The tf (tufted) locus is responsible for a classic phenotype of hair loss and regrowth in mice. It is a characteristic of the BTBR strain. Here, we use a combination of positional cloning methods and complementation mapping to identify Itpr3, the inositol triphosphate receptor type 3, as the gene responsible for the tf locus.
BTBR mouse; hair; inosine triphosphate receptor type 3
Variation patterns of allozymes and of ND3 haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA reveal a zone of genetic transition among western Palearctic water frogs extending across northeastern Greece and European Turkey. At the western end of the zone, allozymes characteristic of Central European frogs known as Pelophylax ridibundus predominate, whereas at the eastern end, alleles characteristic of western Anatolian water frogs (P. cf. bedriagae) prevail. The ND3 haplotypes reveal 2 major clades, 1 characteristic of Anatolian frogs, the other of European; the European clade itself has distinct eastern and western subclades. Both the 2 major clades and the 2 subclades overlap within the transition zone. Using Bayesian model selection methods, allozyme data suggest considerable immigration into the Nestos River area from eastern and western populations. In contrast, the ND3 data suggest that migration rates are so high among all locations that they form a single panmictic unit; the best model for allozymes is second best for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Nuclear markers (allozymes), which have roughly 4 times as deep a coalescent history as mtDNA data and thus may reflect patterns over a longer time, indicate that eastern and western refugial populations have expanded since deglaciation (in the last 10 000 years) and have met near the Nestos River, whereas the mtDNA with its smaller effective population size has already lost the signal of partitioning into refugia.
allozymes; Bayes factors; gene flow; hybridization; migration; mitochondrial DNA; model selection; Pelophylax; sympatry; water frogs
Genetic datasets can be used to date evolutionary events, even on recent time scales if sufficient data are available. We used statistics calculated from multilocus microsatellite datasets to estimate population ages in data generated through coalescent simulations and in samples from populations of known age in a metapopulation of Daphnia magna in Finland. Our simulation results show that age estimates improve with additional loci and define a time frame over which these statistics are most useful. On the most recent time scales, assumptions regarding the model of mutation (infinite sites vs. stepwise mutation) have little influence on estimated ages. In older populations, size homoplasy among microsatellite alleles results in a downwards bias for estimates based on the infinite sites model (ISM). In the Finnish D. magna metapopulation, our genetically derived estimated ages were biased upwards. Potential sources of this bias include the underlying model of mutation, gene flow, founder size, and the possibility of persistent source populations in the system. Our simulated data show that genetic age estimation is possible, even for very young populations, but our empirical data highlight the importance of factors such as migration when these statistics are applied in natural populations.
colonization; distribution; metapopulation; microsatellites; mismatch; population expansion
Rexoid, curly hair mutations have been selected to develop new domestic cat breeds. The Selkirk Rex is the most recently established curly-coated cat breed originating from a spontaneous mutation that was discovered in the United States in 1987. Unlike the earlier and well-established Cornish and Devon Rex breeds with curly-coat mutations, the Selkirk Rex mutation is suggested as autosomal dominant and has a different curl phenotype. This study provides a genetic analysis of the Selkirk Rex breed. An informal segregation analysis of genetically proven matings supported an autosomal, incomplete dominant expression of the curly trait in the Selkirk Rex. Homozygous curl cats can be distinguished from heterozygous cats by head and body type, as well as the presentation of the hair curl. Bayesian clustering of short tandem repeat (STR) genotypes from 31 cats that represent the future breeding stock supported the close relationship of the Selkirk Rex to the British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Persian, and Exotic Shorthair, suggesting the Selkirk as part of the Persian breed family. The high heterozygosity of 0.630 and the low mean inbreeding coefficient of 0.057 suggest that Selkirk Rex has a diverse genetic foundation. A new locus for Selkirk autosomal dominant Rex, SADRE, is suggested for the curly trait.
