The current identification of microRNAs (miRNAs) in insects is largely dependent on genome sequences. However, the lack of available genome sequences inhibits the identification of miRNAs in various insect species. In this study, we used a miRNA database of the silkworm Bombyx mori as a reference to identify miRNAs in Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura using deep sequencing and homology analysis. Because all three species belong to the Lepidoptera, the experiment produced reliable results. Our study identified 97 and 91 conserved miRNAs in H. armigera and S. litura, respectively. Using the genome of B. mori and BAC sequences of H. armigera as references, 1 novel miRNA and 8 novel miRNA candidates were identified in H. armigera, and 4 novel miRNA candidates were identified in S. litura. An evolutionary analysis revealed that most of the identified miRNAs were insect-specific, and more than 20 miRNAs were Lepidoptera-specific. The investigation of the expression patterns of miR-2a, miR-34, miR-2796-3p and miR-11 revealed their potential roles in insect development. miRNA target prediction revealed that conserved miRNA target sites exist in various genes in the 3 species. Conserved miRNA target sites for the Hsp90 gene among the 3 species were validated in the mammalian 293T cell line using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Our study provides a new approach with which to identify miRNAs in insects lacking genome information and contributes to the functional analysis of insect miRNAs.
microRNA; deep sequencing; homolog analysis; Helicoverpa armigera; Spodoptera litura; Bombyx mori.
Visfatin is a recently discovered adipokine that contributes to glucose and obesity-related conditions. This study investigates Visfatin RS4730153 polymorphism from the perspectives of its relations with glucose/lipid metabolism and its influence on the effects of exercise-induced weight loss. Eighty-eight obese Han Chinese children and adolescents were randomly selected from a 2008 Shanghai Weight Loss Summer Camp and were supervised to complete a 4 week aerobic exercise training program. Significant differences were observed in before-exercise TG value and exercise-induced HOMA-β change, with the AG group having a much higher TG value than the GG group (P ≤ 0.05), and the latter exhibiting a significantly larger before-and-after exercise HOMA-β change than the former (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in before exercise indices of body shape, function and quality, nor in exercise-induced changes of body shape, function, and quality. Findings suggest that Visfatin RS4730153 homozygous GG genotype may effect adjustment of glucose and lipid metabolism in obese children and adolescents by reducing TG levels and increasing insulin sensitivity to exercise.
Visfatin; Polymorphism; Exercise; Weight loss; Obese children and adolescents; Glucose and lipid metabolism.
The increasing protein sequences from the genome project require theoretical methods to predict transmembrane helical segments (TMHs). So far, several prediction methods have been reported, but there are some deficiencies in prediction accuracy and adaptability in these methods. In this paper, a method based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been developed to predict the number and location of TMHs in membrane proteins. PDB coded as 1KQG is chosen as an example to describe the prediction process by this method. 80 proteins with known 3D structure from Mptopo database are chosen at random as data sets (including 325 TMHs) and 80 sequences are divided into 13 groups according to their function and type. TMHs prediction is carried out for each group of membrane protein sequences and obtain satisfactory result. To verify the feasibility of this method, 80 membrane protein sequences are treated as test sets, 308 TMHs can be predicted and the prediction accuracy is 96.3%. Compared with the main prediction results of seven popular prediction methods, the obtained results indicate that the proposed method in this paper has higher prediction accuracy.
Membrane protein; Transmembrane helical segments; Discrete wavelet transform; Hydrophobicity.
Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the most devastating diseases of Pinus spp. The PWN was therefore listed as one of the most dangerous forest pests in China meriting quarantine. Virulence of the PWN is closely linked with the spread of PWD. However, main factors responsible for the virulence of PWNs are still unclear. Recently epiphytic bacteria carried by PWNs have drawn much attention. But little is known about the relationship between endophytic bacteria and virulence of B. xylophilus. In this research, virulence of ten strains of B. xylophilus from different geographical areas in six provinces of China and four pine species were tested with 2-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from PWNs with different virulence to investigate the relationship between the bacteria and PWN virulence. Meanwhile, the carbon metabolism of endophytic bacteria from highly and low virulent B. xylophilus was analyzed using Biolog plates (ECO). The results indicated that ten strains of PWNs showed a wide range of virulence. Simultaneously, endophytic bacteria were isolated from 90% of the B. xylophilus strains. The dominant endophytic bacteria in the nematodes were identified as species of Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella, Leifsonia, Rhizobium, and Pseudomonas using molecular and biochemical methods. Moreover, S. maltophilia, and A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans were the predominant strains. Most of the strains (80%) from P. massoniana contained either S. maltophilia, A. xylosoxidans, or both species. There was a difference between the abilities of the endophytic bacteria to utilize carbon sources. Endophytic bacteria from highly virulent B. xylophilus had a relatively high utilization rate of carbohydrate and carboxylic acids, while bacteria from low virulent B. xylophilus made better use of amino acids. In conclusion, endophytic bacteria widely exist in B. xylophilus from different pines and areas; and B. xylophilus strains with different virulence possessed various endophytic bacteria and diverse carbon metabolism which suggested that the endophytic bacteria species and carbon metabolism might be related with the B. xylophilus virulence.
pine wilt disease; Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; endophytic bacteria; virulence; Pinus massoniana; P. thunbergii.
STAT5B, a specific member of the STAT family, is intimately associated with prostate tumor progression. While the full form of STAT5B is thought to promote tumor progression, a naturally occurring truncated isoform acts as a tumor suppressor. We previously demonstrated that truncated STAT5 is generated by insertion of an alternatively spliced exon and results in the introduction of an early termination codon. Present approaches targeting STAT proteins based on inhibition of functional domains of STAT's, such as DNA-binding, cooperative binding (protein-protein interaction), dimerization and phosphorylation will halt the action of the entire gene, both the proto-oncogenic and tumor suppressor functions of Stat5B.
In this report we develop a new approach aimed at inhibiting the expression of full-length STAT5B (a proto-oncogene) while simultaneously enhancing the expression of STAT5∆B (a tumor suppressor). We have demonstrated the feasibility of using steric-blocking splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) with a complimentary sequence to the targeted exon-intron boundary to enhance alternative intron/exon retention (up to 10%). The functional effect of the intron/exon proportional tuning was validated by cell proliferation and clonogenic assays. The new scheme applies specific steric-blocking splice-switching oligonucleotides and opens an opportunity for anti-tumor treatment as well as for the alteration of functional abilities of other STAT proteins.
STAT proteins; RNA splicing; tumor suppressor; splice-switching oligonucleotides; cell-cycle progression.
Purpose: Gastric cancer (GC) remains a leading cause of death worldwide, and an elevated expression of osteopontin (OPN) may correlate with its poor survival. Alternative splicing of OPN can result in three isoforms, OPN-a, OPN-b and OPN-c. The aim of our current study is to examine the expression pattern and biological functions of OPN splice variants in GC.
Methods: Firstly, we evaluated the expression of OPN splice variants in 7 gastric cell lines, 101 pairs of GC tissues and their adjacent non-tumor tissues by Quantative real-time PCR (QT-PCR). Gain-of-function experiments were subsequently performed to determine their diverse roles in malignant behaviors of GC. Besides, their differential effects on the regulation of crucial downstream molecules were further explored in the anti-apoptotic and pro-metastatic process.
Results: We found that OPN-b is the dominant kind of OPN isoform in GC cell lines. Although the expression levels of three variants were all elevated in GC tissues, increased OPN-b or OPN-c expression could correlate with clinicopathological features. Functional analyses further showed that OPN-b most strongly promoted GC cell survival possibly by regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins and CD44v expressions. Moreover, OPN-c most effectively stimulated GC metastatic activity by increasing secretion of MMP-2, uPa, and IL-8.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that OPN splice variants differentially exert clinicopathological features and biological functions in GC. Therefore, focusing on specific OPN isoform could be a novel direction for developing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in GC.
OPN splice variants; gastric cancer; clinicopathological feature; biological function; apoptosis; metastasis.
