B-knockout mice; serotonin syndrome; tramadol
A recent genome-wide analysis discovered an association between a haplotype (from rs317689/rs315135/rs7297610) on Chromosome 12q15 and blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide in African-Americans. Our aim was to replicate this association and investigate possible functional mechanisms. We observed similar associations between this haplotype and hydrochlorothiazide response in an independent sample of 746 Caucasians and African-Americans randomized to hydrochlorothiazide or atenolol treatment. The haplotype association was driven by variation at rs7297610, where C/C genotypes were associated with greater mean (systolic: 3.4mmHg, P=0.0275; diastolic: 2.5mmHg, P=0.0196) responses to hydrochlorothiazide vs. T-allele carriers. Such an association was absent in atenolol-treated participants, supporting this as hydrochlorothiazide-specific. Expression analyses in hydrochlorothiazide-treated African-Americans showed differential leukocyte YEATS4 expression between rs7297610 genotype groups at baseline (P=0.024), and reduced expression in C/C genotypes (P=0.009), but not in T-carriers. Our data confirm previous genome-wide findings at 12q15 and suggest differential YEATS4 expression could underpin rs7297610-associated HCTZ response variability, which may have future implications for guiding thiazide treatment.
hydrochlorothiazide; hypertension; pharmacogenomics; blood pressure; YEATS4; diuretics
Alterations in expression of a cannabinoid receptor (CNR1, CB1), and of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) that degrades endogenous ligands of CB1, may contribute to the development of addiction. The 385C>A in the FAAH gene and six polymorphisms of CNR1 were genotyped in former heroin addicts and control subjects (247 Caucasians, 161 Hispanics, 179 African Americans and 19 Asians). In Caucasians, long repeats (≥14) of 18087–18131 (TAA)8–17 were associated with heroin addiction (P = 0.0102). Across three ethnicities combined, a highly significant association of long repeats with heroin addiction was found (z = 3.322, P = 0.0009). Point-wise significant associations of allele 1359A (P= 0.006) and genotype 1359AA (P= 0.034) with protection from heroin addiction were found in Caucasians. Also in Caucasians, the genotype pattern, 1359G>A and −6274A>T, was significantly associated with heroin addiction experiment wise (P= 0.0244). No association of FAAH 385C>A with heroin addiction was found in any group studied.
drug addiction; SNPs; CB1; CNR1; FAAH; haplotypes
Recent studies suggest CD133, a surface protein widely used for isolation of colon cancer stem cells, to be associated with tumor angiogenesis and recurrence. We hypothesized that gene expression levels and germline variations in CD133 will predict clinical outcome in patients with mCRC, treated in first-line setting with 5-FU, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab and we investigated whether there is a correlation with gene expression levels of CD133, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors.
We evaluated intra-tumoral gene expression levels by quantitative RT-PCR from 54 patients and 3 germline variants of the CD133 gene by PCR-RFLP from 91 patients with genomic DNA. High gene expression levels of CD133 (>7.76) conferred a significantly greater tumor response (RR=86%) than patients with low expression levels (≤7.76, RR=38%, adjusted p=0.003), independent of VEGF or its receptor gene expression levels. Gene expression levels of CD133 were significantly associated with VEGF and its receptors mRNA levels (VEGFR-1 (p<.01), -2, and -3, p<0.05). Combined analyses of two polymorphisms showed a significant association with PFS (18.5 months vs 9.8 months, p=0.004), in multivariate analysis as an independent prognostic factor for PFS (adjusted p=0.002). These results suggest CD133 is a predictive marker for standard first-line bevacizumab-based treatment in mCRC.
CD133; Prominin-1; bevacizumab; predictive markers; molecular markers; colorectal cancer
A pro-asthmatic culture milieu and β2-agonist (isoproterenol) were previously shown to regulate the expression of select transcription factors (TFs) within human airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells. This study tests 1116 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 98 of these TF genes for association with bronchodilator response (BDR) in asthma patients. Genotyping was conducted using the Illumina HumanHap550v3 Beadchip in 403 non-Hispanic White asthmatic children and their parents. SNPs were evaluated for association with BDR using family and population-based analyses. Forty-two SNPs providing p values < 0.1 in both analyses were then genotyped in three adult asthma trials. One SNP 5’ of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene was associated with BDR in the childhood population and two adult populations (p value = 0.0012). This investigation identified a novel locus for inter-individual variability in BDR and represents a translation of a cellular drug-response study to potential personalization of clinical asthma management.
