Our unit has used a selective screening policy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation using standard chromogenic growth media, based upon risk stratification. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of this selective screening policy.
A cohort of 429 patients was assessed for their risk status for MRSA colonisation using both rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) swabs and traditional culture and sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values of the traditional selective approach were calculated compared to universal rapid screening.
One hundred eighteen patients were considered high risk and would traditionally be further screened with standard culture of swabs. The prevalence of MRSA was 15/429 (3.5 %). The sensitivity of selective screening was 53 % identifying eight of 15 cases. The false-negative rate was therefore 47 % and seven would have been missed. PCR results were available within four to six hours, whereas culture results were only available at 24 hours for the media showing no growth and not until 72 hours for positive MRSA cases.
We now advocate universal screening prior to, or on admission, using this rapid PCR test, as we consider this identifies MRSA colonisation more effectively and facilitates “ring-fencing” of orthopaedic beds.
MRSA; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Orthopaedic surgery; Screening
This study compares the mechanical properties of low-cost stainless steel dynamic compression plates (DCPs) from developing-world manufacturers, adhering to varying manufacturing quality standards, with those of high-cost DCPs manufactured for use in the developed world.
Standard-design ten-hole DCPs from six developing-world manufacturers and high-cost DCPs from two manufacturers in the developed world were studied. Nine plates from each manufacturer underwent mechanical testing: six in four-point monotonic bending to assess strength and stiffness and three in four-point bending fatigue. Statistical comparisons of the group means of monotonic bending test data were made, and a qualitative comparison was performed to assess failures in fatigue.
Low-cost DCPs from manufacturers with at least one manufacturing quality standard had significantly higher bending strength and fewer failures in fatigue than did those from low-cost manufacturers with no recognised quality standards. High-cost DCPs demonstrated greater bending strength than did those in both low-cost groups. There were no differences in stiffness and fatigue failure between high-cost DCPs and those low-cost DCPs with quality standards. However, high-cost DCPs were significantly less stiff and had fewer fatigue failures than low-cost DCPs manufactured without such standards.
Significant differences were found in the mechanical properties of ten-hole DCP plates from selected manufacturers in the developing and developed worlds. These differences correlated with reported quality certification in the manufacturing process. Mechanical analysis of low-cost implants may provide information useful in determining which manufacturers produce implants with the best potential for benefit relative to cost.
dynamic compression plates; mechanical behaviour; international variation; fracture fixation; developing world
Press-fit cementless radial head implant longevity relies on adequate bone ingrowth. Failed implant osseointegration remains a clinical concern and has been shown to lead to prosthetic failure. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that implants with sufficient initial press-fit stability would be less likely to fail due to implant pull-out, as demonstrated by an increasing amount of energy required to remove the prosthesis from the canal.
Ten cadaveric radii were implanted with five sizes (6–10 mm in 1-mm increments) of grit-blasted, cementless radial head stems. A customised slap hammer was used to measure the energy required to remove each stem. Stem-bone micromotion was also measured.
The suboptimally sized stem (Max − 1) (i.e. 1 mm undersized) required less energy (0.5 ± 0 J) to pull out than the optimally sized stem (Max) (1.7 ± 0.3 J) (p = 0.008). The optimally sized stem demonstrated greater initial stability (45 ± 7 μm) than the suboptimally sized stem (79 ± 12 μm) (p = 0.004).
This investigation demonstrates the importance of obtaining adequate press-fit stability for the prevention of radial head stem pull-out failure. These data add to the relatively scant knowledge in the literature regarding radial head biomechanics. The energy required to remove a prosthetic radial head ingrowth stem decreases in conjunction with diameter. The use of an inadequately sized stem increases the stem’s micromotion as well as the risk of prosthetic loosening due to pull-out.
Radial head implant; Cementless stem failure; Radial head arthroplasty
Dr. Marius N. Smith-Petersen, in Boston, MA, USA, introduced the mould arthroplasty (1923). He used a reactive synovial-like membrane that he found had developed around a piece of glass he had removed from a workman’s back, which had been imbedded there for a year. The original design was a ball-shaped, hollow hemisphere of glass that could fit over the femoral head of the hip joint. The objective was to stimulate cartilage regeneration on both sides of the moulded glass joint. Smith-Peterson intended to remove the glass after the cartilage had been restored. Glass provided a new, smooth surface for movement, and although proving biocompatible, it could not withstand the stresses of walking and quickly failed. Smith-Petersen succeeded in his endeavour by using Vitallium alloy.