Filamin-A cross-links actin filaments into dynamic orthogonal networks, and interacts with an array of proteins of diverse cellular functions. Because several filamin-A interaction partners are implicated in signaling of cell mobility regulation, we tested the hypothesis that filamin-A plays a role in cancer metastasis. Using four pairs of filamin-A proficient and deficient isogenic cell lines, we found that filamin-A deficiency in cancer cells significantly reduces their migration and invasion. Using a xenograft tumor model with subcutaneous and intracardiac injections of tumor cells, we found that the filamin-A deficiency causes significant reduction of lung, splenic and systemic metastasis in nude mice. We evaluated the expression of filamin-A in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemical staining, and found that low levels of filamin-A expression in cancer cells of the tumor tissues are associated with a better distant metastasis-free survival than those with normal levels of filamin-A. These data not only validate filamin-A as a prognostic marker for cancer metastasis, but also suggest that inhibition of filamin-A in cancer cells may reduce metastasis and that filamin-A can be used as a therapeutic target for filamin-A positive cancer.
Filamin-A; ABP-280; migration; invasiveness; metastasis; biomarker.
The transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells is a promising therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we tested whether combination of neurotrophic factors and transplantation of glial-restricted precursor (GRPs)-derived astrocytes (GDAs) could decrease the injury and promote functional recovery after SCI. We developed a protocol to quickly produce a sufficiently large, homogenous population of young astrocytes from GRPs, the earliest arising progenitor cell population restricted to the generation of glia. GDAs expressed the axonal regeneration promoting substrates, laminin and fibronectin, but not the inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Importantly, GDAs or its conditioned medium promoted the neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro. GDAs were infected with retroviruses expressing EGFP or multi-neurotrophin D15A and transplanted into the contused adult thoracic spinal cord at 8 days post-injury. Eight weeks after transplantation, the grafted GDAs survived and integrated into the injured spinal cord. Grafted GDAs expressed GFAP, suggesting they remained astrocyte lineage in the injured spinal cord. But it did not express CSPG. Robust axonal regeneration along the grafted GDAs was observed. Furthermore, transplantation of D15A-GDAs significantly increased the spared white matter and decreased the injury size compared to other control groups. More importantly, transplantation of D15A-GDAs significantly improved the locomotion function recovery shown by BBB locomotion scores and Tredscan footprint analyses. However, this combinatorial strategy did not enhance the aberrant synaptic connectivity of pain afferents, nor did it exacerbate posttraumatic neuropathic pain. These results demonstrate that transplantation of D15A-expressing GDAs promotes anatomical and locomotion recovery after SCI, suggesting it may be an effective therapeutic approach for SCI.
astrocytes; oligodendrocyte; transplantation; spinal cord injury; remyelination.
Background/Aims:Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products, the well-recognized pro-inflammatory molecules, has been detected in renal tissues including tubules. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of advanced glycation end-products modified low density lipoprotein (AGE-LDL) in inflammatory cytokines production in human proximal tubular epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism. Methods: The Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production was examined by real-time PCR and ELISA. The expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 (TLR2/4) was detected by flow cytometry and western blot. The interaction of TLR2/4 with AGE-LDL was examined by co-immunoprecipitation assay. The involvement of MyD88 and the downstream molecules in inflammatory cytokines production was examined by siRNA and pharmacologic inhibitors, respectively. Results: AGE-LDL interacted with TLR2 and TLR4. TLR4 siRNA showed stronger inhibition on AGE-LDL-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production than that of TLR2 siRNA. Silencing MyD88, but not TRIF, inhibited AGE-LDL-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production. AGE-LDL stimulation led to phosphorylation of JNK, p38, Akt and the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Pharmacologic inhibitor of Akt suppressed AGE-LDL-induced activation of NF-κB, but the inhibitor of JNK, p38 or ERK1/2 had no effect. Blocking MyD88, p38, JNK, Akt or NF-κB attenuated AGE-LDL-triggered IL-6 production. Conclusion: AGE-LDL induced IL-6 and IL-8 production via TLR2/4-MyD88-dependent pathway in tubular epithelial cells. These data suggest that activation of TLRs signaling in tubular epithelial cells by AGE-LDL might be a novel mechanism for the tubulointerstitial inflammation.
AGE-LDL; Toll like receptor; MyD88; NF-κB; IL-6.