curly; dominant; feline; hair
Environmental temperature plays a crucial role in determining a species distribution and abundance by affecting individual physiological processes, metabolic activities, and developmental rates. Many studies have identified clinal variation in phenotypes associated with response to environmental stresses, but variation in traits associated with climatic adaptation directly attributed to sequence variation within candidate gene regions has been difficult to identify. Insect heat shock genes are possible agents of thermal tolerance because of their involvement in protein folding, traffic, protection, and renaturation at the cellular level in response to temperature stress. Previously, members of the Drosophila small heat shock protein (sHSP) complex (Hsp23, Hsp26, Hsp27, Hsp67Ba) have been implicated as candidate climatic adaptation genes; therefore, this research examines sequence variation at these genes in 2 distant populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Flies from Tempe, AZ (n = 30) and Cheney, WA (n = 17) were used in the study. We identify high differentiation in the heat-shock complex (FST : 0.219**, 0.262*, 0.279***, 0.166 not significant) as compared with neighboring genes and Tajima’s D values indicative of balancing selection (Mann–Whitney U = 38, n1 = 10 n2 = 4, P < 0.05 two-tailed), both of which are suggestive of such climatic adaptation.
balancing selection; environmental adaptability
During the process of speciation, diverging taxa often hybridize and produce offspring wherein the heterogametic sex (i.e., XY or ZW) is unfit (Haldane's rule). Dominance theory seeks to explain Haldane's rule in terms of the difference in X-linked dominance regimes experienced by the sexes. However, X inactivation in female mammals extends the effects of hemizygosity to both sexes. Here, we highlight where the assumptions of dominance theory are particularly problematic in marsupials, where X inactivation uniformly results in silencing the paternal X. We then present evidence of Haldane's rule for sterility but not for viability in marsupials, as well as the first violations of Haldane's rule for these traits among all mammals. Marsupials represent a large taxonomic group possessing heteromorphic sex chromosomes, where the dominance theory cannot explain Haldane's rule. In this light, we evaluate alternative explanations for the preponderance of male sterility in interspecific hybrids, including faster male evolution, X–Y interactions, and genomic conflict hypotheses.
hybrid sterility; metatheria; reproductive isolation; speciation; X inactivation
The challenge of maintaining genetic diversity within populations can be exacerbated for island endemics if they display population dynamics and behavioral attributes that expose them to genetic drift without the benefits of gene flow. We assess patterns of the genetic structure and demographic history in 27 populations of 9 species of flightless endemic Galápagos weevils from 9 of the islands and 1 winged introduced close relative. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA reveals a significant population structure and moderately variable, though demographically stable, populations for lowland endemics (FST = 0.094–0.541; π: 0.014–0.042; Mismatch P = 0.003–0.026; and D(Tajima) = −0.601 to 1.203), in contrast to signals of past contractions and expansions in highland specialists on 2 islands (Mismatch P = 0.003–0.026 and D(Tajima) = −0.601 to 1.203). We interpret this series of variable and highly structured population groups as a system of long-established, independently founded island units, where structuring could be a signal of microallopatric differentiation due to patchy host plant distribution and poor dispersal abilities. We suggest that the severe reduction and subsequent increase of a suitably moist habitat that accompanied past climatic variation could have contributed to the observed population fluctuations in highland specialists. We propose the future exploration of hybridization between the introduced and highland endemic species on Santa Cruz, especially given the expansion of the introduced species into the highlands, the sensitivity to past climatic variation detected in highland populations, and the potentially threatened state of single-island endemics.
flightlessness; Galapaganus; gene flow; islands; mitochondrial DNA; population structure
An endogenous meiotic driver in the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti can cause highly male-biased sex ratio distortion in crosses from suitable genetic backgrounds. We previously selected a strain that carries a strong meiotic drive gene (D) linked with the male-determining allele (M) on chromosome 1 in A. aegypti. Here, we performed segregation analysis of the MD locus among backcross (BC1) progeny from a driver male and drive-sensitive females. Assessment of sex ratios among BC2 progeny showed ∼5.2% recombination between the MD locus and the sex determination locus. Multipoint linkage mapping across this region revealed consistent marker orders and recombination frequencies with the existing reference linkage map and placed the MD locus within a 6.5-cm interval defined by the LF159 locus and microsatellite marker 446GAA, which should facilitate future positional cloning efforts.