Bronchodilator response; transcription factor; association; thyroid hormone receptor β; asthma; pharmacogenetics
Human organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3, SLC22A3) mediates the uptake of many important endogenous amines and basic drugs in a variety of tissues. OCT3 is identified as one of the important risk loci for prostate cancer and is markedly under-expressed in aggressive prostate cancers. The goal of this study was to identify genetic and epigenetic factors in the promoter region that influence the expression level of OCT3. Haplotypes that contained the common variants, g.-81G>delGA (rs60515630) (minor allele frequency (MAF) 11.5% in African American) and g.-2G>A (rs555754) (MAF>30% in all ethnic groups) showed significant increases in luciferase reporter activities and exhibited stronger transcription factor binding affinity than the haplotypes that contained the major alleles. Consistent with the reporter assays, OCT3 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in Asian (P<0.001) and Caucasian (P<0.05) liver samples from individuals who were homozygous for g.-2A/A in comparison with those homozygous for the g.-2G/G allele. Studies revealed that the methylation level in the basal promoter region of OCT3 was associated with OCT3 expression level and tumorigenesis capability in various prostate cancer cell lines. The methylation level of the OCT3 promoter was higher in 62% of prostate tumor samples compared with matched normal samples. Our studies demonstrate that genetic polymorphisms in the proximal promoter region of OCT3 alter the transcription rate of the gene and may be associated with altered expression levels of OCT3 in human liver. Aberrant methylation contributes to the reduced expression of OCT3 in prostate cancer.
SLC22A3; Polymorphism; Methylation and Prostate Cancer
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones widely used as pharmaceutical interventions, which act mainly by regulating gene expression levels. A large fraction of patients (~30%), especially those of African descent, show a weak response to treatment. To interrogate the contribution of variable transcriptional response to inter-ethnic differences, we measured in vitro lymphocyte GC sensitivity (LGS) and transcriptome-wide response to GCs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from African-American and European-American healthy donors. We found that transcriptional response after 8hrs treatment was significantly correlated with variation in LGS within and between populations. We found that NFKB1, a gene previously found to predict LGS within populations, was more strongly down-regulated in European-Americans on average. NFKB1 could not completely explain population differences, however, and we found an additional 177 genes with population differences in the average log2 fold change (FDR<0.05), most of which also showed a weaker transcriptional response in African-Americans. These results suggest that inter-ethnic differences in GC sensitivity reflect variation in transcriptional response at many genes, including regulators with large effects (e.g. NFKB1) and numerous other genes with smaller effects.
regulatory variation; gene expression; glucocorticoids; ethnic disparities; asthma; NFκB
The drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein possesses two common and often linked polymorphisms that result in variable drug action. G2677T results in A893S, whereas C3435T is synonymous and has been reported to alter protein folding. We tested the effect of these MDR1 variants on Human Ether-Related A Go-Go (HERG) block by ibutilide in CHO cells 48 h following transient transfection with an IRES-dsRed vector containing MDR1, G2677T MDR1, G2677T/C3435T MDR1 or an empty bicistronic site and an IRES-GFP vector containing HERG (KCNH2). Cotransfection of MDR1 variants had no effect on IKr amplitude at baseline. Cells cotransfected with MDR1-G2677T showed resistance to ibutilide vs HERG alone (IC50: 105.3±1.42 nM vs 27.4±2.5 nM; P<0.0001), consistent with the idea that A893S attenuates IKr block by enhancing drug efflux and thus reducing the drug available to interact with the channel binding site. However, G2677T/C3435T cells showed ibutilide sensitivity similar to cells expressing HERG alone (IC50: 22.2±0.9 nM). Immunostaining showed that the C3435T variant did not traffic to the cell surface. Coculture with fexofenadine(1 μM), an MDR1 substrate known to rescue misfolding in other membrane proteins, restored cell surface expression of MDR1 G2677T/C3435T and restored resistance to block HERG by ibutilide 200 nM (98.5±0.98% vs 42.3±2.2%, P<0.001). The non-synonymous MDR1 variant G2677 T (A893S) confers resistance to ibutilide block of IKr, which is mitigated by the C3435T polymorphism through reduced protein expression, an effect that can be restored by coculture with fexofenadine. These data identify ibutilide as an MDR1 substrate and further support the concept that variable drug transport function can modulate the action of HERG blockers.
pharmacology; long QT syndrome; P-glycoprotein; ATP-binding cassette transporters; antiarrhythmia agents
Platinating agents are used in the treatment of many cancers, yet they can induce toxicities and resistance that limit their utility. Using previously published and additional world population panels of diverse ancestry totaling 608 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), we performed meta-analyses of over 3 million SNPs for both carboplatin- and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. The most significant SNP in the carboplatin meta-analysis is located in an intron of NBAS (p = 5.1 × 10−7). The most significant SNP in the cisplatin meta-analysis is upstream of KRT16P2 (p = 5.8 × 10−7). We also show that cisplatin-susceptibility SNPs are enriched for carboplatin-susceptibility SNPs. Most of the variants that associate with platinum-induced cytotoxicity are polymorphic across multiple world populations; therefore, they could be tested in follow-up studies in diverse clinical populations. Seven genes previously implicated in platinating agent response, including BCL2, GSTM1, GSTT1, ERCC2, and ERCC6 were also implicated in our meta-analyses.