This study was undertaken to prospectively analyse, at a mean five-year follow-up, the clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes in patients who developed postoperative acute septic knee arthritis following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring autograft. We also assessed the effect of multiple arthroscopic debridement and graft retention on the functional outcomes in comparison with the matched control group.
From a consecutive case series of 2,560 ACL-injured patients who were treated with arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, we report on 24 cases with postoperative septic knee arthritis. These patients were individually matched for age, sex, comorbidity, body mass index (BMI) and preinjury Tegner activity scale in a ratio of 1/1. Clinical, laboratory, synovial fluid analysis and culture were performed. Arthroscopic debridement and graft retention was done for all cases, in addition to antibiotic therapy IV. A detailed physical examination, KT1000 laxity testing, Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity level scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) were completed.
In all cases, treatment of infection was successful after a median of three (range one to six) repeated arthroscopic graft debridement and retention, in addition to antibiotic therapy IV. At an average of five years follow-up, two patients had over five millimetres manual maximum side-to-side difference in laxity. There were no significant differences between groups regarding Lysholm score, IKDC and KOOS. Median final Tegner activity score was 5.5 versus 7 in the control group (p = 0.004). Complications included graft rupture in three patients, loss of range of motion in five, Sudeck’s atrophy in one and moderate joint narrowing in two. There were no recurrences of septic arthritis or bone infection.
Graft retention seems not only possible but appropriate in view of the experience presented in this article for postoperative septic knee arthritis using hamstring autograft. A potential residual complication is arthrofibrosis, which deserves maximum attention.
Septic knee; Hamstring; ACL; Graft retention; Arthroscopic; Debridement
The objective of this study was to evaluate the early results of a custom non-fluted diaphyseal press-fit stem for use with the global modular replacement system (GMRS) tumour prosthesis and the early complications associated with this implant.
A total of 53 patients (54 implants) were identified from a prospective database where a custom non-fluted diaphyseal press-fit stem was used as part of the reconstruction of the limb. All patients had a minimum of 22 months of follow-up.
The rates of stem revision for any reason were calculated. The median follow-up was 36 months (range 22–85 months). Aseptic loosening was not observed in any patient.
At early term follow-up, an uncemented non-fluted stem used with the GMRS tumour endoprosthesis provides a stable bone-prosthesis interface with no evidence of aseptic loosening.
Megaprosthesis; Aseptic loosening; Stem revision
Implant fractures after total hip arthroplasty (THA) are considered as rare in clinical practice. Nevertheless they are relevant complications for patients, physicians, and the public health system leading to high socioeconomic burdens. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of fractures after THAs in a comparative analysis of clinical studies and worldwide arthroplasty register datasets.
We calculated the pooled incidence of revision operations after fractures of THAs in a comparison of clinical studies published in Medline-listed journals and annual reports of worldwide arthroplasty registers in a structured literature analysis based on a standardised methodology.
Included clinical studies (sample-based datasets) were mono-centre trials comprising a cumulative number of approximately 70,000 primary implantations whereas worldwide national arthroplasty register datasets referred to 733,000 primary implantations, i.e. approximately ten times as many as sample-based datasets. In general, sample-based datasets presented higher revision rates than register datasets with a maximum deviation of a 14.5 ratio for ceramic heads, respectively. The incidence of implant fractures in total hip arthroplasty in pooled worldwide arthroplasty register datasets is 304 fractures per 100,000 implants. In other words, one out of 323 patients has to undergo revision surgery due to an implant fracture after THA in their lifetime.
Implant fractures in total hip arthroplasty occur in a relevant number of patients. The authors believe that comprehensive arthroplasty register datasets allow more general evaluations and conclusions on that topic in contrast to clinical studies.
Total hip arthroplasty; Fracture; Incidence; Register dataset
Cementless acetabular fixation for total hip arthroplasty (THA) is widely used. The question of using screws for a better primary and secondary acetabular fixation has been discussed in the literature in recent years. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare fixation of acetabular cups with and without screws in total hip arthroplasty.
Electronic databases Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Library were used to search for randomised controlled trials reported through May 2013 of cementless acetabular fixation for THA with and without screws. Two independent reviewers assessed the trials for eligibility and quality. All related data matching our standards were abstracted for meta-analysis by RevMan 5.0. Evaluation criteria included revisions, migration and osteolysis.
A total of 1,130 THAs enrolled into five trials were included in this meta-analysis. All studies compared fixation of acetabular cups with and without screws, and our pooled data showed no statistical significance between the two surgical methods in revision, migration and osteolysis.
There is no significant difference between cementless acetabular fixation for THA with and without screws in revisions, migration or osteolysis.