gene drive; linkage map; microsatellite; segregation distortion; sex linkage; SSCP
Population genetic characteristics are shaped by the life-history traits of organisms and the geologic history of their habitat. This study provides a neutral framework for understanding the population dynamics and opportunities for selection in Semibalanus balanoides, a species that figures prominently in ecological and evolutionary studies in the Atlantic intertidal. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (N = 131) and microsatellite markers (∼40 individuals/site/locus) to survey populations of the broadly dispersing acorn barnacle from 8 sites spanning 800 km of North American coast and 1 site in Europe. Patterns of mtDNA sequence evolution were consistent with larger population sizes in Europe and population expansion at the conclusion of the last ice age, approximately 20 000 years ago, in North America. A significant portion of mitochondrial diversity was partitioned between the continents (φST = 0.281), but there was only weak structure observed from mtDNA within North America. Microsatellites showed significant structuring between the continents (FST = 0.021) as well as within North America (FST = 0.013). Isolation by distance in North America was largely driven by a split between populations south of Cape Cod and all others (P < 10−4). The glacial events responsible for generating allelic diversity at mtDNA and microsatellites may also be responsible for generating selectable variation at metabolic enzymes in S. balanoides.
glaciation; larval dispersal; microsatellites; mtDNA; phylogeography; Semibalanus balanoides
Anopheles stephensi is one of the major vectors of malaria in the Middle East and Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Understanding the population genetic structure of malaria mosquitoes is important for developing adequate and successful vector control strategies. Commonly used markers for inferring anopheline taxonomic and population status include microsatellites and chromosomal inversions. Knowledge about chromosomal locations of microsatellite markers with respect to polymorphic inversions could be useful for better understanding a genetic structure of natural populations. However, fragments with microsatellites used in population genetic studies are usually too short for successful labeling and hybridization with chromosomes. We designed new primers for amplification of microsatellite loci identified in the A. stephensi genome sequenced with next-generation technologies. Twelve microsatellites were mapped to polytene chromosomes from ovarian nurse cells of A. stephensi using fluorescent in situ hybridization. All microsatellites hybridized to unique locations on autosomes, and 7 of them localized to the largest arm 2R. Ten microsatellites were mapped inside the previously described polymorphic chromosomal inversions, including 4 loci located inside the widespread inversion 2Rb. We analyzed microsatellite-based population genetic data available for A. stephensi in light of our mapping results. This study demonstrates that the chromosomal position of microsatellites may affect estimates of population genetic parameters and highlights the importance of developing physical maps for nonmodel organisms.
genome sequence; malaria vector; polymorphic inversion; polytene chromosome; population structure
Pedimap is a user-friendly software tool for visualizing phenotypic and genotypic data for related individuals linked in pedigrees. Genetic data can include marker scores, Identity-by-Descent probabilities, and marker linkage map positions, allowing the visualization of haplotypes through lineages. The pedigrees can accommodate all types of inheritance, including selfing, cloning, and repeated backcrossing, and all ploidy levels are supported. Visual association of the genetic data with phenotypic data simplifies the exploration of large data sets, thereby improving breeding decision making. Data are imported from text files; in addition data exchange with other software packages (FlexQTLTM and GenomeStudioTM) is possible. Instructions for use and an executable version compatible with the Windows platform are available for free from http://www.plantbreeding.wur.nl/UK/software_pedimap.html.
genetic data; pedigree software; phenotypic data; plant breeding
Evolutionary solutions to the physiological challenges of life in highly variable habitats can span the continuum from evolution of a cosmopolitan plastic phenotype to the evolution of locally adapted phenotypes. Killifish (Fundulus sp.) have evolved both highly plastic and locally adapted phenotypes within different selective contexts, providing a comparative system in which to explore the genomic underpinnings of physiological plasticity and adaptive variation. Importantly, extensive variation exists among populations and species for tolerance to a variety of stressors, and we exploit this variation in comparative studies to yield insights into the genomic basis of evolved phenotypic variation. Notably, species of Fundulus occupy the continuum of osmotic habitats from freshwater to marine and populations within Fundulus heteroclitus span far greater variation in pollution tolerance than across all species of fish. Here, we explore how transcriptome regulation underpins extreme physiological plasticity on osmotic shock and how genomic and transcriptomic variation is associated with locally evolved pollution tolerance. We show that F. heteroclitus quickly acclimate to extreme osmotic shock by mounting a dramatic rapid transcriptomic response including an early crisis control phase followed by a tissue remodeling phase involving many regulatory pathways. We also show that convergent evolution of locally adapted pollution tolerance involves complex patterns of gene expression and genome sequence variation, which is confounded with body-weight dependence for some genes. Similarly, exploiting the natural phenotypic variation associated with other established and emerging model organisms is likely to greatly accelerate the pace of discovery of the genomic basis of phenotypic variation.