Fat and lean pig breeds show obvious differences in meat quality characteristics including the fatty acid composition of muscle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. This study compared meat quality traits between Lantang (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Landrace (a typical lean breed). The Lantang pigs showed higher L* values and intramuscular fat content, lower pH45min, pH24h and shear force in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle than Landrace (P < 0.05). Fatty acid analysis demonstrated the lower monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage in Lantang LD than that in Landrace LD (P < 0.05). To further identify candidate genes for fatty acid composition, the transcriptome of LD muscle from the two breeds were measured by microarrays. There were 586 transcripts differentially expressed, of which 267 transcripts were highly expressed in Lantang pigs. After the validation by real-time quantitative PCR, 13 genes were determined as candidate genes for fatty acid composition of muscle, including Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). Then, a SCD over-expression plasmid was transfected into C2C12 cells to reveal the effect of SCD on the fatty acid composition in vitro. The results showed that SCD over-expression significantly increased PUFA proportion, while reduced that of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in C2C12 cells (P < 0.05). In summary, this study compared the differences of fatty acid composition and transcriptome in two breeds differing in meat quality, and further identified the novel role of SCD in the regulation of PUFA deposition.
Lantang pigs; Landrace; Longissimus dorsi; Fatty acid composition; Microarray; SCD
Background: Colorectal carcinogenesis is believed to be a multi-stage process that originates with a localized adenoma, which linearly progresses to an intra-mucosal carcinoma, to an invasive lesion, and finally to metastatic cancer. This progression model is supported by tissue culture and animal model studies, but it is difficult to reconcile with several well-established observations, principally among these are that up to 25% of early stage (Stage I/II), node-negative colorectal cancer (CRC) develop distant metastasis, and that circulating CRC cells are undetectable in peripheral blood samples of up to 50% of patients with confirmed metastasis, but more than 30% of patients with no detectable metastasis exhibit such cells. The mechanism responsible for this diverse behavior is unknown, and there are no effective means to identify patients with pending, or who are at high risk for, developing metastatic CRC.
Novel findings: Our previous studies of human breast and prostate cancer have shown that cancer invasion arises from the convergence of a tissue injury, the innate immune response to that injury, and the presence of tumor stem cells within tumor capsules at the site of the injury. Focal degeneration of a capsule due to age or disease attracts lymphocyte infiltration that degrades the degenerating capsules resulting in the formation of a focal disruption in the capsule, which selectively favors proliferating or “budding” of the underlying tumor stem cells. Our recent studies suggest that lymphocyte infiltration also triggers metastasis by disrupting the intercellular junctions and surface adhesion molecules within the proliferating cell buds causing their dissociation. Then, lymphocytes and tumor cells are conjoined through membrane fusion to form tumor-lymphocyte chimeras (TLCs) that allows the tumor stem cell to avail itself of the lymphocyte's natural ability to migrate and breach cell barriers in order to intravasate and to travel to distant organs. Our most recent studies of human CRC have detected nearly identical focal capsule disruptions, lymphocyte infiltration, budding cells, and the formation of TLCs. Our studies have further shown that age- and type-matched node-positive and -negative CRC have a significantly different morphological and immunohistochemical profile and that the majority of lymphatic ducts with disseminated cells are located within the mucosa adjacent to morphologically normal appearing epithelial structures that express a stem cell-related marker.
New hypothesis: Based on these findings and the growth patterns of budding cells revealed by double immunohistochemistry, we further hypothesize that metastatic spread is an early event of carcinogenesis and that budding cells overlying focal capsule disruptions represent invasion- and metastasis-initiating cells that follow one of four pathways to progress: (1) to undergo extensive in situ proliferation leading to the formation of tumor nests that subsequently invade the submucosa, (2) to migrate with associated lymphocytes functioning as “seeds” to grow in new sites, (3) to migrate and intravasate into pre-existing vascular structures by forming TLCs, or (4) to intravasate into vascular structures that are generated by the budding cells themselves. We also propose that only node-positive cases harbor stem cells with the potential for multi-lineage differentiation and unique surface markers that permit intravasation.
Lymphocyte infiltration; tumor capsule; tumor invasion; tumor metastasis; stem cell.