Press fit acetabular fixation; With screws; Without screws; No difference
The majority of patients experience a significant improvement in quality of life and function after total hip replacement (THR). It has recently been shown that age and good pre-operative function are the best predictors of postoperative function. When patients fail to achieve a satisfactory outcome, a cause is often identified. Where there is no identifiable cause, advice, follow-up and management is not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term outcome of patients who had early poor function, but no identifiable cause.
From a regional database, we identified 1,564 patients who underwent unilateral THR between 1998 and 2004 and who were without complication or subsequent bilateral procedure at six months. These patients were divided into two groups according to their Harris hip score (HHS) at this stage: group A consisted of 270 patients with a ‘poor’ result (HHS less than 70). Group B consisted of 1,294 patients with a ‘good’ or ‘excellent’ result (HHS 70 or above). The patients were reviewed at five years. One hundred and ten patients from group A and 980 from group B completed five-year follow-up without further identifiable complication.
Those with poor or fair function at six months were at an increased risk of developing an identified complication by five years including dislocation (OR 5.7, 95 % CI 1.8–18.2), deep infection (OR 9.8, 95%CI 2.9–37.7) and death (OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.1–2.3). There was a greater rate of revision in group A versus group B (OR 5.7, 95 % CI 2.9–11). The overall function measured by the Harris hip score significantly improved in group A, but never reached that of those with good or excellent function at six months (HHS 76.2 versus 90.3, P < 0.001).
Patients with poor function at six months, but no obvious cause, are at higher risk of developing complications by five years. This group may benefit from more regular arthroplasty review and intervention.
Total hip replacement; Total hip arthroplasty; Complication; Patient reported functional outcome; Infection; Dislocation; Mortality
Fractures of the femur associated with total hip arthroplasty are a significant concern in orthopaedic and trauma surgery. However, little is known about the different biomechanical properties of internal fixation systems in combination with periprosthetic fractures. In this study two new internal fixation systems for periprosthetic fractures are investigated using a cadaver fracture model simulating a Vancouver B1 periprosthetic femur fracture.
Nine pairs of fresh-frozen cadaver femurs were scanned by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Cementless total hip prostheses were implanted and a periprosthetic femur fracture was simulated. Fractures were randomly fixed either with the fixed angle locking attachment plate (LAP®, Depuy Synthes®, Solothurn, Switzerland) or the variable angle non-contact bridging plate (NCB®, Zimmer GmbH, Winterthur, Switzerland). Each construct was cyclically loaded to failure in axial compression.
Axial stiffness and cycles to failure were significantly higher in the NCB group. Both systems were able to be fixed well around the femoral stem.
The two different internal fixation systems for periprosthetic fractures differed significantly in our setup. The non-contact bridging plate system revealed significantly higher failure load and may be the preferred option where high stability and load capacity is needed right after operation.
Periprosthetic; Vancouver B1 fracture; Cadaver; Biomechanics; Fixation
Nicotine abuse and obesity are well-known factors leading to common post-operative complications. However, their influence on the outcome after high tibial osteotomy is controversial. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate their effect on the clinical outcome with particular regard to bone non-union and local complications.
The functional outcome after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy using the TomoFix® plate was assessed by means of the 12-item Oxford knee score in a multicentre study. In addition the intra- and post-operative complications were determined.
Of 533 eligible patients, 386 were interviewed after a mean follow-up of 3.6 years. The median Oxford knee score was 43 points (max. 48 points). Six per cent of these patients experienced at least one local post-operative complication. Patients with a body mass index (BMI) of up to 25 and between 25 and 30 had a higher mean score by 3.5 and 1.8 points, respectively, compared with those having a BMI of more than 30 showing a score of 37.5. No correlation was observed between smoking and the functional outcome. Smoking habits, BMI, the absolute patient weight and the interaction term between smoking and BMI were not significant with reference to the complication rate.
This study reveals favourable mid-term results after high tibial osteotomy in varus osteoarthritis even in patients who smoked and obese patients. The indication in patients with a BMI above 30 should be handled with care due to the slightly inferior outcome, although the complication rate was not increased in these patients.
High tibial osteotomy; Medial osteoarthritis; Oxford knee score; TomoFix; Smoking; Obesity
We conducted ultrasound-guided single-shot supraclavicular blockade and investigated the analgesic effect of dexamethasone added to levobupivacaine. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of low-dose dexamethasone to levobupivacaine would prolong the duration of analgesia sufficiently to avoid additional intravenous analgesic use for the first 24 hours postoperatively.