AFLPs; comparative transcriptomics; Fundulus heteroclitus; gene expression; phenotypic plasticity; microarrays; natural populations
Understanding how genes and the environment interact to shape phenotypes is of fundamental importance for resolving important issues in adaptive evolution. Yet, for most model species with mature genetics and accessible genomic resources, we know little about the natural environmental factors that shape their evolution. By contrast, animal species with deeply understood ecologies and well characterized responses to environmental cues are rarely subjects of genomic investigations. Here, we preview advances in genomics in aphids and waterfleas that may help transform research on the regulatory mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. This insect and crustacean duo has the capacity to produce extremely divergent phenotypes in response to environmental stimuli. Sexual fate and reproductive mode are condition-dependent in both groups, which are also capable of altering morphology, physiology and behavior in response to biotic and abiotic cues. Recently, the genome sequences for the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and the waterflea Daphnia pulex were described by their respective research communities. We propose that an integrative study of genome biology focused on the condition-dependent transcriptional basis of their shared plastic traits and specialized mode of reproduction will provide broad insight into adaptive plasticity and genome by environment interactions. We highlight recent advances in understanding the genome regulation of alternative phenotypes and environmental cue processing, and we propose future research avenues to discover gene networks and epigenetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity.
adaptive plasticity; alternative phenotypes; condition-dependent transcription; epigenetics; gene regulation; genome-by-environment interaction; polyphenism
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of posttranscriptional gene expression regulators. In the course of mapping novel marsupial-specific miRNAs in the genome of the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, we encountered a cluster of 39 actual and potential miRNAs spanning 102 kb of the X chromosome. Analysis of the cluster revealed that 37 of the 39 miRNAs are predicted to form thermodynamically stable hairpins, and at least 3 members have been directly cloned from M. domestica tissues. The sequence characteristics of these miRNAs suggest that they all descended from a single common ancestor. Further, 2 distinct families appear to have diversified from the ancestral sequence through different duplication mechanisms: one through a series of simple tandem duplications and the other through a recurrent transposon-mediated duplication process.
marsupial; microRNA; opossum; X chromosome
The wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.) is a conservation concern largely due to introgressive hybridization with its congener F. s. catus, the common domestic cat. Because of a recent divergence and entirely overlapping ranges, hybridization is common and pervasive between these taxa threatening the genetic integrity of remaining wildcat populations. Identifying pure wildcats for inclusion in conservation programs using current morphological discriminants is difficult because of gross similarity between them and the domestic, critically hampering conservation efforts. Here, we present a vetted panel of microsatellite loci and mitochondrial polymorphisms informative for each of the 5 naturally evolved wildcat subspecies and the derived domestic cat. We also present reference genotypes for each assignment class. Together, these marker sets and corresponding reference genotypes allow for the development of a genetic rational for defining “units of conservation” within a phylogenetically based taxonomy of the entire F. silvestris species complex. We anticipate this marker panel will allow conservators to assess genetic integrity and quantify admixture in managed wildcat populations and to be a starting point for more in-depth analysis of hybridization.
captive breeding; conservation genetics; hybridization; introgression; reintroduction microsatellite
The Alaskan sled dog offers a unique mechanism for studying the genetics of elite athletic performance. They are a group of mixed breed dogs, comprised of multiple common breeds, and a unique breed entity seen only as a part of the sled dog mix. Alaskan sled dogs are divided into 2 primary groups as determined by their racing skills. Distance dogs are capable of running over 1000 miles in 10 days, whereas sprint dogs run much shorter distances, approximately 30 miles, but in faster times, that is, 18–25 mph. Finding the genes that distinguish these 2 types of performers is likely to illuminate genetic contributors to human athletic performance. In this study, we tested for association between polymorphisms in 2 candidate genes; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and myostatin (MSTN) and enhanced speed and endurance performance in 174 Alaskan sled dogs. We observed 81 novel genetic variants within the ACE gene and 4 within the MSTN gene, including a polymorphism within the ACE gene that significantly (P value 2.38 × 10−5) distinguished the sprint versus distance populations.