meta-analysis; pharmacogenomics; cisplatin; carboplatin; cross-population
The ω-hydroxylase CYP4A11 catalyzes the transformation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to omega-hydroxylated-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonists. PPARα activation increases high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). A cytosine-for-thymidine (T8590C) variant of CYP4A11 encodes for a ω-hydroxylase with reduced activity. This study examined the relationship between CYP4A11 T8590C genotype and metabolic parameters in the Framingham Offspring Study and in a clinical practice-based biobank, BioVU. In women in the Framingham Offspring Study, the CYP4A11 8590C allele was associated with reduced HDL-C concentrations (54.2±0.9 mg/dL in CYP4A11 CC or CT genotype women versus 56.7±0.5 mg/dL in TT women, p=0.02), and with an increased prevalence of low HDL-C, defined categorically as ≤50mg/dL [odds ratio 1.39 (95% CI 1.02-1.90), p=0.04]. In the BioVU cohort, the CYP4A11 8590C allele was also associated with low HDL-C in women [odds ratio 1.69 (95% CI 1.03-2.77, p=0.04)]. There was no relationship between genotype and HDL-C in men in either cohort.
We conducted gender-stratified analyses on a systems-based candidate gene study of 53 regions involved in nicotinic response and the brain-reward pathway in two randomized clinical trials of smoking cessation treatments (placebo, bupropion, transdermal and nasal spray nicotine replacement therapy). We adjusted P-values for multiple correlated tests, and used a Bonferroni corrected α-level of 5 × 10−4 to determine system-wide significance. Four SNPs (rs12021667, rs12027267, rs6702335, rs12039988; r2>0.98) in erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) had a significant male-specific marginal association with smoking abstinence (OR=0.5; 95% CI 0.3–0.6) at end of treatment (adjusted P<6 × 10−5). rs806365 in cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) had a significant male-specific gene-treatment interaction at 6-month follow-up (adjusted P=3.9 × 10−5); within males using nasal spray, rs806365 was associated with a decrease in odds of abstinence (OR=0.04; 95% CI 0.01–0.2). While the role of CNR1 in substance abuse has been well studied, we report EPB41 for the first time in the nicotine literature.
Genetic association studies; heterogeneity; smoking cessation
The catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) 158Val/Met variant has been suggested to play a role in COMT function. Epigenetic regulation of COMT may further influence the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in these patient populations. This study examined the correlation between COMT promoter methylation and metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia patients receiving atypical antipsychotic (AAP) therapy. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of schizophrenia subjects screened for metabolic syndrome. Pyrosequencing was used to analyze two methylation sites of the COMT-s promoter region. Associations between AAP use, lifestyle variables, metabolic syndrome, and COMT genotype with peak methylation values were analyzed. Data are reported in 85 subjects. Methylation on CpG site 1 had a mean of 79.08% (± 4.71) and 12.43% (±1.19) on site 2. COMT genotype proved to be an indicator of COMT methylation status on site 1 (F(2,84) = 5.78, p=0.0044) and site 2 (F(2,84), p=0.027). A significant negative correlation between physical activity and COMT promoter region methylation was found in Val/Val homozygous patients (Site 1: p=0.013 and Site 2: p=0.019). Those homozygous for Met/Met showed a positive correlation between promoter site methylation and physical activity (Site 1: p=0.027, Site 2: p=0.005), and between CpG site methylation and metabolic syndrome (Site 1: p=0.002; Site 2: p=0.001). The results of this study suggest COMT promoter region methylation is largely influenced by COMT genotype and that physical activity plays a significant role in epigenetic modulation of COMT.
COMT; Metabolic Syndrome; Methylation; Schizophrenia; Activity; Genotype
The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is higher after total hip or knee replacement surgery than after almost any other surgical procedure; warfarin sodium is commonly prescribed to reduce this peri-operative risk. Warfarin has a narrow therapeutic window with high inter-individual dose variability and can cause hemorrhage. The Genetics-InFormatics Trial (GIFT) of Warfarin to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is a 2×2 factorial-design, randomized controlled trial designed to compare the safety and effectiveness of warfarin-dosing strategies. GIFT will answer two questions: (1) Does pharmacogenetic (PGx) dosing reduce the rate of adverse events in orthopedic patients; and (2) Is a lower target International Normalized Ratio (INR) non-inferior to a higher target INR in orthopedic participants? The composite primary endpoint of the trial is symptomatic and asymptomatic VTE (identified on screening ultrasonography), major hemorrhage, INR ≥ 4, and death.