This randomised controlled study assessed 70 patients undergoing upper-extremity surgery. Patients were eligible if there 18 years or over with American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I, II or III. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 25 ml 0.5 % levobupivacaine plus four milligrams dexamethasone (group 1) or 25 ml 0.5 % levobupivacaine plus one millilitre saline (group 2). Pain scores, analgesic consumption and time estimation at which they perceived that sensory and motor blockade started and resolved were recorded.
Duration of sensory (1,260 min. in group 1 vs 600 min. in group 2) and motor (1,200 min. in group 1 vs 700 min. in group 2) blockade were significantly longer in group 1 (P < 0.05). Postoperative pain levels in group 1 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) at all investigation times. Analgesia consumption was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group 1; at six and 12 hours, no patient required additional analgesia, and at 24 hours, only two patients compared with 17 in the levobupivacaine group required additional analgesia.
Using single-shot low-dose dexamethasone in a mixture with levobupivacaine results in prolonged analgesia duration and less analgesic use compared with levobupivacaine alone.
Supraclavicular block; Analgesia; Surgery; Dexamethasone; Levobupivacaine
The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of closed/open reduction and titanium elastic nails (TENs) in children with severely displaced proximal humeral fractures.
A retrospective study was performed on 37 children suffering from proximal humeral fracture between April 2009 and July 2012. All these patients were treated by closed or open reduction with TEN fixation. The healing process was assessed by radiographic and clinical follow-up for up to 36 months. Radiographic assessment was performed on the scheduled follow-ups to examine fracture healing, remodelling, bone growth and residual deformity. The clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Neer shoulder score and patients’ satisfaction report at the final follow-up. Complications related to the treatment were also recorded.
All patients had a mean follow-up period of 24 months (12–36) after surgery. All fractures were healed, radiologically, at a median time of eight weeks (seven to ten weeks). There were no major complications related to the treatment. Two patients complained about skin irritation around the sides of the prominent distal ends of the nails. Implant removal took place at an average of 5.8 months post-operatively as an outpatient procedure. There were no observed complications in association with the removal of the hardware. At the final follow-up, the mean Neer shoulder score was 96.65 (range 83–100). Thirty patients were very satisfied with their surgical outcomes and the remaining seven were satisfied. Function of the affected arm returned to normal at the end of the follow-up period in all cases.
Combining closed or open reduction with TEN fixation is recommended for treating severely displaced proximal humeral fractures in children. Our data showed evidence of satisfactory outcomes with a low complication rate and a fast return to normal mobility of the affected arms.
Proximal humerus; Fracture; Titanium elastic nail; Children; Surgery
The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical and radiological outcomes of unilateral versus bilateral instrumented TLIF in two-level degenerative lumbar disorders.
A prospective randomised clinical study was performed from January 2008 to May 2011. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with severe low back pain and radicular pain were divided randomly into the unilateral (n = 33) or bilateral (n = 35) pedicle screw fixation group based on a random number list. Operative time, blood loss, duration of hospital stay, fusion rate, complication rate and implant costs were recorded and analysed statistically. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and SF-36 were used to assess the preoperative and postoperative clinical results in the two groups.
No differences were observed between the two groups with respect to demographic data. The patients of the two groups had significant improvement in functional outcome compared to preoperatively. There was no significant difference comparing fusion rate, complication rate and duration of hospital stay between the two groups at postoperative follow-up (P > 0.05). However, compared with the bilateral pedicle screw group, a significant decrease occurred in operative time, blood loss and implant costs in the unilateral group.
Two-level unilateral instrumented TLIF is an effective and safe method with reduced operative time and blood loss for multiple-level lumbar diseases. But it is imperative that the larger cage should be appropriately positioned to support the contralateral part of the anterior column by crossing the midline of the vertebral body.
Unilateral or bilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion; Two level lumbar disease; Prospective; Randomised
Treatment of talar neck fractures is challenging. Various surgical approaches and fixation methods have been documented. Clinical outcomes are often dissatisfying due to inadequate reduction and fixation with high rates of complications. Obtaining satisfactory clinical outcomes with minimum complications remains a hard task for orthopaedic surgeons.
In the period from May 2007 to September 2010, a total of 31 cases with closed displaced talar neck fractures were treated surgically in our department. Injuries were classified according to the Hawkins classification modified by Canale and Kelly. Under general anaesthesia with sufficient muscle relaxation, urgent closed reduction was initiated once the patients were admitted; if the procedure failed, open reduction and provisional stabilisation with Kirschner wires through an anteromedial approach with tibiometatarsal external fixation were performed. When the soft tissue had recovered, definitive fixation was performed with plate and screws through dual approaches. The final follow-up examination included radiological analysis, clinical evaluation and functional outcomes which were carried out according to the Ankle-Hindfoot Scale of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS), patient satisfaction and SF-36.