Alaskan sled dogs; angiotensin-converting enzyme; myostatin; performance genetics
Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are a type of class 1 transposable element (retrotransposon) with features that allow investigators to resolve evolutionary relationships between populations and species while providing insight into genome composition and function. Characterization of a Carnivora-specific SINE family, Can-SINEs, has, has aided comparative genomic studies by providing rare genomic changes, and neutral sequence variants often needed to resolve difficult evolutionary questions. In addition, Can-SINEs constitute a significant source of functional diversity with Carnivora. Publication of the whole-genome sequence of domestic dog, domestic cat, and giant panda serves as a valuable resource in comparative genomic inferences gleaned from Can-SINEs. In anticipation of forthcoming studies bolstered by new genomic data, this review describes the discovery and characterization of Can-SINE motifs as well as describes composition, distribution, and effect on genome function. As the contribution of noncoding sequences to genomic diversity becomes more apparent, SINEs and other transposable elements will play an increasingly large role in mammalian comparative genomics.
carnivore; genome; SINE
Inversion polymorphisms have been linked to a variety of fundamental biological and evolutionary processes. Yet few studies have used large-scale genomic sequencing to directly compare the haplotypes associated with the standard and inverted chromosome arrangements. Here we describe the targeted genomic sequencing and comparison of haplotypes representing alternative arrangements of a common inversion polymorphism linked to a suite of phenotypes in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). More than 7.4 Mb of genomic sequence was generated and assembled from both the standard (ZAL2) and inverted (ZAL2m) arrangements. Sequencing of a pair of inversion breakpoints led to the identification of a ZAL2-specific segmental duplication, as well as evidence of breakpoint reusage. Comparison of the haplotype-based sequence assemblies revealed low genetic differentiation outside versus inside the inversion indicative of historical patterns of gene flow and suppressed recombination between ZAL2 and ZAL2m. Finally, despite ZAL2m being maintained in a near constant state of heterozygosity, no signatures of genetic degeneration were detected on this chromosome. Overall, these results provide important insights into the genomic attributes of an inversion polymorphism linked to mate choice and variation in social behavior.
chromosomal polymorphism; evolutionary genetics; haplotype-based sequencing; inversion
One strategy to control mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, on a regional scale is to use gene drive systems to spread disease-refractory genes into wild mosquito populations. The development of a synthetic Medea element that has been shown to drive population replacement in laboratory Drosophila populations has provided encouragement for this strategy but has also been greeted with caution over the concern that transgenes may spread into countries without their consent. Here, we propose a novel gene drive system, inverse Medea, which is strong enough to bring about local population replacement but is unable to establish itself beyond an isolated release site. The system consists of 2 genetic components—a zygotic toxin and maternal antidote—which render heterozygous offspring of wild-type mothers unviable. Through population genetic analysis, we show that inverse Medea will only spread when it represents a majority of the alleles in a population. The element is best located on an autosome and will spread to fixation provided any associated fitness costs are dominant and to very high frequency otherwise. We suggest molecular tools that could be used to build the inverse Medea system and discuss its utility for a confined release of transgenic mosquitoes.
dengue fever; malaria; population replacement; transgenic mosquitoes; underdominance
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), is an important vector of a number of arboviruses, and populations exhibit extreme variation in adaptive traits such as egg diapause, cold hardiness, and autogeny (ability to mature a batch of eggs without blood feeding). The genetic basis of some of these traits has been established, but lack of a high-resolution linkage map has prevented in-depth genetic analyses of the genes underlying these complex traits. We report here on the breeding of 4 F1 intercross mapping families and the use of these to locate 35 cDNA markers to the A. albopictus linkage map. The present study increases the number of markers on the A. albopictus cDNA linkage map from 38 to 73 and the density of markers from 1 marker/5.7 cM to 1 marker/2.9 cM and adds 9, 16, and 10 markers to the 3 linkage groups, respectively. The overall lengths of the 3 linkage groups are 64.5, 76.5, and 71.6 cM, respectively, for a combined length of 212.6 cM. Despite conservation in the order of most genes among the 4 families and a previous mapping family, we found substantial heterogeneity in the amount of recombination among markers. This was most marked in linkage group I, which varied between 16.7 and 69.3 cM. A map integrating the results from these 4 families with an earlier cDNA linkage map is presented.