A novel triple cell neurovascular unit (NVU) model co-culturing with neurons, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and astrocytes was established in this study for investigating the cerebral diseases and screening the candidates of therapeutic drug. We have first performed the cell identification and morphological characterization, analyzed the specific protein expression and determined the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function of the co-culture model under normal condition. Then, we further determined the BBB function, inflammation, cell injury and the variation of neuroprotective factor in this model after anoxia-reoxygenation. The results suggest that this model exhibited a better BBB function and significantly increased expression of P-glycoprotein (Pg-P) and ZO-1 compared with BMECs only or co-culture with astrocytes or neurons. After anoxia-reoxygenation, the pathological changes of this model were basically resemblance to the pathological changes of brain cells and BBB in vivo. And nimodipine, an antagonist of calcium, could reverse those changes as well. According to our observations, we deduce that this triple cell co-culture model exhibits the basic structure, function and cell-cell interaction of NVU, which may offer a more proper in vitro system of NVU for the further investigation of cerebral diseases and drug screening.
neurovascular unit; triple cell co-culture model; anoxia-reoxygenation; brain microvascular endothelial cells; astrocytes; neurons.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of malignant glioma, characterized by genetic instability and unpredictable clinical behavior. GBM is marked by an extremely poor prognosis with median overall survival of 12~14 months. In this study, we detected the CD137L-expressing cells and IL-17-expressing cells in tumor tissues resected from patients with GBM. Expression of CD137L and IL-17 were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and the prognostic value of CD137L and IL-17 expression within the tumor tissues were assessed by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Immunohistochemical detection showed that positive cells of CD137L and IL-17 in glioblastoma tissue samples were 46.3% (19/ 41) and 73.2% (30/41) respectively. Expression of CD137L was not correlated with overall survival of GBM patients (P=0.594), while significantly longer survival rate was seen in patients with high expression of IL-17, compared to those with low expression of IL-17 (P=0.007). In addition, we also found that IL-17 expression was significantly correlated with Progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.016) and death rate (P=0.01). Furthermore, multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses revealed that IL-17 (P=0.018) and PFS (P=0.028) were independent factors affecting the overall survival probability. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that PFS of high expression of IL-17 group were significantly longer (P=0.004) than low expression group with GBM. It is concluded that high levels of IL-17 expression in the tumor tissues may be a good prognostic marker for patients with GBM.
CD137L; Interleukin-17; glioblastoma; overall survival.
Span 80 (sorbitan monooleate) vesicles behaved differently from conventional phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) because the former had a more fluid interface. After doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was encapsulated into the Span 80 vesicle (loading efficiency: 63 %), DOX-loaded Span 80 vesicles (DVs) were thereafter added to Colon 26 cells. It was suggested, from the flow cytometric analysis and confocal laser microscopic observation, that DVs directly deliver DOX into the cytoplasm of Colon 26 cells. DVs showed the different delivery manner from the DOX-loaded liposomes (DLs). It is considered that the difference of delivery manner between DVs and DLs resulted in the difference of cytotoxicity (IC50); i.e. IC50 values for DVs and DLs were 5 and > 30 μM, respectively. The results obtained herein would give the fundamental findings which can contribute to the improvement of formulation of conventional liposome-based carrier and its cytotoxicity.
Span 80 vesicles; Colon 26; Cytotoxicity
Parkinson's disease primarily results from progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Both neuronal toxicants and genetic factors are suggested to be involved in the disease pathogenesis. The mitochondrial toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) shows a highly selective toxicity to dopaminergic neurons. Recent studies indicate that mutation in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 (vps35) gene segregates with Parkinson's disease in some families, but how mutation in the vps35 gene causes dopaminergic cell death is not known. Here, we report that enhanced VPS35 expression protected dopaminergic cells against MPP+ toxicity and that this neuroprotection was compromised by pathogenic mutation in the gene. A loss of neuroprotective functions contributes to the pathogenesis of VPS35 mutation in Parkinson's disease.
Parkinson's disease; vacuolar protein sorting 35; VPS35; 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium; MPP+.