Twenty-eight patients were followed up for an average of 25 months (range 18–50 months) after the injury. Only two patients had soft tissue complications, and recovery was satisfactory with conservative treatment. All of the fractures healed anatomically without malunion and nonunion, and the average union time was 14 weeks (range 12–24 weeks). Post-traumatic arthritis developed in ten cases, while six patients suffered from avascular necrosis of the talus. Secondary procedures included three cases of subtalar arthrodesis, one case of ankle arthrodesis and one case of total ankle replacement. The mean AOFAS hindfoot score was 78 (range 65–91). According to the SF-36, the average score of the physical component summary was 68 (range 59–81), and the average score of the mental component summary was 74 (range 63–85).
Talar neck fractures are associated with a high incidence of long-term disability and complications. Urgent reduction of the fracture-dislocation and delayed plate fixation through a dual approach when the soft tissue has recovered may minimise the complications and provide good clinical outcomes.
Ankle; Talar neck fracture; Dual approaches; Internal fixation
This study was designed to evaluate whether the mechanical axis deviation (MAD) of the leg correlates with an increased hip alpha angle as described by Nötzli, which is associated with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI).
In a retrospective analysis, standing full-length anteroposterior radiographs were analysed in patients who suffered from symptomatic leg alignment. The study included 85 radiographs of 80 patients with an average age of 43.11 years (range 18–60 years). Five patients underwent a bilateral long-leg X-ray examination. All radiographs were transferred as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data files from the Picture Archiving and Communications System into the OrthoPlanner software version 2.3.2. The radiographs were measured by one orthopaedic surgeon and one independent radiologist.
The mean value of the alpha angle of Nötzli was 61.43° (49.07–74.04°). A total of 57 (67 %) radiographs showed a varus deviation, 25 (29.5 %) had a valgus malalignment and three (3.5 %) a straight leg axis. Of 82 radiographs, 40 (48.8 %) had a moderate axis deviation with a MAD <15 or > − 15 mm and a mean alpha angle of 57.81°, and 42 (51.2 %) with extended axis deviation of a MAD > 15 or < − 15 mm had a mean alpha angle of 62.93°; 40 (95.2 %) of these 42 showed an alpha angle > 55°. The alpha angle was significantly increased in extended axis deviation compared to moderate axis deviation (P = 0.001).
This study confirmed that increased alpha angles were found significantly at higher degrees of axis deviation on the full-length radiograph. In cases of a MAD >15 or < − 15 mm and symptomatic coxalgia, diagnostic tests must be pursued for FAI.
Alpha angle of Nötzli; Full-length radiograph; Mechanical axis deviation; Femoroacetabular impingement; Hip arthrosis
A new intraoperative filtered salvaged blood re-transfusion system has been developed for primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) that filters and re-transfuses the blood that is lost during THA. This system is intended to increase postoperative haemoglobin (Hb) levels, reduce perioperative net blood loss and reduce the need for allogeneic transfusions. It supposedly does not have the disadvantages of intraoperative cell-washing/separating re-transfusion systems, such as extensive procedure, high costs and need for specialised personnel. To re-transfuse as much as blood as possible, postoperatively drained blood was also re-transfused.
A randomised, controlled, blinded, single-centre trial was conducted in which 118 THA patients were randomised to an intraoperative autologous blood re-transfusion (ABT) filter system combined with a postoperative ABT filter unit or high-vacuum closed-suction drainage.
On average, 577 ml of blood was re-transfused in the ABT group: 323 ml collected intraoperatively and 254 ml collected postoperatively. Hb level was higher in the ABT vs the high-vacuum drainage group: 11.4 vs. 10.8 g/dl, p = 0.02 on day one (primary endpoint) and 11.0 vs. 10.4 g/dl, p = 0.007 on day three. Total blood loss was less in the autotransfusion group: 1472 vs. 1678 ml, p = 0.03. Allogeneic transfusions were needed in 3.6 % of patients in the ABT group and 6.5 % in the drainage group, p = 0.68.
The use of a new intraoperative ABT filter system combined with a postoperative ABT unit resulted in higher postoperative Hb levels and less total blood loss compared with a high-vacuum drain following THA.
Arthroplasty; Hip; Autologous transfusion; Salvaged blood re-transfusion; Blood loss; Prosthesis