Aedes albopictus; cDNA markers; linkage map; SSCP analysis
We recently showed that genes at 3 loci account for the majority of variation in canine fur. Allelic variation at genes controlling length of fur, texture, and curl is responsible for the striking phenotypic variety observed among purebred dogs in the United States today. In this paper, we investigate the phenomenon of “improper coat” (IC) or a coat that is not typical of the breed. IC is occasionally observed among specific breeds, such as the Portuguese Water Dog (PWD), and is characterized by short hair on the head, face, and lower legs, rather than a thick and even coat covering the whole body. The IC is reminiscent of that observed on the curly or flat-coated retriever, thus making such dogs unable to compete effectively in conformation events. We have found that the presence of the wild-type allele, rather than the expected variant allele at the R-spondin 2 (RSPO2) gene, accounts for this phenotype. The development of a genetic test that distinguishes these 2 allelic types would allow breeders to easily avoid producing PWD with ICs.
fur; furnishings; genetics; morphology; mutation
Reef fishes disperse primarily as oceanic “pelagic” larvae, and debate continues over the extent of this dispersal, with recent evidence for geographically restricted (closed) populations in some species. In contrast, moray eels have the longest pelagic larval stages among reef fishes, possibly providing opportunities to disperse over great distances. We test this prediction by measuring mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA variation in 2 species of moray eels, Gymnothorax undulatus (N = 165) and G. flavimarginatus (N = 124), sampled at 14–15 locations across the Indo-Pacific. The mtDNA data comprise 632 bp of cytochrome b and 596 bp of cytochrome oxidase I. Nuclear markers include 2 recombination-activating loci (421 bp of RAG-1 and 754 bp of RAG-2). Analyses of molecular variance and Mantel tests indicate little or no genetic differentiation, and no isolation by distance, across 22 000 km of the Indo-Pacific. We estimate that mitochondrial genetic variation coalesces within the past about 2.3 million years (My) for G. flavimarginatus and within the past about 5.9 My for G. undulatus. Permutation tests of geographic distance on the mitochondrial haplotype networks indicate recent range expansions for some younger haplotypes (estimated within ∼600 000 years) and episodic fragmentation of populations at times of low sea level. Our results support the predictions that the extended larval durations of moray eels enable ocean-wide genetic continuity of populations. This is the first phylogeographic survey of the moray eels, and morays are the first reef fishes known to be genetically homogeneous across the entire Indo-Pacific.
connectivity; gene flow; Gymnothorax; leptocephalus; panmixia; reef fish
Transitions to obligate asexuality have been documented in almost all metazoan taxa, yet the conditions favoring such transitions remained largely unexplored. We address this problem in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. In this species, a polymorphism at a single locus, op, can result in transitions to obligate parthenogenesis. Homozygotes for the op allele reproduce strictly by asexual reproduction, whereas heterozygous clones (+/op) and wild-type clones (+/+) are cyclical parthenogens that undergo sexual reproduction at high population densities. Here, we examine dosage effects of the op allele by analyzing various life-history characteristics and population traits in 10 clones for each of the 3 possible genotypes (op/op, +/op, and +/+). For most traits, we found that op/op clones differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the 2 cyclical parthenogenetic genotypes (+/+ and +/op). By contrast, the 2 cyclical parthenogenetic genotypes were almost indistinguishable, except that heterozygote individuals were slightly but significantly smaller in body size compared with wild-type individuals. Overall, this indicates that the op allele is selectively neutral in the heterozygous state. Thus, selective sweeps of this allele in natural populations would first require conditions favoring the generation of homozygotes. This may be given by inbreeding in very small populations or by double mutants in very large populations.
asexuality; cyclical parthenogenesis; evolution of sex; gene dosage effect; mendelian inheritance