A major concern with the identification of renal toxicity using the traditional biomarkers, urea and creatinine, is that toxicity signal definitions are not sensitive to medically important changes in these biomarkers. Traditional renal signal definitions for urea and creatinine have not adequately identified drugs that have generated important medical issues later in development. Here, two clinical trial databases with a posteriori known drug induced renal impairment were analyzed for the presence of a renal impairment biomarker signal from urea (590 patients; age 26-92, median 65) and creatinine (532 patients; age 26-97, median 65). Data was analyzed retrospectively using multiple definitions for the biomarker signal to include values outside stratified reference intervals, values exceeding twofold increases from baseline, values classified by the 2009 NIAID renal toxicity table, change from baseline represented as a Z-score based on intra-individual biological variations, and an adaptive Bayesian methodology that generalizes population- with individual-based methods for evaluating a biomarker signal. The data demonstrated that the adaptive Bayesian methodology generated a prominent drug induced signal for renal impairment at the first visit after drug administration. The signal was directly related to dose and time of drug administration. All other data analysis methods produced none or significantly weaker signals than the adaptive Bayesian approach. Interestingly, serum creatinine and urea are able to detect early kidney dysfunction when the biomarker signal is personalized.
renal toxicity; biomarker signal; biologic variation; adaptive design; individual reference ranges; Bayesian inference.
The high incidence of various soil-borne diseases in the monoculture field of peanut is a major production constraint in the red soil regions of southern China. The peanut root exudates are generally thought to play an important role in regulating soil-borne pathogens. The responses of the soil-borne pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani to the peanut root exudates were studied using one susceptible cultivar Ganhua-5 (GH) and one mid-resistant cultivar Quanhua-7 (QH) as the test materials. The components and contents of the amino acids, sugars and phenolic acids in the peanut root exudates were determined. The results demonstrated that the root exudates from both susceptible and mid-resistant cultivars significantly promoted the spore germination, sporulation and mycelial growth of soil-borne pathogens, F. oxysporum, F. solani compared with the control. The extent of the stimulation was depended on the strains of the Fusarium tested, and gradually increased with the increased concentrations of peanut root exudates. HPLC analysis showed that the contents of sugars, alanine, total amino acids in the root exudates of GH were significantly higher than that in QH, whereas the contents of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and total phenolic acids were significantly lower than that in QH. Results of the study suggested that the differences in the root exudates from the different peanut cultivars were considered to regulate the wilt-resistance mechanism in the rhizosphere of peanut. The results are therefore crucial important to illustrate the mechanism of peanut replanted obstacle, and to develop its control techniques in the red soil regions of southern China.
Peanut; Root exudates; Soil-borne pathogens; Amino acids; Phenolic acids.
The long-term impacts of cerebral ischemia and diabetic ischemia on astrocytes and oligodendrocytes have not been defined. The objective of this study is to define profile of astrocyte and changes of myelin in diabetic and non-diabetic rats subjected to focal ischemia.
Focal cerebral ischemia of 30-min duration was induced in streptozotocin-induced diabetic and vehicle-injected normoglycemic rats. The brains were harvested for immunohistochemistry of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) at various reperfusion endpoints ranging from 30 min up to 28 days. The results showed that activate astrocytes were observed after 30 min and peaked at 3 h to 1 day after reperfusion in ischemic penumbra, and peaked at 7 days of reperfusion in ischemic core. Diabetes inhibited the activation of astrocytes in ischemic hemisphere. Demyelination occurred after 30 min of reperfusion in ischemic core and peaked at 1 day. Diabetes caused more severe demyelination compared with non-diabetic rats. Remyelination started at 7 days and completed at 14 and 28 days in ischemic region. Diabetes inhibited the remyelination processes. It is concluded that ischemia activates astrocytes and induces demyelination. Diabetes inhibits the activation of astrocytes, exacerbates the demyelination and delays the remyelination processes. These may contribute to the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia on ischemic brain damage.
astrocyte; cerebral ischemia; diabetes; hyperglycemia; myelin; oligodendrocyte; remyelination.