pharmacogenetics; warfarin; randomized controlled trial; dosing algorithm
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe behavioral problems. Not all children with these problems respond to atypical antipsychotic medications; therefore, we investigated whether peripheral blood gene expression before treatment with risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, was associated with improvements in severe behavioral disturbances 8 weeks following risperidone treatment in 42 ASD subjects (age 112.7±51.2 months). Exon expression levels in blood prior to risperidone treatment were compared with pre-post risperidone change in Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) scores. Expression of exons within 5 genes was correlated with change in ABC-I scores across all risperidone-treated subjects: GBP6, RABL5, RNF213, NFKBID, and RNF40 (α<0.001). RNF40 is located at 16p11.2, a region implicated in autism and schizophrenia. Thus, these genes expressed prior to treatment were associated with subsequent clinical response. Future studies will be needed to confirm these results and determine whether this expression profile is associated with risperidone response in other disorders, or alternative antipsychotic response within ASD.
autism; risperidone; gene expression; atypical antipsychotic
Opioid addiction is a chronic disease with high genetic contribution and a large inter-individual variability in therapeutic response. The goal of this study was to identify pharmacodynamic factors that modulate methadone dose requirement. The neurotrophin family is involved in neural plasticity, learning memory and behavior and deregulated neural plasticity may underlie the pathophysiology of drug addiction. BDNF was shown to affect the response to methadone maintenance treatment. This study explores the effects of polymorphisms in the nerve growth factor (beta polypeptide) gene, NGFB, on the methadone doses required for successful maintenance treatment for heroin addiction. Genotypes of 14 NGFB polymorphisms were analyzed for association with the stabilizing methadone dose in 72 former severe heroin addicts with no major co-medications. There was significant difference in methadone doses required by subjects with different genotypes of the NGFB intronic SNP rs2239622 (P = 0.0002). These results may have clinical importance.
methadone; opioid addiction; nerve growth factor; NGFB; heroin addiction
The overall neurobiological mechanisms by which lithium and valproate stabilize mood in bipolar disorder patients have yet to be fully defined. The therapeutic efficacy and dissimilar chemical structures of these medications suggest that they perturb both shared and disparate cellular processes. To investigate key pathways and functional clusters involved in the global action of lithium and valproate, we generated interaction networks formed by well-supported drug targets. Striking functional similarities emerged. Intersecting nodes in lithium and valproate networks highlighted a strong enrichment of apoptosis clusters and neurotrophin signaling. Other enriched pathways included MAPK, ErbB, insulin, VEGF, Wnt and long-term potentiation indicating a widespread effect of both drugs on diverse signaling systems. MAPK1/3 and AKT1/2 were the most preponderant nodes across pathways suggesting a central role in mediating pathway interactions. The convergence of biological responses unveils a functional signature for lithium and valproate that could be key modulators of their therapeutic efficacy.
Expression; pathways; AKT1/2; MAPK1/3; Cytoscape; MiMI; DAVID; GLay
We introduce a method for detecting variants in several genes of related function with small effect on a phenotype of interest. Our method uses logistic regression to test whether multiple alleles within a functional set have significantly higher than expected predictive value, even though none individually may have strong individual effects. We illustrate this method by testing seven gene sets (including 48 genes), from a study with1350 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 130 addiction candidate genes studied in a sample of 575 alcohol dependence (AD) cases and 530 controls. We conclude that AD is related to variation in genes participating in Glutamate and GABA signaling, as has been reported elsewhere, and in stress response pathways, but not with genes in several other systems implicated in other drugs of abuse.
alcohol dependence; GABA; glutamate; CRH; logistic regression; neurotransmitter system
This study evaluated association between common and rare sequence variants in 10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes and the severity of nausea 21 days after initiating the standard, FDA-approved varenicline regimen for smoking cessation. Included in the analysis were 397 participants from a randomized clinical effectiveness trial with complete clinical and DNA resequencing data (mean age = 49.2 years; 68.0% female). Evidence for significant association between common sequence variants in CHRNB2 and nausea severity was obtained after adjusting for age, gender, and correlated tests (all PACT<.05). Individuals with the minor allele of CHRNB2 variants experienced less nausea than did those without the minor allele, consistent with previously reported findings for CHRNB2 and the occurrence of nausea and dizziness as a consequence of first smoking attempt in adolescents, and with the known neurophysiology of nausea. As nausea is the most common reason for discontinuance of varenicline, further pharmacogenetic investigations are warranted.
varenicline; nausea; smoking cessation; adherence