Secretion of interferons (IFNs) from virus-infected cells is a hallmark of host antiviral immunity and in fact, IFNs exert their antiviral activities through the induction of antiviral proteins. The IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) family is among hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes. This family contains a cluster of duplicated loci. Most mammals have IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5; however, bird, marsupial, frog and fish have only IFIT5. Regardless of species, IFIT5 is always adjacent to SLC16A12. IFIT family genes are predominantly induced by type I and type III interferons and are regulated by the pattern recognition and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. IFIT family proteins are involved in many processes in response to viral infection. However, some viruses can escape the antiviral functions of the IFIT family by suppressing IFIT family genes expression or methylation of 5' cap of viral molecules. In addition, the variants of IFIT family genes could significantly influence the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy. We believe that our current review provides a comprehensive picture for the community to understand the structure and function of IFIT family genes in response to pathogens in human, as well as in animals.
IFIT family; evolution; antiviral activities; regulation and signaling; therapy of infectious diseases.
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) can lead to irreversible central nervous system (CNS) damage. However, the pathogenesis of the developmental brain disorders caused by CH has not been completely elucidated. ARPC5 and CRMP2 are closely associated with neurite outgrowth in brain development. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine whether CRMP2B and ARPC5 expression is altered in the developing cerebral cortex of rats with CH. Control rats and rats with hypothyroidism were sacrificed at birth and at 15 days postpartum. We performed qRT-PCR to detect differences in the crmp2B and arpc5 mRNA expression in the right half of the frontal cortex of these rats. Western blotting was then used to detect differences in CRMP2B and ARPC5 protein expression. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis was performed on the left half of the frontal cortex to detect abnormal localization of CRMP2B and ARPC5. Results showed increased expression of the nuclear short isoform of CRMP2B and decreased expression of full-length CRMP2B and ARPC5 in cortical neurons of rats with hypothyroidism. These findings demonstrate that reduced levels of thyroid hormones can inhibit the expression of full-length CRMP2B and ARPC5 and promote nuclear transformation of the short isoform of CRMP2B. CRMP2B and ARPC5 may participate in CNS injury mediated by hypothyroidism by inducing neurite outgrowth inhibition and cytoskeletal protein disorganization.
CRMP2B; ARPC5; congenital hypothyroidism; frontal cortex; rat.
Some of the lysozyme mutants in humans cause systemic amyloidosis. Hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) has been well studied as a model protein of amyloid fibrils formation. We previously identified an amyloid core region consisting of nine amino acids (designated as the K peptide), which is present at 54-62 in HEWL. The K peptide, with tryptophan at its C- terminus, has the ability of self-aggregation. In the present work we focused on its structural properties in relation to the formation of fibrils. The K peptide alone formed definite fibrils having β-sheet structures by incubation of 7 days under acidic conditions at 37°C. A substantial number of fibrils were generated under this pH condition and incubation period. Deletion and substitution of tryptophan in the K peptide resulted in no formation of fibrils. Tryptophan 62 in lysozyme was suggested to be especially crucial to forming amyloid fibrils. We also show that amyloid fibrils formation of the K peptide requires not only tryptophan 62 but also a certain length containing hydrophobic amino acids. A core region is involved in the significant formation of amyloid fibrils of lysozyme.
lysozyme; amyloid fibril formation; core region; tryptophan; egg white.
Tooth development undergoes a series of complex reciprocal interactions between dental epithelium and the underlying mesenchymal cells. Compared with the study in tooth crown formation, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the development of tooth roots. In the present study, we conditionally knock out β-catenin gene (Ctnnb1) within developing odontoblasts and cementoblasts during the development of tooth roots, and observed rootless molars as well as incomplete incisors. Histological analyses revealed intact structure of molar crown and labial side of incisor, however, as for the molar roots and the lingual portion of incisor, the formation of dentin and periodontal tissues were greatly hampered. In situ hybridization experiments using probes of odontoblastic marker genes collagen type I, alpha 1 (Col1a1), osteocalcin (OC) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) manifested striking undifferentiation of root odontoblasts in which Ctnnb1 was eliminated. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical experiments also showed retarded proliferation of pre-odontoblasts in mutant mice. However, cell apoptosis was not affected. Additionally, a disrupted formation of cementoblasts, suggested by the absence of transcripts of bone sialoprotein (Bsp) in follicle mesenchyme, was also evident in mutant mice. Our study provides strong in vivo evidence to confirm that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is functionally significant to root odontogenesis and cementogenesis during the tooth root development.
Tooth root development; Odontoblast; Wnt/β-catenin signaling; mouse model.
Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a potent carcinogen widely existing in the environment. Our previous study has demonstrated that garlic oil (GO) could prevent NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. It has been well documented that the metabolic activation may play important roles in NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we designed the current study to explore the potential mechanisms by investigating the changes of hepatic phase Ⅰ enzymes (including cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) 2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP1A1) and phase Ⅱ enzymes (including glutathione S transferases (GSTs) and UDP- Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)) by using enzymatic methods, real-time PCR, and western blotting analysis. We found that NDEA treatment resulted in significant decreases of the activities of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu, UGTs and increases of the activities of CYP1A1 and GST pi. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu and UGT1A6 in the liver of NDEA-treated rats were significantly decreased compared with those of the control group rats, while the mRNA and protein levels of CYP1A1 and GST pi were dramatically increased. Interestingly, all these adverse effects induced by NDEA were simultaneously and significantly suppressed by GO co-treatment. These data suggest that the protective effects of GO against NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis might be, at least partially, attributed to the modulation of phase I and phase II enzymes.
Garlic oil; Nitrosodiethylamine; Cytochrome P450 enzyme; Glutathione S transferase; UDP-glucuronosyltransferase.
The tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci is one of the most devastating pests worldwide. Current management of B. tabaci relies upon the frequent applications of insecticides. In addition to direct mortality by typical acute toxicity (lethal effect), insecticides may also impair various key biological traits of the exposed insects through physiological and behavioral sublethal effects. Identifying and characterizing such effects could be crucial for understanding the global effects of insecticides on the pest and therefore for optimizing its management in the crops. We assessed the effects of sublethal and low-lethal concentrations of four widely used insecticides on the fecundity, honeydew excretion and feeding behavior of B. tabaci adults. The probing activity of the whiteflies feeding on treated cotton seedlings was recorded by an Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG). The results showed that imidacloprid and bifenthrin caused a reduction in phloem feeding even at sublethal concentrations. In addition, the honeydew excretions and fecundity levels of adults feeding on leaf discs treated with these concentrations were significantly lower than the untreated ones. While, sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos and carbosulfan did not affect feeding behavior, honeydew excretion and fecundity of the whitefly. We demonstrated an antifeedant effect of the imidacloprid and bifenthrin on B. tabaci, whereas behavioral changes in adults feeding on leaves treated with chlorpyrifos and carbosulfan were more likely caused by the direct effects of the insecticides on the insects' nervous system itself. Our results show that aside from the lethal effect, the sublethal concentration of imidacloprid and bifenthrin impairs the phloem feeding, i.e. the most important feeding trait in a plant protection perspective. Indeed, this antifeedant property would give these insecticides potential to control insect pests indirectly. Therefore, the behavioral effects of sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid and bifenthrin may play an important role in the control of whitefly pests by increasing the toxicity persistence in treated crops.
ecotoxicology, Electrical Penetration Graph, feeding behavior; honeydew excretion; fecundity.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into multiple cell types including osteoblasts. How this differentiation process is controlled, however, is not completely understood. Here we show that activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) plays a critical role in promoting bone marrow MSC differentiation towards the osteoblast lineage. Ablation of the Atf4 gene blocked the formation of osteoprogenitors and inhibited osteoblast differentiation without affecting the expansion and formation of MSCs in bone marrow cultures. Loss of ATF4 dramatically reduced the level of β-catenin protein in MSCs in vitro and in osteoblasts/osteoprogenitors located on trabecular and calvarial surfaces. Loss of ATF4 did not decrease the expression of major canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling components such as Wnt3a, Wnt7b, Wnt10b, Lrp5, and Lrp6 in MSCs. Furthermore, shRNA knockdown of ATF4 expression decreased the level of β-catenin protein in MC-4 preosteoblasts. In contrast, overexpression of ATF4 increased β-catenin protein levels in MC-4 cells. Finally, ATF4 and β-catenin formed a protein-protein complex in COS-7 cells coexpressing both factors or in MC-4 preosteoblastic cells. This study establishes a new role of ATF4 in controlling the β-catenin protein levels and MSC differentiation towards the osteoblast lineage.
ATF4; β-catenin; MSC; osteoblast; bone.